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Full text of "Sketches of travel in the Old and New World"

SKETCHES OF TRAVEL IN THE OLD 
AND NEW WORLD 



UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



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6,1 



SKETCHES OF TRAVEL 



OLD AND NEW WORLD 



BY 

G. W. W. 



CHARLESTON, S. C. 

WALKER, EVANS & COGSWELL, PRINTERS, 

Nos. 3 Broad and 109 East Bay Streets. 

1-871. 






TO 

MY BELOVED WIFE 

AND 

PRECIOUS CHILDREN, 

THIS VOLUME 

IS 

AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED. 



PREFACE. 



This volume is intended for private circulation. 
It is made up, as the reader will perceive, of 
familiar letters, written, for the most part, during 
foreign travel, and published originally in the 
Southern Christian Advocate and the press of the 
City of Charleston. 

The author is assured that the perusal of these 
Letters, as they originally appeared, gave pleasure 
to his friends. He has reason to hope that their 
collection and perpetuation in the present form, 
will be gratifying to many beside his immediate 
family circle. 

No pretension is made by the writer to artistic 
merit in point of style. He has been accustomed, 
however, to see things for himself in his travels, 
and has attempted to describe faithfully, and in as 
clear a manner as possible, whatever has struck his 
attention or awakened interest in his journeyings 
in the Old and New World. 

He owes it to the taste and skill of the Printers, 
Messrs. Walker, Evans & Cogswell, that the 
Letters appear in a form so attractive. 



TOUR OF TWO MONTHS 



IN THE 



Queen of the Antilles. 



CUBAN CORRESPONDENCE. 



LETTER FIRST 



Leaving Home — The Voyage — Key West — First 
Impressions. 

Soon after we parted, my dear Mrs. C, at 20 George 
street, accompanied by a group of loving friends, I 
made my way to the good Steamship Isabel. I was 
very sad, as you may well believe, in bidding you all 
farewell ! but the word had to be spoken. My physi- 
cian said I must go abroad. I felt as if parting for- 
ever from the shores of my beloved country, to wander, 
a stranger in a strange land. At 2 o'clock, A. M., 
we sailed for the " Queen of the Antilles," — the fruit, 
as Mr. Calhoun phrased it, forbidden us to covet. 

After leaving Charleston, we had a rough sea, and 
cold, boisterous weather. On Friday we entered the 
balmy Gulf Stream; the weather became clear and 
mild, the deep, blue sea was comparatively calm. 
Once more I feel like living. M'lle Rachel, the great 
French actress, was one of the passengers, and had the 
captain's room on deck. She is looking quite feeble 
and low-spirited; her acting in this world will, doubt- 
less, soon be at an end. She goes to Cuba, probably, 
never to return. She is now in the prime of her age. 



2 Cuban Correspondence. 

Although very young she has seen much of this world 
and its vanities. It is possible you may not know her 
history. 

When a little girl, she was picked up in the streets 
of Paris, half dead with cold and hunger; now she 
is crowned with gifts from kings and queens. Few 
women are so distinguished ; but she, like all persons 
of genius, has enemies, and the tongue of slander fol- 
lows her, even in her wanderings for health. 

The French troupe gave us nightly concerts, which 
those who were able to remain on deck seemed 
greatly to enjoy. 

We stopped ten hours at Key West. I was glad to 
have an opportunity of once more standing on Ameri- 
can soil. Before reaching this point, I had made the 
acquaintance of several of our fellow-passengers, and 
we strayed through this tropical town, plucking the 
beautiful flowers which were hanging profusely over 
the side-walks. Here, for the first time, I saw the 
palm-like cocoanut tree, laden with fruit. 

Key West is on a small Island, seventy miles from 
the main land of Florida, and eighty miles from 
Havana. It has a population of three thousand souls. 
The inhabitants live mainly by the misfortunes of 
others. 

It is said to be an ill wind that blows no one any 
good ; and so think these wreckers, who are always 
looking out for vessels in distress. Many a gallant 
ship, which hath withstood storm after storm, has 
been wrecked on the dangerous keys and reefs of the 
Florida coast. 



Cuban Correspondence. 3 

Fort Taylor commands the entrance to this harbor. 
Government has been ten years at work on it, and 
money enough has already been expended to make 
it a strong tower of defence. It is constructed of 
granite, in ten feet of water, some four hundred yards 
from the shore, and is designed to bear an armament 
of three hundred guns. Should our country, unfortu- 
nately, ever be engaged in a maritime struggle, this 
will be an important rendezvous for the commerce of 
the Gulf of Mexico. Through this Gulf Stream, a large 
portion of the cotton, sugar and other valuable crops 
of the country must pass in seeking a market. Hence 
the importance of completing these works at once; 
and they should be defended by all the resources of 
modern military science. 

We are now nearing Havana. At 3 o'clock, this 
morning, I went on deck to get a peep at old Moro 
Castle. As this great wonder of the Western world 
burst on my vision, how my heart throbbed! I felt 
thankful to a kind Providence for protecting me thus 
far on my journey, and permitting me to look upon 
such interesting objects as were spread out around me. 

We were not allowed to enter the harbor of Havana 
until sunrise; but the bright moon shone as it can 
shine only in this tropical region, presenting a scene 
far more beautiful than I had ever before beheld. I 
was not sorry that we were detained, surrounded, as 
we were, by so much that was new and interesting 
to me. 

The Spanish war-trumpet could be heard, and the 
watchful soldiers, stationed in the strong fortifications 



4 Cuban Correspondence. 

of the Cabanas, were to be seen on duty guarding 
every point. 

At sunrise the signal gun from Moro was fired, and 
we gladly sailed up the magnificent harbor — large 
enough, it is said, to hold all the ships of Spain. 

We passed the vessels of every nation, and I was 
proud to recognize the stars and stripes of my own 
native land. 

I have only taken a bird's-eye view of Havana, and 
cannot speak of things positively; but the people, the 
houses, the gardens, and nearly all the surroundings, 
are very different from what we are accustomed to 
look upon at home; and the climate is delightful be- 
yond anything that I had imagined. 

I am inclined to think the Island an Eden, with all 
the snakes driven out. Of this I am not sure, but will 
see ; then you shall hear from me again. 
Ever yours, truly, 

G. W. W. 

Havana, December 22d, 1855. 



LETTER SECOND 



Sightseeing — The Sabbath — Looking for a Hotel — 
Invalids — Dominica. 

Since my last, my dear Mrs. C, I have been almost 
constantly on the go, sight-seeing and looking up the 
wonders of this marvellous city. To-day I climbed 
one of the high hills which command a splendid view 
of Havana and the surrounding country. Nothing can 
exceed the beauty here presented to the eye. The 
magnificent harbor, filled with ships ; Moro Castle 
standing proudly on an opposite hill ; the Cabanas, 
stretching along, forming a continuous range of forti- 
fications ; the ancient-looking walls, houses, churches, 
and towers, and the luxuriant verdure of shrub and 
tree natural to this tropical region — these are a few 
of the interesting objects which present themselves to 
the eye almost at a single glance, and on which no 
eye would ever tire to gaze. Havana, with its beauti- 
ful flowers, and groves of orange, lemon, banana and 
palm trees ; its balmy, delicious climate ; with its rich 
fruits ; its bright moonlight nights — no wonder it is 
considered a paradise ! But let me tell you that this 
Eden has the foot-prints of the Old Serpent in every 
nook and corner. I have seen them ; alas !. yes, and 
under many, to me, at once new and painful aspects. 
Here the Sabbath morning breaks upon you with the 
ringing of bells, beat of drum, firing of cannon, and 
march of soldiers in every direction. 



6 Cuban Correspondence. 

Then you see a general move of white and black, 
old and young, rich and poor, wending their way to 
the cathedral and different Romish places of worship. 
They have no pews or seats, as with us ; those who 
can afford it sit or kneel on rich rugs and carpets. 
The darkest son of Africa prostrates himself by the 
side of the fine lady, in pearls, silks and satins. Scat- 
tered through the church, I observed a number of 
priests, sitting in cane chairs, with persons kneeling 
on each side, speaking gently into their ears, confess- 
ing their sins, and receiving from them spiritual ad- 
vice, consolation, and the like. There seemed to be 
much seriousness among the worshippers. From the 
confessional they go to their wordly occupations and 
amusements. The shops are opened, buying and sell- 
ing is carried on ; and the Sabbath seems to be the 
great day for display in business as in amusement. 

Last evening (Sunday) I wandered alone to the 
Paseo de Isabel. Here was one general turn out of 
volantcs, filled with the gay and fashionable people of 
the city. Near this garden is the Tacon Theatre, into 
which I saw crowding hundreds and thousands of 
Catholic Christians (?) in this nineteenth century, on 
a bright and lovely Sabbath evening. I thought if 
this was the road to Heaven, we poor Methodists cer- 
tainly were not journeying in it. But it is the broad 
road in which millions of our fellow-beings are travel- 
ling, both in Papal and Protestant countries. It is 
the road in which the Old Serpent has been winding 
his way, scattering mildew and poison, since Adam 
and Eve were banished from the Garden of Eden. 



Cuban Correspondence. 7 

Why send Jenkins and Taylor to China, when " the 
Greeks are at our very doors ! " 

It is said that " distance lends enchantment to the 
view." This is emphatically true of Havana : here is 
a rich and ancient city, with a population of two hun- 
dred thousand, and not a decent hotel to be found in 
it. Men, women and children, of all colors, grades 
and conditions ; horses, mules, cows, dogs, monkeys, 
baboons, pigs, fowls and lizards, (to say nothing of the 
smaller reptiles,) all inhabit the same house, and sleep 
on the same floors. The inhabitants (in the hotels) 
laugh and grow fat on dirt and filth. 

If you were to see the people driving the cows from 
door to door, and performing the operation of milk- 
ing, you would take leave of butter and milk. I have 
not touched either. Our party was very careful to 
seek a "first-class hotel." We were directed to the 
Revere House, kept by Madame Raymond. Here the 
charge is from three to five dollars per day, accord- 
ing to the size of your purse and the color of your 
room-mate. My hostess showed me a chamber ; but 
it required only a cursory view to convince me that I 
could not occupy it. Immediately under the dining- 
room was a stable filled with horses and cattle. This 
I might have stood ; but in front of me was — the 
kitchen ! I was too fresh from the blue sea to endure 
that scene. My hostess, (a Louisiana lady, thor- 
oughly Cubanized,) kindly proposed to make a bed 
for me in the parlor. 

Our party held a council of war, and we decided to 
change our lodgings. Two of us spent half a day in 



8 Cuban Correspondence. 

search of a better hotel; but after a dreary and dis- 
appointing quest, found we were ' in snug quarters, 
compared to other houses. 

I have found my "Isabel" acquaintances pleasant*; 
and as some of them have been here before, they are 
of great assistance to me — Colonel C. and his wife, 
from Ohio, have been exceedingly kind. Mrs. C. is 
an elegant lady. She has an eye to my room, and 
takes care to see that it is kept clean and comfortable. 
She is now arranging to make our tea and coffee ; and 
says if I get sick she will watch over me. So, you 
see, wherever I go, I find "guardian angels." 

Havana is crowded with Americanos, as the Cubans 
call us, but they come here mostly from the Northern 
States, to avoid the bitter cold winters of that region. 
The hectic flush, quick breathing, hacking cough, and 
emaciated appearance, indicate that many of these 
persons have delayed too long their visit to this mild 
and genial climate. Those who are feeble had better 
remain at their own homes, where they can receive 
the delicate attention they so much require, and 
which cannot be had at the hotels here. In my hum- 
ble opinion the Island of Cuba is not the place for one 
far gone in consumption. The wet northers that fre- 
quently sweep down the coast, are often quite too 
severe for a delicate constitution to bear. 

No stranger visits Havana without paying his re- 
spects, and his dimes too, to the world-renowned 
Dominica. Here you find a decoction of the berry 
and chocolate that would make a Frenchman laugh. 
I have seen the lars^e marble hall crowded with visi- 



Cuban Correspondence. 9 

tors — judging from the babel of tongue, they are from 
all parts of the globe. The Dominica is a kind of 
exchange, where strangers meet, eat, drink and smoke. 
The dense smoke arising from the rich Habana, makes 
my head swim. I fear I shall be compelled to use 
La Habana in self-defence. Even some of the daugh- 
ters here do not object to the mild cigaretta. It 
amuses me to see the smoke curling in the air from 
their delicate coquettish lips. But such is life in this 
Spanish town — men and women are free and easy in 
their manners, especially the married ladies. The 
habits and customs of the people are so very different 
from what we are accustomed to, one can hardly 
realize that he is living in the nineteenth century, 
and almost within sight of his own native land. 

I am invited to spend the evening in a native 
family, and will have an opportunity of seeing how 
they live in their homes. Wishing my friends a 
happy new year, 

I remain yours, very truly, 

G. W. W. 

Havana y December, 1855. 



LETTER THIRD 



A New Years Visit to Cerro — The Cap tain- General 's 
Garden — Ride on Horseback — Cuban Ladies and their 
Amusements. 

Happy new year! yes — I have been very happy, 
yet sorrowful too to-day. The new year opened bright, 
calm and lovely as a May morning. I set out early 
to make a visit to Cerro and its magnificent gardens. 
"Never before did my eyes behold such beauty, gran- 
deur and loveliness. I have not words to express 
what I saw and felt in this earthly paradise. It would 
not be difficult for one to imagine himself in Fairy 
Land. I could only ejaculate — "O Lord, how mani- 
fold are thy works : in wisdom hast thou made them 
all: the earth is full of thy riches." 

I wandered through the private and public gardens, 
in groves of beautiful trees, flowers and fruit, inhaling 
the sweet, balmy, pure air. It has awakened new life, 
love and joy in my soul: my heart was filled with 
devout gratitude to God for permitting me to enjoy so 
much. 

I should have been perfectly happy if my friends 
could have been with me, and shared in the delightful 
scenes presented in my rambles. On Friday Mrs. C. 
accompanied me to the Captain-General's garden, the 
most beautiful in the city — the gates were opened — 
the water let into the fountains — a guide furnished us, 



Cuban Correspondence. 1 1 

and we were loaded with beautiful flowers. I also pro- 
cured a large variety of seeds, and will try my hand 
at making a Cuban flower garden when I return to 
Charleston. During Christmas holidays the rich go 
to their estates in the country, and the plebeians come 
to the city. I have been struck with the sobriety of 
the inhabitants of Cuba. - Christmas week they are all 
free, and do pretty much as they please; and yet I have 
not seen a man the least intoxicated. I wish I could 
say as much for Protestant America. On a recent 
visit to Washington City, I saw so much drinking and 
drunkenness that it made me blush for my country- 
men. 

Mrs. C. and I took a ride on horseback before break- 
fast, to avoid the hot sun. It was our intention to 
climb the picturesque hills which lay so beautifully 
around Havana, and get a view of the harbor and sur- 
rounding country. 

You may not be aware of the fact that the city is 
enclosed by a high wall, entered only through massive 
gates, which are guarded by Spanish soldiers. One of 
these suddenly brought us to a halt. Our entreaties 
to permit us to pass were unavailing. We returned 
to the hotel, not in the best humor, especially as we 
were followed through the streets by a dozen boys 
shouting, "Americanos, Americanos!'' When one is 
in Rome, I suppose he should obey its laws; we did 
so, but it was at the point of the Spanish bayonet. 
Cuban ladies seldom ride on horseback; hence the ex- 
citement over my friend increased, no doubt, in con- 
sequence of our being foreigners. 



12 Cuban Correspondence. 

I should like to see a volante filled, as it often is, 
with three black-eyed Creole girls, driven through 
King street, with a fantastically mounted African, with 
scarlet jacket trimmed in gold, wearing high jack 
boots coming about his knees, with silver buckles, and 
spurs on his heels more than an inch long. I imagine 
they would attract even more attention than the party 
who were screamed at so this morning. 

Cigar smoking is universal here. Men and boys 
smoke — smoke — smoke. I have seen them asleep on 
the sidewalk with cigars in their mouths. Having 
visited nearly all the places of special interest here, I 
shall go into the country, visiting Guines, Matanzas, 
Yumuri Valley, ("The Valley of Death," of which 
there is a gloomy legend,) Cardenas, Trinidad, and I 
know not yet what other places. I am on the broad 
ocean without anchor or rudder, subject to the tides 
and winds — occasionally I see breakers ahead — but I 
have my eye fixed on the good star of Hope. 

Before leaving Havana, I must speak of the ladies. 
I have looked in vain for the beautiful Spanish and 
Creole women, of whom we hear and read so much. 
You seldom see a lady walking in the streets ; their vis- 
iting and shopping, is done in the volantes — they drive 
in front of the stores, and the silks and satins are 
brought out to them. There are no King street prom- 
enaders here. If a display is to be made, it is in the 
ugliest of all carriages, the volante. You may see a few 
elegantly dressed ladies walking in the Plaza de Armas. 
There is no grace or elasticity in their movements; 
they drag themselves along very clumsily, not unlike 



Cuban Correspondence,. 13 

the Chinese. The majority of the women seem to 
live an easy life; they do not appear to work either 
with their hands or heads. I have watched them from 
early morning till late at night, and coquetting with 
their fans is about all that I have been able to see 
them doing. Sitting in front of the tall, prison-barred 
windows, with chairs arranged to catch the breeze, 
looking at every passer by, is a favorite occupation — 
seldom do you see them reading. A characteristic 
anecdote is related of an American sailor, who saw 
several ladies looking out upon the street through their 
grated parlor windows, supposing them to be prison- 
ers. He told them to keep a good heart; and then, 
after observing that he had been in limbo himself, he 
threw them a silver dollar, to the great amusement of 
the "prisoners," and the spectators who understood 
the position of the inmates. Young ladies are not 
permitted to be alone with gentlemen. I do not know 
whether this is due to a want of gallantry on the part 
of the men, or to the great caution of prudent mothers. 
You occasionally see the gentlemen talking to them 
through the iron bars. Ladies do not wear bonnets 
as with us; a thin veil is usually thrown over the head. 
I have been to church daily since I came to the Island, 
and I have not yet seen a lady accompanied to the 
house of worship by her husband. It may not be 
fashionable for them to do so — or I may say custom- 
ary — for never was there a people under the sun (the 
Chinese excepted) who cling with a stronger grasp 
to old customs than the inhabitants of Cuba. They 
think their way of doing things is right, and all the 



14 Cuban Correspondence. 

light and reason you can bring to bear upon them 
would not convince them to the contrary. They are 
very fond of amusements, and many engage in those 
of the most exciting kind; but the theatre is the 
ladies' evening home. Most of them play at cards, 
and this article is a prominent ornament in nearly 
every parlor. It is surprising in a hot climate like this, 
that they are so fond of the dance, but dancing is a 
favorite amusement with the Cubans of all classes. 

G. W. W. 
Havana, January, 1856. 



LETTER FOURTH 



Sight-seeing — Lost — A Negro Ball — Stinglcss Bees. 

My Dear Mrs. C. : I am still busily engaged in 
looking upon the interesting scenes of this wonderful 
country. And, as I become accustomed to the habits 
and manners of the people, I enjoy my visit more and 
more. The letters of introduction from my Charleston 
friends to commercial houses here, have procured for 
me those courtesies which the Spanish gentlemen so 
well know how to bestow. The French have the rep- 
utation of being the most polite people in the world, 
but I like the native politeness of the Spaniards better. 
Through the kindness of my friends here, I have had 
access to public and private gardens, and other places 



Cuban Correspondence. 15 

of interest in Havana and its suburbs. I average, in 
my rambles, about twenty miles a day. I ride in 
volantes, omnibuses, steamboats, and on horseback. 
When night comes, I find myself so wide-awake that 
sleep seems almost impossible. I seldom sleep more 
than three or four hours a night. 

Tuesday evening I went to Principe, a little moun- 
tain not far off, to get a night view of the surround- 
ings of the city. The omnibuses go only half-way 
up the hill ; the rest of the journey has to be per- 
formed on foot. At 9 o'clock I concluded it was 
time to go home, and returned, as I supposed, to the 
same line of omnibuses in which I came. You may 
judge my surprise when I ascertained that I had gone 
in an opposite direction, and from home. 

I found myself — I knew not where — not a word 
could I understand. I asked a Cuban how far to 
Plaza de Armas, (the place from which I started,) and 
held up three fingers, supposing it was three miles. I 
was shocked when he held up both hands. It was 
now 10 o'clock, and I was outside the walls of the 
city without a passport. The police regulations here 
are very strict, it being a violation of the law to allow 
a foreigner to remain in a public or private house 
without a permit from an officer in Havana. 

How much I then regretted that I did not accept 
your kind offer to teach me the Spanish language. I 
was well punished for my indifference and ingratitude. 

A little after 12 o'clock I found the " Revere 
House," but it was closed and all was darkness. I 
commenced hammering at the door, and soon drew 



1 6 Cuban Correspondence. 

around me more watchmen than I cared to see, espe- 
cially as I could not understand what they were jab- 
bering about, so I left for the " Dominica." On my 
way I heard an unearthly mixture of discords. I 
very cautiously approached the place from which the 
sounds proceeded, and was delighted to find myself 
at a negro holiday ball! 

Such a wild scene never before presented itself to 
my astonished eyes. Some thirty negroes were en- 
gaged in the dance. They looked to me like wild 
Africans, just dropped down from the spicy land — such 
uncouth music, and unearthly noises, and frightful 
countenances. Briefly, the miserable creatures were 
perfectly frantic — quite a number were almost in a 
state of nudity. I do not know much about balls, but 
it seemed to me there was no order in their dancing 
or music — all was one hideous, wild, yelling scene of 
confusion. It looked as if the dark pit had been 
opened, and these people, in the shape of women and 
men, had been permitted on this Christmas holiday, 
to have one grand blow out on earth. Their coun- 
tenances were horrid, frightful, and unhappy ; they 
danced all night, and then, I suppose, went to mass in 
the morning. 

This is life in Havana ! When a boy, I had wit- 
nessed negro balls, and wild Indian dances, in the 
mountains of my own native land; but never had I 
seen anything that could compare with the scenes of 
Tuesday night. I was well compensated, by the 
gratification of my curiosity, for the loss of a night's 
sleep. 



Cuban Correspondence. 17 

What will my good Methodist brethren say when 
they learn that I have been to a dance? I apprehend 
when I return they will lecture me in downright ear- 
nest : before I left home, if I looked sad it was " wrong 
to do so." If I laughed and seemed happy, there was 
danger of my being " led astray by fashionable so- 
ciety !" Don't open your eyes. I do not mean you. 
Since I was a wee mountain boy, I have been my own 
guardian, and I don't feel like applying for one just 
yet. 

I came to Cuba to see the elephant! and if I live 
long enough I am determined to accomplish my 
errand. I have no fears that I shall suffer either 
morally, mentally, physically or spiritually. I wish to 
observe critically the manners, customs, and morals 
of a nation under Romish influences. I will do so 
and run the risk of being stung, as I was this morn- 
ing, by believing one of Frederika Bremer's bee 
stories. You know, she says, there are no poisonous 
reptiles on the Island of Cuba, and that the Cuban 
bee did not have a poisonous sting. I caught one 
and paid painfully for my credulity. Ah ! Frederika, 
this is not the only mistake you have made in your 
" Homes of the New World." 

But, the " Black Warrior " is in, and I must close. 
Adieu, my friend. G. W. W. 

Havana, January, 1856. 



LETTER FIFTH 



Trip to Guines — Chinamen — Spaniards and Creoles — 
John Bidl — Cuban Gentlemen — Lotteries — Travel. 

It would be impossible for me to describe to you 
all the objects of interest and beauty that present 
themselves on every side in a railroad ride from Ha- 
vana to Guines. I looked with more than ordinary 
interest on the broad, green fields of sugar-cane, now 
and then interspersed with coffee groves and tobacco 
plantations. 

The production of sugar is increasing rapidly, and 
the yield this year will be unusually large. Many 
coffee estates are being abandoned. It is thought the 
present crop will not supply the home consumption. 

It is very difficult to realize that you are in mid- 
winter, when you look upon the fields of corn now in 
silk and tassel, and see the people dressed in their 
summer costume, and the earth clothed with green 
grass and fresh flowers. The weather has been charm- 
ing, no rain or frost. I have found it delightful to 
sleep with the windows open under the lightest cov- 
ering. 

It is amusing to see the agricultural implements in 
use on the farms — old ploughs, with one handle, such 
as were used by the Egyptians several centuries ago, 
drawn by two creeping oxen, and guided by dull, 



Cuban Correspondence. 19 

stupid negroes. But what they lack in art, nature, in 
her fertility, has supplied. With the rudest labor, the 
country produces an abundance of the richest produc- 
tions, and " blossoms as the rose." 

Guines has a population of eight thousand persons. 
It once had a good hotel, but now they put you in a 
dirty Spanish fonda, with horses and dogs. 

To-day we visited a coffee estate near Guines, and, 
as everybody is interested in this tree of Arabia, of 
course I looked with more than ordinary interest on 
its growth, culture and products. The large fields of 
the luxuriant coffee plant are divided by avenues of 
stately palms and cocoas; here and there are to be 
seen the orange, covered with fruit and flowers; here 
you also find the double jasmine, white tube roses, 
and night-blooming cereus, such as only grow to per- 
fection under a tropical sun. 

The air was fragrant with the mingled perfumes 
from these flowers, and from the flowers of the almost 
perpetual-blooming coffee, lemon and orange. No 
wonder this gem of the Gulf is called a paradise! but 
I imagine, like the homes of our first parents, there is 
concealed, in this bed of roses, the cunning serpent. 

This coffee plantation, although covering some two 
hundred acres of ground, is not much short of a well- 
cultivated garden, producing, as it does, almost every 
variety of fruit and flowers. The coffee plant does not 
grow much taller than the peach trees with us. 

The blossoms look like white jasmine, and form 
thick clusters around the branches. It has successive 
crops of flowers, blooming monthly, in the winter and 



20 Cuban Correspondence. 

spring. The berries, when ripe, are red, resembling 
the cherry in size and appearance. They ripen from 
September to January, and are gathered by the hand, 
and conveyed in baskets, when dried, to the mill, 
where they pass through a roller, for the purpose of 
removing the rough hull. The next process is to pass 
them through a fan mill, and the husk is separated 
from the berries. This coffee, when kept for a num- 
ber of years, is regarded equal to the celebrated 
Mocha. It is exported in bags made of manilla hemp, 
and weigh from one hundred and fifty to two hundred 
pounds. 

I am surprised to see so many Chinamen scattered 
throughout the Island. They are brought here by 
the cargo, in English and Yankee ships, and sold into 
ten or more years slavery! These poor fellows are 
made to believe that they are on their way to the land 
of gold, (California.) You see them loaded with the 
cruel Spanish chain, for rebelling, when they ascertain 
how shamefully they have been imposed upon. Oh, 
for a Harriet Beecher Stowe, to write a Chee-Chow- 
Wang romance upon the cruelty to this deluded 
people! It is a horrid thing, according to modern 
philanthropy, to steal wild Africans, but a blessing to 
kidnap the educated Chinaman, and sell him into 
slavery. Consistency is a jewel. Some twelve thou- 
sand have already been brought here, half smothered 
and starved in crowded ships, and the cry is " still they 
come." They work in the sugar-mills, steamboats, 
and anywhere in the shade, as well as the negro. 
They are doffing their cues, and falling into the habits 



Cuban Correspondence. ' 21 

and costume of the Cubans. No females are brought. 
It is difficult to teach them the language, and they do 
not engage so readily in the ceremonies of the Catho- 
lic religion as the Africans. 

The slave population is decreasing rapidly. Those 
who are smuggled into the Island are of the male sex. 
The negroes have many more privileges than with us. 
On the sugar estates, at this season of the year, they, 
however, work very hard. 

On the Island you find a variety of characters. The 
Spaniards are the best educated, and hold all offices 
of honor and profit. The Creole has not much love 
or sympathy for the Spaniard. The foreigners who 
live here, are generally adventurers, and come, simply, 
to make money. I find a large majority of them bor- 
dering on infidelity. They become disgusted with the 
religion of the government ; and, having no place of 
worship, they give themselves up to the worship of 
Mammon. Those who reside here more than three 
months, are required to swear allegiance to the gov- 
ernment, and the Roman Catholic religion. You may 
be sure, that before I take any such oath, I shall de- 
mand my passport, shake the dust from my feet, and 
leave this natural Eden to its serpent. 

I left Havana in company with two German and two 
English acquaintances. There is a frankness and can- 
dor about the German character that I admire; but 
John Bull, what shall I say of that gentleman ? I take 
him into my heart, nestle him, imagine that I begin to 
esteem, if not to love him, and, the first thing I know, 
John, like the frog in the fable, begins to swell. I 



22 Cuban Correspondence. 

open my heart, and out he comes. I have almost 
come to the conclusion that the only way a full-grown 
British subject can be made social and Americanized, 
is by marrying him to a daughter of the House of 
Jonathan. I know it must be deeply mortifying to his 
national pride, to enter into such an alliance, but he 
occasionally does so. 

In Havana I made one acquaintance, fresh from her 
Majesty's dominions, whom I rendered furious by my 
Americanism. He was talking largely of the " mis- 
tress of the world," and said if the United States 
attempted to buy Cuba, England would whip her as 
she had whipped Russia ! I told him it appeared 
to me that the people of Havana did not know that 
England had been engaged in a war with Russia, 
judging from a large exhibition that I had seen repre- 
senting all the battles of the Crimea, the taking of 
Sebastapol, and the like. The English did not have 
a showing in the picture, unless those men in the 
trenches were intended to represent the British gene- 
rals ! He talked about French humbug, and was 
angry enough. Nevertheless, with all the British 
Lion's roaring, swelling and blustering, I rather like 
him. He has shown himself to be powerful, both in 
war and peace. It is wonderful to see what his little 
corner of the globe — somewhat larger than a few 
Georgia cotton-fields — has done, and can do ; and, 
loving my own country as I do, I must yet recognize 
the English as a great and powerful people, who have 
given to the world some of its most glorious examples 
and noble lessons. 



Cuban Coitespondence. 23 

The gentlemen of Cuba, in many respects, are 
superior to the ladies. They are an active, working 
set of men, and generally are much better informed 
than the other sex. 

I have never found among our merchants so much 
politeness and accommodation as here. Time and 
again have strangers left their business and gone with 
me from place to place, without compensation, never 
expecting to see me again. A gentleman leaving the 
United States for Cuba, only requires a good introduc- 
tion to Havana merchants. I had letters to Spanish, 
Creole, American and English . houses. They all 
seemed to take pleasure in offering me every facility 
for visiting their friends (merchants and planters) in 
the interior. 

Havana is the New York of Cuba. Nearly all the 
imports come here, and the banking is done entirely 
in Havana. Their currency is still gold and silver, 
but a bank, with three millions capital, will go into 
operation soon. 

The floors in Cuba are never carpeted, in conse- 
quence of the heat of the climate. Thick slate, also 
marble and jasper of various colors, cut in squares, 
are used for floors in most of the dwelling-houses. 

You are much annoyed wherever you go with 
applications to buy lottery tickets ; and I have been 
surprised to see respectable merchants and ladies en- 
gaged in this species of gambling. The Queen of 
Spain draws fifty thousand dollars a month from the 
lottery office, which, it seems, does not keep her in 
pocket change. 



24 Cuban Correspondence. 

The travel on a Cuban railroad is poco a poco, six 
to ten miles per hour ; but the scenery is so magnifi- 
cent you do not wish to move faster. 

I have seen mahogany used as fuel for the engines. 
It is surprising that the Yankees, who build their 
roads, do not teach them better economy. I should 
think, from what I have observed, it is much easier 
for an American to fall into their habits than to ele- 
vate them to ours. They have first, second and third 
class cars, and charge three, six and nine cents per 
mile. Seventy-five per cent, of the travel is on the 
third-class cars. 

I leave to-morrow for Matanzas. Adieu. 

Guines, February, 1856. G. W. W. 



LETTER SIXTH 



Matanzas — Friends — Yumuri Valley — Blood-hounds — 
A Cave — Lopes — Cardenas — • Consistency. 

Well, my friend, you see that I salute you from 
another quarter, have changed my base, and am now 
pleasantly enough situated in the beautiful City of 
Matanzas. My room opens on the fine bay, and ; 
after a hot ride on the railroad, the refreshing sea 
breeze is delightful. In this spacious harbor I see 
"Young America" represented in the shape of a score 
of ships, hailing from Charleston, New York and Bos- 
ton, loading with the products of this rich Island. 



Cuban Correspondence. 25 

I like Matanzas, in many respects, better than 
Havana. The inhabitants look more comfortable, and 
the streets are wider and cleaner. 

The country from Guines to this city is very pro- 
ductive, and the hills and valleys through which you 
pass make it a most picturesque ride. On either side 
are large fields of orange, banana, cocoanut and royal 
palm trees, loaded with fruit. Matanzas has an 
active, thriving set of merchants, and carries on a 
brisk trade in sugar, coffee, molasses, etc. I am now 
travelling with a Boston merchant and a New Orleans 
physician, and here I meet a Charleston friend, C. 
E. M., whose agreeable phiz looms out to me more 
pleasantly than ever in a foreign country. We Ameri- 
canos stick together like brothers. I have been quite 
fortunate in making acquaintances in this land of 
strangers. I do feel specially grateful to God for 
having given me, among other blessings, a social dis- 
position, for it gives me kind, good friends, from whom 
I derive much information and happiness. 

I must now tell you about the celebrated Yumuri 
Valley. Having procured four fine Spanish ponies, 
and friend M. for our guide, we started for the moun- 
tains. On we marched in regular Indian file, ascend- 
ing hill after hill, until we reached the summit of 
Cumbre Mountain. Here let us rest, and behold the 
most magnificent scenery in the world. Now imagine 
yourself on a lofty pinnacle, without tree or shrub to 
obstruct your view in any direction, and see the won- 
drous panorama that delights the vision on every 
hand. 

4 



26 Cuban Correspondence. 

Cast your eye to the north, and you see the broad, 
blue Gulf of Mexico, and there comes a steamer from 
Havana. Those ships which are sailing so gracefully 
into port — where are they from ? They have not yet 
hung out their flags, and I cannot tell. To the west 
and east is the harbor and beautiful City of Matan- 
zas ; to the south — ah ! here is the picture which fills 
the soul with rapturous delight. Look upon Yumuri, 
the most beautiful valley on the globe ! I had always 
thought there was no land so lovely as my own dear 
Nacoochee, the Tempe of the South, 

" Where the zephyrs perfumed as from the Spice Islands, 
Mount up from the valley to welcome the morn ; 
Where the gale robs the zephyr to gladden the highland 
With sweetness, that e'en to proud Yonah is borne. 

'Tis a valley of peace, rich in every soft feature, 

In sunshine or shade, in its own verdant green ; 
'Tis Georgia's Egeria, most lovely by nature, 
Carved out of a chaos of wild mountain scene." 

Yes, for once in my life, have I beheld a valley 
beautiful as the " sweet vale of Nacoochee." These 
rich and varied scenes have produced a well-spring in 
my heart from which I can ever draw happiness. As 
I looked forth on the natural beauty that lay spread 
out beneath and around me, O, how I did wish that 
all my friends could be with me, and feast on the rich 
scenery of this charming valley ! Far, far below are 
broad, green fields of sugar-cane, now in full bloom ; 
and on the sides of the mountain, standing in glorious 
beauty, you see, in thick groups, the majestic Royal 
Palm. On the quiet and peaceful banks of the Yu- 



Cuban Correspondence. 27 

muri River, which winds its way through the valley, 
are beautiful groves of orange, banana, lemon, and 
almond ; and here and there peep out farm-houses, 
almost hid by luxuriant vines, trees, and flowers. 
We could not leave this enchanting spot until the 
sun had dropped behind the distant mountains, and 
warned us that darkness would soon be upon us. 

This lovely valley has a sad history. It was here 
that the natives were cruelly massacred by the Christ- 
ian (?) Spaniards. Only a small remnant were left. 
These, finding themselves pursued by the blood- 
hounds, threw themselves into the river, shouting, 
" Yo Moir ! Yo Moir/" — I die, I die: Ever afterwards 
the river and valley were called Yumuri. 

As we were returning to the city, a pack of fierce 
Cuban blood-hounds attacked us, and it seemed that 
we should be torn to pieces ; fortunately, the largest 
and most desperate fellow was muzzled. They seized 
our Boston friend by the foot, and I thought would 
unhorse him. They chased us nearly a mile. I do 
not know when I have witnessed a more exciting 
scene. Nearly all the planters keep these dogs, and 
train them to catch runaway negroes that hide in the 
caverns of the mountains. Near this valley is a cave 
worthy of a visit. The entrance is rather narrow and 
difficult, but after you have gone some hundred feet it 
becomes wider. You find it necessary to carry lamps 
and matches, for if your light should become extin- 
guished, it would be very difficult to find your way 
out. The cave penetrates the mountain half a mile. 
The drippings through the rugged cliffs become pet- 



28 Cuban Correspondence. 

rifled, and hang down in clusters resembling icicles. 
Owls and bats inhabit this dismal abode in great num- 
bers ; and it was formerly a safe hiding place for the 
highway robbers who committed many murders in 
this region, and were the terror of the neighborhood. 

We left Matanzas in the steamer which carried the 
unfortunate Lopez and party to their last home on 
earth. The engineer — an American — pointed out the 
place on deck where three young men from New 
Orleans were shot. The poor fellows were sent into 
eternity without a moment's warning or preparation. 
The prisoners were all treated with the greatest 
indignity. After a pleasant sail up the coast of six 
hours, we reached Cardenas. This is the city of eight 
thousand inhabitants taken by Lopez with five hun- 
dred men ! Their shot and shell marks are still to 
be seen on the houses and doors. Here I find a 
great many persons dissatisfied with the tyrannical 
government ; but they were too cowardly to join 
Lopez, or they might now be free. Lopez finding 
himself surrounded with twelve thousand troops, was 
compelled to leave for the United States. But you 
are, no doubt, well informed in relation to the wretched 
history. 

Cardenas is located on the coast. As a place of 
residence it is uninviting, but a large trade is carried 
on. One-fourth of the sugar crop is shipped from 
this port. Here you find Massachusetts and Maine 
merchants buying the "slave molasses," and shipping 
it to Boston and Portland to be manufactured into pure 
New England rum, and sold to Southern heathens for 



Cuban Correspondence. 29 

"slave money." This is a beautiful sort of consistency 
for your spiritual education. 

I have letters of introduction to the proprietors of 
Flor de Cuba, Ponina, Alva and St. Helene, four of 
the largest sugar estates on the Island. When I have 
visited these places, you shall hear from me again. 
Yours, very truly, 

G. W. W. 



LETTER SEVENTH 



Flor de Cuba — Sugar-making — St. Helene — Society — 
The Lower Classes — The Spanish Rule. 

I am now, my friend, in the richest and most highly 
cultivated districts of the Island, receiving the princely 
hospitalities of the kindest people it has been my lot 
hitherto to meet abroad. Flor de Cuba (flower of 
Cuba) is one of the largest and best regulated sugar 
plantations in the wide, wide world. It belongs to the 
family of Arriettas, a family which would be a credit 
to any country. Before delivering my letters of intro- 
duction, I must confess that I felt more than ordinary 
concern about the reception ; but I carried a request 
from Havana friends that I should receive those 
polite attentions which these planters so well know 
how to bestow. 

" You are welcome, sir; and we hope you will make 
our house your home," was said in such a manner 



30 Cuban Correspondence. 

that it made me feel at home. It was no mere pro- 
verbial and superlative compliment of the Mexicans. 
Mr. Victor Arrietta, the head of the house, after the 
courtesies and graces of hospitality had been duly 
considered, proceeded to show me the utilities as well 
as beauties of the place. He showed and explained 
to me all the processes in sugar-making. These, as 
you may well conceive, from your knowledge of my 
practical tendencies, interested me very greatly, and, 
for the benefit of my friends, who have never visited a 
sugar estate, I will endeavor to give them some idea 
of the "Flower of Cuba," and its productions. 

This estate contains five thousand acres of produc- 
tive lands. We rode, for hours, through an immense 
field of sugar-canes, growing from twelve to eighteen 
feet high. These fields are divided by beautiful ave- 
nues of royal palm and mango trees. Many of the 
trees are sixty to eighty feet high; in the distance 
looking like white marble columns. The planters 
commence cutting the cane in December, and the top 
is used as food for cattle. In Louisiana, the cane has 
to be renewed annually; here, once in ten or fifteen 
years. It is hauled in carts drawn by oxen to the 
sugar-mill, which is usually located in the centre of 
the farm. The cane is passed between two large iron 
rollers, and the juice is pressed out, flowing through 
troughs into tanks, to be purified. It is next pumped 
into cisterns, and boiled to the consistency of a syrup. 
On this estate they make both clayed and Muscovado 
sugars. The former is made in tin moulds, in the 
shape of a funnel, holding fifty pounds. These vessels 



Cuban Correspondence. 31 

are filled with green sugar; on the top is placed a 
layer of clay, two inches thick, and they are left three 
weeks to drip and dry. The pipe-clay is mixed with 
water, to the consistency of cream; and the water 
from this clay filters through the sugar, and carries 
with it the relics and tinge of molasses. The clay 
serves no other purpose than to retain the water, and 
prevent its percolation too rapidly through the sugar. 
The clay is then removed, and you have a loaf of 
sugar, which is divided into three qualities. The top 
being the whitest, it is packed in boxes of four hun- 
dred pounds each, and is known in the commercial 
world as Havana box sugar. 

The best quality of Muscovado sugar is made by 
the centrifugal process. The raw material is poured 
into a machine, which is turned by steam, with great 
rapidity. In a few minutes you have a well-grained 
dry sugar, which, packed in hogsheads, is the quality 
shipped to the United States, while the clayed article 
goes mainly to Europe. Lime, blood, and animal 
bones, are used in the manufacture of sugar. The 
crushed cane is dried and serves as fuel to heat the 
kettles, in which the sugar is boiled; wood being a 
scarce article in this part of the Island. Formerly, 
the grinding was done by ox-power, but recently the 
American steam engine has been introduced. The 
buildings and machinery on this estate cost three 
hundred thousand dollars. The owners work eight 
hundred hands, and about one thousand oxen; for five 
months in the year the mill runs night and day — 
Sunday and Monday. Three hundred acres are 



32 Cuban Correspondence. 

planted in vegetables, fruit, etc., for the negroes. 
They will make, this year, twelve thousand boxes and 
two thousand hogsheads of sugar, beside several thou- 
sand hogsheads of molasses. The products of this 
farm would be worth, in the Charleston market, one 
million of dollars! The good people of the Palmetto 
State have to pay a duty of thirty dollars per hogs- 
head, to protect the Louisiana sugar planters, before 
they are permitted to sweeten their coffee with Cuban 
sugar. 

The family were invited to a dinner party at St. 
Helene, and said they would be pleased to have me 
accompany them, assuring me of a welcome. It suited 
my humor and objects to see all that could be seen, 
and I went. There I had an opportunity of observing 
and hearing much of the manners and customs of the 
Cuban ladies. I found them intelligent and educated, 
and as they spoke English, I spent several days at St. 
Helene. We discussed Cuban manners freely and un- 
reservedly. I was pleased to be corrected where I 
had formed erroneous opinions. When introduced to 
a Creole lady, you think her decidedly flat and unin- 
teresting. It is the fashion to appear as indifferent as 
possible; she, however, soon becomes animated, and 
then look out for those dark, bewitching eyes, and 
that soft, sweet voice. The education of the females 
is, however, too much neglected; and then they are 
much restricted in their intercourse with the world. 
A very intelligent gentleman told me that the men 
did not wish to have their wives know as much as 
they did. I told him, in our country, ignorant wives 



Cuban Correspondence. 33 

were, but too frequently, the mothers of worthless 
and stupid boys. There is a custom here, among 
some Cuban mothers, which, I think, might be imi- 
tated by our own people. At sunset a bell is rung, 
which is a summons for the children to ask a mother's 
blessing. They each affectionately kiss her hand, 
the hand is then placed on their head with, "God 
bless and make you good, my child." 

In the lower classes, the men and women are both 
ignorant and indolent. They have no ambition to im- 
prove their condition, morally or physically — gener- 
ally living in miserable huts. The glory of the men 
is to attend cock and bull fights, gamble, and roll 
ninepins ; and the women smoke and idle away their 
time. Not a book or newspaper is to be seen in their 
houses ; and they have no knowledge of the world 
beyond the prescribed limits of the Island. The 
luxuriant flowers which cover their thatched cottages 
afford no pleasure to the occupants. It is a waste of 
beauty and fragrance on uncultivated tastes. The 
higher classes will no more associate with them than 
with their servants. 

Here, in this land of flowers and sunshine, you see 
the withering, cursing blight of Spanish Romanism ; 
and it is the policy of that government to keep the 
people in ignorance and midnight darkness. We 
cannot hope for a change until the star-spangled 
banner waves triumphantly over Moro Castle. God 
grant that the day may not be far distant when every 
man in this beautiful Cuba, can worship his Maker, 
unmolested, under his own vine and fig tree ! I do 
5 



34 Cuban Correspondence. 

not ask that they shall be Methodists or Presbyte- 
rians ; but I object to the government, because it 
is a religious and military despotism. Romanism 
here rides rough-shod over everything. The priests 
have the reputation of being a very wordly set of 
men ; but many of their followers are self-sacrificing 
Christians, of pure and unblemished character. 

You find among the educated Cubans a burning 
hatred of the Spanish yoke, and they are ready to 
throw it off whenever they can be assured that the 
garrote will not be their fate — in other words, when- 
ever patriotism shall see a reasonable chance of suc- 
cess ; but at present this class is too feeble and closely 
watched to accomplish much without foreign aid. I 
know several planters who pay twenty to thirty thou- 
sand dollars taxes, and they have no more voice or 
influence in the government than their slaves. The 
Captain-General, governors, and all who are in com- 
mand, are Spaniards, and appointed at the virtuous (?) 
court of Madrid. The government of Cuba is em- 
phatically a military despotism ; the edicts are en- 
forced by the Spanish soldiers. There is a strict 
censorship exercised over the press here. Every 
barrel of flour imported from a foreign country pays 
a duty of ten dollars ! and they are not allowed to 
grow wheat on their own land. Think of a little 
Island like Cuba supporting a standing army of forty 
thousand soldiers, who fatten and revel on the sub- 
stance of this oppressed people ! The wealthiest 
planter in Cuba is not permitted to go ten miles from 
home without a " permit " from a Spanish officer. It 



Cuban Correspondence. 35 

is my heart's desire to see this beautiful, fertile Island 
one of the bright gems in our own constellation. 
Then, and not till then, will the Cubans acquire free- 
dom of opinion and conduct, and religious liberty. I 
want to see the American eagle stretching its wings 
from Canada to Panama. Cuba belongs to us geo- 
graphically, and it must be ours politically. Could 
this take place, the happiness of her own people would 
be greatly promoted, and we, and the balance of the 
world, would be benefited. It must be inhabited by 
those who are able to improve and cultivate it, and 
establish religious toleration. For fear, however, that 
you will suspect me of having become a " filibuster," 
I must stop ; but on this subject more anon. 
Yours, very truly, 

G. W. W. 
Flor de Cuba, February, 1856. 



LETTER EIGHTH 



More of the Interior — Fruits— ~Climate — Purgatory — 
Priestcraft — A Little Filibustering — Etc., Etc. 

I extended my visit from Flor de Cuba further 
south to Ponina, and several other large sugar estates, 
receiving the kind hospitalities of the planters all 
along the route. My visit to the interior of the Island 
has been altogether very interesting and agreeable. 
Their houses, tables, carriages and servants are at your 
command, and if you don't have a good time it is 
your own fault. Here a lover of the beautiful in 
nature can be gratified to his heart's content. One 
of my favorite enjoyments is to take early morning 
strolls through the large gardens, plucking the ripe 
fruit from the trees. The sweet orange is my favorite. 
The lemon does not flourish so well. At Alva I 
counted forty varieties of fruit in one garden. 

It is not surprising that this beautiful Island should 
be called the garden of the world ; perpetual summer 
reigns on its flowers and fruits, its sugar-cane, coffee 
and tobacco plants. The rich soils produce, with 
little culture, bountiful and almost perpetual crops. 
Its waters abound in the greatest variety of fish. Its 
magnificent forest trees alone are a source of study 
and pleasure. The stately Royal Palm, in my estima- 
tion, is the king of the forest. 

I went to several dinner-parties. The hour for din- 
ing is from 5 to 8 o'clock. The Cuban cooking is too 



Cuban Correspondence. $7 

rich for me, and they mix garlic and onions and 
onions and garlic in nearly every dish. It seemed out 
of season in mid-winter to have spread before you 
green peas, corn, tomato and all the summer vegetables 
of our climate. After you have partaken of fish, pork, 
beef, turkey, sweetmeats, jellies and fruits, your plate 
in the meanwhile being changed a dozen times, the 
cloth is removed, and you wind up with coffee, cigars 
and wine. The ladies do not leave the table, but 
occasionally enjoy a cigaretta. They regard me as a 
sort of outside barbarian, as I could not join in drink- 
ing and smoking. Wine is universally used here, but 
they seldom drink to intoxication. 

In this hot climate the negroes live mainly on fruit 
and vegetables. They are allowed salted fish and beef, 
but no bacon. Rice is cultivated on the uplands, and 
grows in the wet season. It seldom rains here in the 
winter, but in summer it comes down in torrents, 
making the roads, in this limestone country, almost 
impassable. Miss Bremer says, " no one need fear 
the night here — it is not cold ; it has no dew." But 
that fair lady was by no means infallible as an author- 
ity. If she had taken some early rides with me, she 
would certainly have seen the morning dew-drops on 
the beautiful flowers. In the dry season vegetation 
is kept alive and green- by the refreshing dews. 

I did not like to see the amalgamation that is going 
on here. It is lawful for a Cuban to have a colored 
wife and mongrel children. But if a white man will 
go to Africa for a wife, I see no reason why his chil- 
dren should not be his heirs. This is the Spanish view 



38 Cuban Correspondence. 

of the question, and a law was made to recognize the 
principle, and I commend the government for it. 
There is a marked partiality among the Creoles for 
the Southerners : they know we are sound on the 
Nebraska question. I find quite a number of planters 
from the United States residing here, and they nearly 
all hail from the Northern States. It is said they 
make the hardest masters, but of that I had no evi- 
dence. I know Mr. F.'s servants were very much 
distressed when he sold out for the purpose of return- 
ing to Boston. The queen's mother owned the largest 
sugar estate on the Island, but became involved, and 
sold it to a very enterprising Spaniard. This gentle- 
man was ambitious to make large crops, and promised 
his overseer fifty thousand dollars when he made five 
thousand hogsheads of sugar, and last year they made 
fifty-five hundred. It is said the negroes were worked 
so hard that three hundred died ; but this calamity 
was charged to cholera, and I doubt not that this fatal 
disease was the main cause of the mortality. I am 
surprised to find children here, even among the rich, 
only half clad; and many of the lower classes do not 
have a covering of fig leaves. The blacks on these 
plantations are often not better clad than their fore- 
fathers in the wilds of Africa. 

Recently the owner of that estate died, and the 
funeral at Cienfugos cost ten thousand dollars. His 
remains were then removed to Havana. His dis- 
tressed widow was told that her husband's soul was 
in purgatory, and it would require twenty thousand 
dollars to efet him out ! 



Cuban Correspondence. 39 

I felt a great curiosity to witness the ceremonies 
performed for that purpose. The church was robed 
in mourning, and illuminated by immense candles, 
supported on candlesticks eight feet high ; incense 
was burned in censers throughout the church, and 
there was one grand display of priestly pharisaism, 
witnessed by thousands of people. I was told that 
the priests made sixteen to eighteen thousand dollars 
clear. How ridiculous to suppose a man's spiritual 
condition can be changed after he is dead, or his sins 
expiated by the interposition of priestly ceremonials. 
The Romish clergy avail themselves of every oppor- 
tunity to fleece their followers. For fifty cents, they 
will sell a dispensation which entitles the purchaser to 
the privilege of sinning for forty days ! 

A large revenue is derived from this species of 
imposition. The indulgences are generally purchased 
by the poor and ignorant. In this way these deluded 
people are encouraged in wickedness. I bought one, 
but found it was of no use, as I was required to 
believe in the priest, pope and the devil, to make it 
available — a trio that I do not fancy. You may judge 
of the religious condition of a people with such spirit- 
ual teachers. 

But, apart from the religious view of the question, 
the political importance of Cuba to the United States 
cannot easily be over-estimated. It commands the 
Gulf of Mexico, and is almost within cannon-shot of 
the Florida coast. England and France are watching 
with a jealous eye our every movement. Their war- 
ships are to be seen in all the ports. They profess to 



40 Cuban Correspondence. 

be on the lookout for African slavers : at the same 
time they are aiding in the introduction of slavery of 
the worst kind. When the Spanish officials fired into 
our ship, and insulted the American flag, that was the 
time to have put this garden of Spain into our family 
group. We may never have such an opportunity 
again. 

The planters are getting one hundred per cent, 
more for sugar and molasses this year than last. 
Sugar-cane is king here. The tobacco crop is next 
in value. It is estimated that the productions of Cuba 
this year will be worth one hundred millions of dol- 
lars ! The population is fifteen hundred thousand. 
The Island is capable of supporting ten times that 
number of inhabitants. The annual exports amount 
to six hundred million pounds of sugar and eighty 
million coffee. The export of tobacco is about ten 
millions, partly in the leaf, besides three hundred 
millions manufactured cigars. Railroads are being 
built in every direction ; some six hundred miles are 
already completed. Steamboats also are constantly 
running on the northern and southern coasts. I was 
surprised to find here such high mountains, from 
which clear mountain rivulets come tumbling into the 
valleys, furnishing pure, wholesome water. Next 
week I propose, please Providence, to go to Yucatan. 
I wish to look at the " ruins" of that antique country, 
the origin of which must, in all probability, forever 
remain a mystery. 

Yours, truly, 

G. W. W. 



LETTER NINTH 



In Havana Again — Tomb of Columbus — The Cathedral 
— The Fish Market — Bull Fight — Execution of Crit- 
tenden and Lopez. 

Once more, my friend, you see me in Havana, 
reviewing with renewed zest and better knowledge, 
the various objects that have already interested me so 
much. A friend met me to-day at Principe, and said, 
" Is it possible you are not tired of sight-seeing yet ?" 
Tired, indeed! I would just as soon expect to grow 
weary of looking on a face that I love, as to tire in 
beholding the thousand and one objects of interest 
and attraction to be found accumulated here. 

Before going to the interior I did not have an oppor- 
tunity of satisfactorily examining the paintings and 
tomb of Columbus, which are to be seen in the world- 
renowned Cathedral of San Ignacio. This edifice is 
near the governor's palace. Its moss-covered exterior 
makes it look as old as the hills and rocks by which 
it is surrounded. I was standing in front of the old 
monastery and wondering how long it had been built, 
when a priest came out of a side gate, and I asked 
him the question. He made no reply, but rang a bell, 
which was answered by an intelligent looking negro 
man, who beckoned me to follow him. We went 
through several dark rooms, up the steps and down 
again. I did not know but that he was leading me 
6 



42 Cuban Correspondence. 

to the hall of the inquisition, but I was soon relieved 
when he opened a large back door, and pointed to a 
white marble tablet in the wall, in which were de- 
posited the bones of one of the greatest men that ever 
lived. 

It appears that the priest understood me as wishing 
to see the tomb of Columbus. This, certainly, was 
my desire also, but he failed to comprehend my ques- 
tion, put in broken Spanish. 

The discovery, by Columbus, of the New World, 
awakened new life and energy in the Old, and has 
done much, very much, to promote and spread the 
Christian religion. The young mariner seemed in- 
spired with a belief that El Dorado, a great realm of 
gold, was to be found somewhere in the West, and he 
could not rest until he had started in search of it. 
He walked from court to court, pleading for means to 
carry into effect his cherished object. He at last 
attained them. See him on the broad ocean, with his 
light craft and mutinous crew, pushing his way west- 
ward, in strange and hitherto unknown and unrecorded 
seas. Columbus was a brave, bold, adventurous mari- 
ner. It were worth a long life-time of toil and struggle 
to enjoy what he did on the discovery of the New 
World. 

Columbus was rewarded with chains, and received 
the hisses and insults of the rabble. I looked with all 
my eyes for those chains which others had seen here, 
but they were not to be found. Although slandered, 
persecuted and abused while living, posterity seems 
ready to do homage to his memory, by erecting a 



Cuban Correspondence. 43 

magnificent marble monument, which is nearly com- 
pleted in Genoa, (his native city,) and will soon be 
erected in La Plaza here. 

I spent hours within the sacred walls of the cathe- 
dral. It is ornamented with many fine paintings, and 
the dome is beautifully decorated with figures in 
fresco. The recesses are filled with shrines of various 
saints, but I do not admire this style of architecture; 
it always reminds me of the wax figures I used to see 
exhibited by itinerant showmen. The high ceiling is 
supported by two ranges of massive columns ; between 
these, are several confessionals, and four side pulpits. 
From the latter, priests chant sermons in Latin, which 
very few of the hearers understand. I ascended one 
of the pulpits and made the old walls ring with a 
Protestant voice. My guide looked very much fright- 
ened, and was preparing to take French leave, and as 
I did not know but that he might turn the key on me, 
I went with him. My audience was deaf and dumb, 
so I could not expect to make them converts to 
Protestantism. 

Oh, what a blessed thing it would be, if our eloquent 
ministers could stand in these sanctuaries, and preach 
the word of God in sincerity and truth to the thou- 
sands of immortal beings, who confess their sins to 
the priests, and worship images made by men's hands, 
instead of Christ, who died that they might live. In- 
fidelity seems to have taken possession of the people. 
They are not allowed to read or interpret the Bible. 
The more I see of Spanish Romanism, the greater 
dread I have of its cursing, blighting, and contaminat- 



44 Cuban Correspondence. 

ing influence. The confessional, the sale of indul- 
gences, and the religion which teaches that money 
will get your soul out of purgatory, are all bad, bad! 
As^much as I reverence churches, I was heartily glad 
to see many of the largest here taken from the priests, 
and converted into stores of merchandise. 

After a lapse of nearly three centuries, the bones of 
Columbus were brought from Hispaniola, in 1796, at 
an enormous expense, and with great pomp and show, 
deposited in this cathedral. There I hope they will 
remain long after Cuba becomes a State of the Ameri- 
can Union. 

Near the cathedral is the celebrated fish market. 
It is nearly two hundred feet long, with a marble table 
extending nearly the whole length of the building. 
Again and again, have I visited this place, being 
always gratified in looking at the fishes of beautiful 
colors and shapes. I suppose the Havana fish market 
is unequalled for variety and quality. It is a govern- 
ment monopoly, and those who eat fish have to pay 
dearly for the luxury. A notorious pirate by the 
name of Masti, Judas like, betrayed his party, and 
was rewarded with a monopoly of the sale of fish. 
For twenty years, having the game all in his own 
hands, he realized an immense fortune, and built the 
Tacon Theatre, another monopoly — which is said to 
be the most expensive thing of the kind in the world, 
having cost two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

When a mountain boy, I read thrilling accounts of 
Spanish bull-fights, and wondered if they could be 
true. Yesterday I had an opportunity of witnessing 



Cuban Correspondence. 45 

with mine own eyes these horrid scenes. For the 
past ten days little else has been talked of in Havana 
but the great bull-fight, which was to take place on 
the first $unday in March. You may well imagine 
that my "forty days dispensation" did not entirely 
relieve my conscience, to allow me to witness a bull- 
fight on a peaceful Sabbath day; but I came here not 
to make things as I would have them, but to see them 
as they really exist. The arena for this cruel Cuban 
sport is well selected, as it is in the old town of Regla, 
across the harbor from Havana. Regla has long been 
the haunt of pirates, robbers and murderers, and is, 
consequently, a fit place for bull-fights and bull-fight- 
ers. The building used for this purpose covers half 
an acre of ground. The seats are raised one above 
another, after the fashion of circus exhibitions with 
us. The lower tier is of sufficient height to protect 
you from the sharp horns of the enraged animals. At 
the shrill blast of the bugle, a wild bull rushes into 
the circle, where he encounters two men on foot, and 
two on horseback, the former armed with swords, the 
latter with spears. They begin at once to worry the 
bull, by firing spears, with rockets attached, into his 
breast and side. These rockets explode in his flesh, 
burning, lacerating, and enraging the poor creature. 
The horsemen's spears, were also thrust into his flesh, 
while crimson colors were flaunted before his fiery 
eyes. In a short time the creature became enraged 
and frantically mad, and would plunge first at the 
gladiators, then at the poor blind-folded horses, pierc- 
ing his sharp horns into the very vitals of the helpless 



46 Cuban Correspondence. 

m 

animals. At this juncture the men on foot would 
plunge their swords to the very hilt into the neck of 
the bull. The animal would stagger, tremble and fall 
dead at their feet, amid the screams and yells of count- 
less men, women and boys. On this occasion, there 
were four bulls and three horses killed, and one of the 
men badly, if not mortally wounded. I saw several 
women eager spectators of this horrid scene, but not 
a lady. So far as I can learn, few persons of respecta- 
bility of that sex attend bull-fights on the Island of 
Cuba. I do not think I could ever be tempted to wit- 
ness a repetition of yesterday's terrible scenes at Regla. 
It is, however, a national institution, and should be 
witnessed by the stranger. In Madrid, it is said, the 
queen occupies the royal box at the bull-fights. We 
should not be surprised that the virtuous Queen of 
Spain patronized such savage sports. If report be true, 
this is the least objectionable part of her conduct. 

I have visited the Castle of Atares, where the brave 
Crittenden and party were shot. Crittenden was 
ordered to turn his back to the soldiers, and kneel. 
He replied that Americans knelt only to their God, 
and died facing the enemy. I also visited the fortress 
of the Punta, where General Lopez was garroted. He 
asked to be shot, but Concha inflicted the most infa- 
mous punishment — the garrote. Lopez's last words 
were: "I die for my beloved Cuba, dear Cuba." You 
may next hear from me locked up in the Cabanas, and 
waiting my turn at the garrote. Queen sabe ! We 
shall see. ' G. W. W. 

Hairana, March, 1856. 



LETTER TENTH 



Moro Castle Visited — "Building" up a Fortune — The 
American Consul. 

Charles III, King of Spain, was one day observed 
to be looking very intently through his spy-glass in 
the direction of Cuba. Some one asked his majesty 
at what he was looking. He replied at Moro Castle, 
and the Cabanas. The king thought that fortifica- 
tions costing so much money ought to be seen from 
Madrid to Havana. 

My curiosity to see and examine these strong forti- 
fications was very great, and, doubtless, was height- 
ened by the fact that the Captain-General had given 
orders that no American should be permitted to enter 
their walls. This edict was issued in consequence of 
the late filibustering movements in the United States. 
I applied to my Spanish, Cuban and American friends 
to aid me in procuring a permit, but without success. 
I then went to our consul, Mr. Robinson, and told him 
that the only favor I had to ask of him was to pro- 
cure for me a passport from the Captain-General, to 
visit Moro and the CabaHas. 

"My dear sir, I should like very much to accommo- 
date you, but I am requested not even to make an 
application for such a thing." 

This looked very discouraging, indeed, but I had 
made up my mind to go, and risk the consequences. 
I took the precaution to inform some friends of my 



48 Cuban Corresponde?icc. 

intentions, and told them if I did not return in proper 
season to the hotel, to notify Messrs. D. & Co., and 
some other commercial houses. This precaution 
taken, I went to the harbor opposite the gate, lead- 
ing into the fortifications, and hired a boatman to row 
me over. Landed safely on the opposite shore, I 
began the ascent. As I was climbing the steep hill, 
and saw the armed soldiers awaiting my arrival, my 
heart beat rather faster than usual; but I knew if I 
faltered, "Gibraltar" could not be taken; so on and 
upward I marched. Just in front of the gate stood 
the watchful sentinels. As I was about to pass them, 
they cried out, 

" Qiiien vivef" "who goes?" 

I drew from my pocket a couple of letters, held 
them up, bowed and passed in. And now I felt that 
the enemy was "surrounded," and I breathed easier. 

In every direction you could see the busy soldier. 
Standing on the walls were men blowing the war 
trumpet, which was the signal for the soldiers to turn 
out for general parade. Some four thousand made 
their appearance, and marched to the open field in 
rear of the fortifications. ' I went down to view them, 
and was saluted by the officers. I spent an hour in 
seeing them drilled, and then continued my visit 
through the fortress. I should pronounce Moro 
Castle and the Cabanas, in the possession of the 
Americans, impregnable; but in the hands of the flat- 
headed Spanish soldiers it could be taken in forty- 
eight hours. The weak point in the fortifications is 
in the rear. The walls, which are of immense thick- 



Cuban Correspondence. 49 

ness and height, are built of soft limestone, and 
would not stand long under heavy cannonading. The 
soldiers look clean, and their quarters are very com- 
fortable; but I never before saw so many idiotic coun- 
tenances outside of a mad-house. Several hundred 
criminals were at work, loaded with heavy chains. 
Within the massive walls of Moro Castle are dun- 
geons for prisoners, who are under sentence for the 
garrote or the galley. These poor creatures present 
a piteous spectacle. 

From the Castle of Moro, which stands proudly on 
its craggy eminence, you have a magnificent view of 
Havana and its beautiful harbor, filled with hundreds 
of vessels, also of the deep blue sea, bearing on its 
restless bosom the ships of nearly every nation. 
Near the top of the castle is a very large telescope, 
through which an enemy's war ship can be seen at a 
great distance. From this point a signal may be 
given, and by means of mirrors placed on the top of 
the high houses in Havana, which reflect these signals, 
the intelligence is thus spread throughout the city, 
with telegraphic swiftness. This arrangement is so 
perfected, that the merchant sits in his counting-room, 
and has but to look at the mirror in his clock, to 
know what vessels are in sight of Moro Castle. 

It is a grand sight to see the waves with their un- 
dulating swell, come dashing against the foundation 
of old Moro, sending their spray, thirty feet high. 
The Gulf Stream is so clear you can see the rain- 
bow-colored fishes playing through the blue water a 
hundred feet below. I selected a fine point for obser- 
7 



50 Cuban Correspondence. 

vation, and was taking sketches in my note book, 
when I saw at a distance some officers eying me 
rather closely, and they dispatched a number of sol- 
diers in that direction. I quietly changed my position, 
and escaped their closer attentions. I have no desire 
to take my turn at the garrote. 

Since my arrival in Cuba, I have visited no place of 
such deep and thrilling interest to me as this fortress. 
But I cannot imagine how they have expended upon 
it fifty to seventy millions of dollars; unless they 
profited by the advice of an old Spaniard to his 
nephew, who was sent from Spain to Havana by the 
government, with a salary insufficient to support him 
in that expensive city. He wrote to his uncle, urging 
an increase in his salary. The uncle replied, making 
no allusion to the request ; but at the bottom of his 
letter was written the word "build." The poor fellow 
was nearly ready to starve, and how could he build? 
He wrote again and again, and that mysterious word 
was at the bottom of each of his uncle's letters. He 
asked a friend if he could explain that word, and was 
informed that those who let out government contracts 
received a large share of the profits, and in that way 
realized fortunes. The young man took the hint, 
went to building, and troubled his uncle no more 
about his salary. It has occurred to me that there is 
considerable "building" going on among our govern- 
ment officials, and they, no doubt, find it quite profita- 
ble. I think they ought to give the American Consul 
an opportunity of letting out a few contracts, or in- 
crease his salary ; for his pay is not sufficient to 



Ciiban Correspondence. 5 1 

support a free negro decently in this expensive city. 
And would you believe it, the representative of our 
great American Government keeps a bread bakery, 
and lives, and eats, and sleeps over his oven ! Is not 
this a shame? A young John Bull said to me very 
sneeringly one day, "we give Mr. Crawford, our 
consul, twenty-five thousand dollars." I replied, "yes, 
and you may add, also, you have to borrow the 
money to pay him with." I could not but think of 
that "eighteen millions of dollars surplus" in the 
treasury, and the American Consul compelled to bake 
ginger cakes for a living ! I found Mr. Robinson a 
very clever gentleman, disposed to do his utmost for 
the accommodation and comfort of his countrymen; 
but how can a man entertain his friends without 
money? Mr. R. has a clever wife, quite young 
enough to be his daughter, and they have a nice little 
boy, eight years old, who can already speak four 
languages, and is now diving into Dutch. But I am 
wandering. Adieu. G. W. W. 



LETTER ELEVENTH 



A Visit to Campo Santo, or Havana Cemetery. 

In the early part of January, 1852, when the Cali- 
fornia gold fever was at its height in Georgia and the 
Carolinas, about twenty young men formed them- 
selves into the " Nacoochee Mining Company." Bid- 
ding adieu to dear friends, with bright expectations, 
they started for the land of gold, hoping, by a few 
years of hardship and privation to return to " sweet 
home," rich in the good things of this world. 

Alas, for human hopes ! In that company was a 
much loved brother, and several young men, the play- 
mates of my youth. They passed through Augusta — 
my home at that time. I did all that I could to 
persuade my brother not to go ; but finding my argu- 
ments unsuccessful, I accompanied him to Charleston, 
to assist in his departure. There we found persons 
from all sections of the country on their way to Cali- 
fornia — young men who had left their hearts with the 
blooming daughters of the mountains, whose hands 
they were to claim when they returned with their 
pockets filled with dimes and dollars, and dollars and 
dimes. All of these adventurers were to go as far as 
Havana, in the Steamship Isabel. The state-rooms 
were engaged, and these poor fellows had to be 
crowded and packed together in the bottom of the 
ship, without air, light, or any of the comforts of life. 
But what will not a man endure for gold ! 



Cuban Correspondence. 53 

When they reached Havana many were sick, and 
one of my young friends died. To-day I thought I 
would see where they had buried him. 

I went, and Heaven forbid that I should ever look 
upon such a scene again ! The cemetery is about 
three miles out, and laid off into squares of an acre 
each ; the dividing walls are wide enough on each side 
for one vault, and sufficiently high for five. In these 
vaults the rich saints of the "holy mother church" 
are placed to remain ten years. If the friends at that 
time are unwilling, or cannot afford to stand another 
heavy money depletion, the remains are removed and 
scattered to the winds. Heretic gold cannot procure 
a resting place in any of these vaults. Do you wish to 
know what they do with the poor and the strangers 
who die here ? Ah, this is the heart-sickening pic- 
ture ! 

When I entered the grounds, I observed several 
negroes digging trenches, about two feet deep, and O, 
horror ! to see these fellows digging up the bones of 
human beings, scattering them in every direction, the 
long hair and grave clothes strewed all round — the 
sight was revolting. I had not been there long, when 
I saw four men bearing a corpse on a slight frame. 
They were smoking and chatting in as lively a mood 
as if on their way to a wedding party. 

The corpse was that of a young woman; her clothes 
were rent and she was pitched into the trench without 
ceremony. There was no one to shed a tear over her 
grave. The dead are not buried in coffins ; quick 
lime is applied freely to promote and hasten decom- 



54 Cuban Correspondence. 

position. The clothes are torn to prevent the body 
from being taken up. Some men make it a business 
to hire coffins and clothing for funeral occasions. 

I next saw six men bring in the body of a very large 
man. Some difficulties arose among the " undertak- 
ers," which I thought would end in a fight. A third 
corpse was brought and deposited in a shallow pit. 

The last interment was that of a little girl. Her 
beautiful eyes were not closed; there was a heavenly 
smile on her sweet, innocent face; she had left earth 
before becoming contaminated by the poison of the 
Old Serpent. I thought of my "lost flowers," which 
were nipped in the bud by the frosts of death, and 
I was reminded of the lines composed by their 
grandfather : 

" The flowers we loved, were lent us for a day — 
So sweetly blooming, yet how short their stay ! 
Their opening charms were seen with fond delight — 
So fresh, so fair, so beautiful, so bright I 
These lovely buds, new beauties to disclose, 
We fondly hoped would open to the rose, 
And these fair roses grace our sweetest bowers, 
Watered by early dews, and softest showers. 
We held them to our hearts, with fondest care, 
And strove, but vainly strove, to keep them there 
For, in fond love's devoted arms caress'd, 
Their opening beauties withered on her breast 
The precious boon, we could no longer keep, 
They felt the chilling frost and fell asleep — 
But not forever, in the dust to lie. 
Oh, no I the stars that glitter in the sky, 
Whisper each night of immortality ; 
The bow of promise drest in sweet array, 
Tells of another and a better day ; 



Cuban Correspondence. 55 

Fair Spring shall smiling come, with odors sweet, 

To breathe upon the flowers beneath her feet ; 

That kiss shall life, and health, and joy restore, 

And in fresh beauty, they shall fade no more. 

Sleep on, sleep on, pale flowers, and take your rest, 

Soon shall ye wake in heavenly radiance drest, 

Soon, from the dust more beautiful arise, 

To sweetly bloom and blossom in the skies. 

" Lost flowers?" Oh, no ! not lost — we part in pain, 

But, in a little while, shall meet again. 

Ye shall be " Gathered Flowerets" to abide 

In that sweet Eden by the river side. 

We hope to meet you in that blest abode: 

The Paradise above, the Garden of our God." 

Here, in Havana, it seems that the friends of the 
dead do not attend the corpse to the grave. The 
burials are left to cold, heartless "undertakers." It is 
enough to chill one's blood, even under a tropical sun, 
to witness the careless and indifferent manner in 
which they perform their duties. With us, the dark- 
ness of the tomb is illuminated by the pleasing 
thought, that when we have gone down into the 
silence of death, dear friends will visit our graves, and 
with tender, loving hands deck our beds with sweet 
flowers. Having seen enough of the " resting" place 
in Havana, I returned to my hotel, and gave direction 
if I died in Cuba, to bury me in the sea — anywhere 
but in a Catholic cemetery. 

A word more about the Nacoochee Mining Com- 
pany. My brother was quite ill at Panama, but left 
in the Sir Charles Napier, for San Francisco. The 
third day out he died, and was buried in the Pacific 
Ocean. Very few of this hopeful little company lived 



56 C lib an Correspondence. 

to return to their homes. Most of them were mem- 
bers of the church, and I trust Christians. They all 
had their Bibles with them, when they left Charleston. 
How mysterious are the ways of Providence ! Here 
was a company of religious men, who might have 
exerted a good, virtuous influence in that land of 
irreligion and wickedness; but God knew what was 
best for them, and removed them ere they encountered 
the temptations of their new home. There is a day 
coming, when we shall see love and mercy in these 
sad and grievous afflictions, which so crush and over- 
whelm us now. O, for a submissive heart, to patiently 
await that day, when we shall, with the "lost flowers," 
be gathered to our eternal home, there to abide and 
rejoice with them forever! 

G. W. W. 



LETTER TWELFTH 



Closing the Correspondence — Tilings Unwritten — Coming 
Home — Key West — ' ' Sponging " — A Storm — At 
Home. 

Lest I should tire you and others, my friend, with 
my "Cuban Correspondence," I propose to forego all 
further sight-seeing for the present, and return home. 
I did think of giving an account of the vast variety 
of other topics, such as the murder of Pinta — 
the Santa Clara Nunnery — the prison — a visit to 
Buenos Ayres, on the Cerro road — a party at the 
English Consul's — a visit to the south side of the 
Island — an unsuccessful attempt to visit Yucatan — a 
visit to the Isle of Pines in the Caribbean Sea, and the 
robbery there of a New Orleans acquaintance — King's 
day in Havana, when the negroes reign supreme — 
of the splendid mahogany wharves, a mile long, 
fastened down with copper rivets, covered the whole 
length, roof supported on iron posts. Also, a word 
more about society in Cuba, not forgetting the 
priests — its climate — productions — population — gov- 
ernment — commerce — the censors of the press — the 
modern slave-trade of Cuba — -black soldiers — "snobs" 
among the sugar noblemen — the night-watch and 
their hideous scream, " all is well," "no fire," " weather 
fair," "half-past eleven o'clock" — holding lamps at 
each corner of the streets, giving lights for the rogues 
to steal by — the hotels, not forgetting our landlord and 
his noisy horses — what the "Queen of the Antilles" 
8 



58 Cuban Correspondence. 

will be, when she becomes a gem of the Southern 
constellation, and other matters — but, in charity to 
you, I forbear. These topics will keep till I go home. 

Quitting the beautiful Island of Cuba is like taking 
leave of a dear friend. In her genial clime my health 
and spirits have improved. I have received from 
strangers much kindness. They will be remembered 
by me with gratitude. It was my intention to go 
from Havana to New Orleans, and then up the 
Mississippi River, but when the Steamer Isabel ar- 
rived, I could not resist the temptation of returning in 
her. The agents, Messrs. Drake & Co., kindly offered 
me the selection of a state-room, and when that was 
secured, I was impatient to be off. The steamer was 
to sail at 7 o'clock, A. M. The captain gave me per- 
mission to sleep on board, but a friend was very sick 
in my room, and I remained with him. At day- 
light next morning, I was on the wharf ready to be 
rowed out to the ship. There I found an officer who 
wished to see how much of La Habana I was taking 
off with me. A peso quieted his curiosity, I jumped 
into a little boat, and was soon on board the favorite 
Isabel. We steamed out of the beautiful harbor quite 
early. Nothing can exceed the scenery presented to 
our view between Havana and the point of the Cape. 
It was, indeed, painful to feel that I was leaving these 
beautiful shores, perhaps never again to revisit them. 

The morning was lovely, and bright as our own 
sweet May. The blue sea sparkled with unusual 
lustre. The balmy south air was of Cuban purity 
and clearness, I stood silently on deck, taking a last 



Cuban Correspondence. 59 

long look at Havana. Farewell to thee, bright land 
of flowers and sunshine ; thy rich and varied beauties 
are daguerreotyped on the tablet of my memory. 
When far away, I can shut my eyes, and see this 
lovely panorama, as fadeless as memory itself. We 
passed under the guns of the Moro and Cabafias, but 
feared them not, as the stars and stripes waved 
proudly over our heads. A severe "norther," which 
had prevailed for several days, left the Gulf Stream in 
great commotion. Very soon nearly every passenger 
was sick — sick. 

At 4 P. M., we arrived at Key West. I wished to 
show some friends, and a German count, our tropical 
town. We passed through the principal streets, and 
stopped at a store to buy some sponge, which is col- 
lected here in large quantities, and is of superior 
quality. 

It is said by naturalists that these sponges are pro- 
duced by minute sea animals called polypi ; they are, 
therefore, analogous in their origin to coral, though 
quite different in their nature. 

I had selected a very fine specimen, but before I 
could pay for it, the signal for the departure of our 
steamer was given, and we arrived just as they were 
removing the last plank. The owner of the sponge 
followed us, and brought the piece I had selected. 
My German companion appropriated it to himself. 

When this gentleman (?) arrived in Havana sick, I 
gave him my room — before knowing, however, that 
he belonged to the nobility ; but when he took the 
sponge I had selected, I came to the conclusion that, 



60 Cuban Correspondence. 

count or king, he did not know what politeness was; 
so I cut his acquaintance, and did not show him the 
Queen City, as I had intended to do. There is a 
disposition among us republicans to court the society 
of the European nobility, and we often get well 
sponged for our trouble and snobbishness. It is 
surprising, in a country on whose banner is inscribed 
"honor and shame from no condition rise," to see the 
vast deal of truckling there is to titled aristocracy, 
regardless of merit or virtue. 

The day after leaving Key West, dark clouds began 
to gather in the north, and our captain watched them 
with marked anxiety. But he is an old sailor, and has 
heard loud thunder, and has seen storms and clouds 
before. We felt, though danger might surround us 
while winding our way in darkness through the Flor- 
ida reefs and breakers, that our commander was a 
man of tried experience, upon whose skill and judg- 
ment we could rely. 

At 12 o'clock the storm had increased to a gale, 
the ship labored heavily, and as the waves would dash 
over the deck, she groaned and trembled in every 
timber. About this time a loud crash was heard, the 
furniture was overturned, the pictures fell to the floor, 
and the lamps were smashed to pieces, leaving us in 
midnight darkness. A few screams from the children, 
moanings from the ladies, and prayers from the men, 
and all was comparatively quiet — but the storm con- 
tinued with fury. Our noble ship, one moment riding 
on top of a mountain billow, and then hiding below 
the troubled waves, it seemed would go down to rise 



Cuban Correspondence. 61 

no more. During that night there were few eyes 
closed for sleep. I went on deck several times -to 
witness the sight, which was awfully sublime. I do 
not say that I was alarmed ; but I certainly should 
have felt much safer among the bears, alligators, and 
wild Indians in the most dismal swamp on the Florida 
coast. Morning came, and the storm moderated, but 
it was a dark, dismal day. 

The United States mail and several Savannah pas- 
sengers were landed near Tybee, in a heavy rain. I 
felt sorry for the ladies. Here we got the first glimpse 
of the beloved Palmetto State. While crossing the 
Savannah bar, the steamer struck several times heavily, 
causing much excitement among the passengers, but 
no harm was done. Monday found us safely in the 
Charleston harbor. After a strict examination by the 
customhouse officers, we were permitted to land 
among the cotton bales, which lined the wharves in 
every direction. Cotton certainly is king in Charles- 
ton. I got into a carriage, and in a short time was 
safely restored to my own dear home. There I found 
my good sister and darling little Willie. " What did 
you bring for me, papa ?" " I brought myself." " I'd 
rather had a pony !" 

G. W. W. 
Charleston, S. C, March, 1856. 



SKETCHES 



WAYSIDE TRAVEL, 



UNITED STATES AND BRITISH AMERICA. 



WAYSIDE TRAVEL. 



LETTER FIRST 



TJie Advocate's " Cuban Correspondent" — To Baltimore 
— Methodism in Baltimore — The "Quaker City" — 
New York— The St. Nicholas— Rev. Mr. Milbum— 
Politics. 

Your " Cuban Correspondent" is again on the wing, 
but in this fast country there is no Spanish poco-a-poco 
movement. One travels with such telegraphic swift- 
ness, he has not time to take in or note down the 
thousand and one objects of interest that surround 
him on every side. A railroad ride from Charleston 
to Norfolk furnishes, to a lover of nature, much to 
admire. The moss-clad swamps of the Carolinas and 
Virginia are peculiarly interesting to me. At Ports- 
mouth, you find elegant steamers, and after twelve 
hours pleasant run, you are safely landed in the 
" Monumental City." The sound of the various 
church bells, tells you that it is Sunday in Baltimore ; 
and, as true Wesleyan Methodists never travel on 
Sunday, we will rest here and go to the house of 
worship. 

The Methodists in Maryland are head and should- 
ers above all other Christian denominations. They 
have fifty churches in Baltimore ; but is it not marvel- 
9 



66 Wayside Travel. 

lous that these slaveholding Methodists should adhere 
to the Church North, thereby encouraging the abo- 
litionists ? It has been my rule to judge men by the 
company they keep. Their appeal to Southern mer- 
chants to patronize "our Southern city," has not much 
merit in it. I had rather trade with an avowed enemy, 
than a pretended friend. If those who live South of 
Mason and Dixon's line are not willing to support 
and protect Southern institutions, I should like to see 
the line moved to accommodate them. It is hard to 
serve two masters. 

The Methodists of Baltimore have some fine 
churches. Did you ever hear of the Charles Street 
"silk-stocking" Church? It is pewed, cushioned, 
"quired," and organed. The angelic portion of the 
congregation — don't they dress! If an old "Rip Van 
Winkle" Methodist should happen to wake up in 
one of the splendid churches North, and see the 
stained glass, velvet carpets, frescoed wall, and hear 
the organ — he would more likely conclude he was in 
a Catholic Cathedral than in a Methodist meeting- 
house. Well, I have heard this was a fast age, and 
fast people — and it is said, too, this is a wicked world. 
Old fogyism would say, it is the people who are 
wicked — but I have not done with these Southern 
Methodists with Northern principles. You would sup- 
pose that Christians, whose sympathies are so great 
for Africa, would have a careful eye to the spiritual 
welfare of her people. Their love (?) for the negro 
has driven him from their houses of worship — the 
simple melody of the slave is no longer music to their 



Wayside Travel. 67 

refined ears. Our old Charleston Trinity Church has 
more colored members than a score of Baltimore 
churches, and when you cast your eye to the 
galleries, the blacks are not there. 

Maryland was settled by Roman Catholics. The 
Cathedral in Baltimore is one of the finest churches in 
the United States. Baltimore is the third city in the 
Union, finely located for commerce, and is improving 
rapidly. You have, from the Washington Monu- 
ment, a magnificent view of the city and surrounding 
country. 

I took only a bird's-eye view of the "Quaker City." 
It is a clever town, and looks as if it would be a nice 
quiet place for a retired gentleman to live in. 

But, ho for New York! * Here Young America is 
found wide awake ! One continual rush from early 
morn till late at night. I stopped at the St. Nicholas. 
It is the great Southern house — the depot for the 
belles and the beaux. Thackeray pronounced it the 
finest hotel in the world ! The furniture cost the 
snug little sum of half a million dollars ! The silver 
plate alone cost over one hundred thousand ! The 
inhabitants of this house number more than those of 
most of our Southern towns. We Southerners abuse 
the Yankees and come here and spend our money as 
if it grew on trees. There is nothing, however, like 
keeping up appearances. 

I found our friend, Milburn, in fine health and 
spirits, and I am now enjoying the hospitalities of 
his kind family. They are pleasantly situated in a 
desirable part of the city. Mr. M. preaches twice 



68 Wayside Travel. 

every Sabbath. At night his service is held in the 
Central Methodist Church, and he commands the 
largest congregation in the city. The aisles are filled 
with chairs and benches to accommodate the people. 
Derby & Co. are publishing his " Rifle, Axe and 
Saddlebags." So you may expect soon to hear the 
keen sound of his sharp Rifle. 

There is considerable political excitement here, but 
they find it an up-hill business to work the people into 
enthusiasm for either of the candidates. The Repub- 
licans think Fremont a second Washington] — an im- 
provement, however, on the old General. It amuses 
me to see inscribed on the Fremont banners, "The 
Union Candidate." "The Union must and shall be 
preserved." It is thought by many that he will get a 
large majority of the non-slaveholding States. This 
is an illustration of the sad effects of ministers of the 
gospel converting their pulpits into political rostrums. 
In Fremont you have a fine commentary on the 
treachery of political demagogues. It is said that 
Fremont was born in Savannah, the son of a French 
fiddler. Brought to Charleston when a child, he was 
reared in the Orphan House of that city; was subse- 
quently taken out by ex-Governor Bennett, and edu- 
cated finally at the Charleston College. Subsequently, 
his promise was such, that Mr. Poinsett, then Secretary 
of War of the United States, sent him to West Point. 
Here you see a native born Southerner, the child of 
charity, accorded by the best gentlemen of the South 
the education and all the advantages which should 
make a gentleman, treacherously turning upon his 



Wayside Travel. 69 

benefactors and patrons, his native State, and becom- 
ing the sectional candidate of an extreme ultra fanati- 
cal party. From what I have seen, I should think the 
philanthropists would find quite enough to do in min- 
istering to the distress of the "Greeks" at their own 
doors, without bothering their heads about the well- 
fed and happy Southern negroes. I have seen more 
poverty and suffering among the people living in filthy 
cellars, not a hundred yards from Broadway, than I 
have ever witnessed at the South; and the district 
covered by the "Five Points," is a disgrace to the 
great City of New York — but enough. 
Yours, truly, 

G. W. W. 
New York, August 12, 1857. 



LETTER SECOND 



Visit to Mount Wasliington. 

After nearly three months' travel, we find ourselves 
surrounded by the White Mountains of New Hamp- 
shire. To-day a large party of us visited Mount 
Washington, that contests with Black Mountain, N. 
C, the honor of being the highest peak, east of the 
Mississippi. The scenery from this mountain is cer- 
tainly very grand and beautiful; but I think greatly 
exaggerated. The ascent is difficult and dangerous, 
and after you have reached the summit, you find your- 
self in and above the clouds, and shut out from all 
views below and around you. 

When our party left the Glen House (eight miles 
from the summit) it was pleasant and clear; but every 
mile brought us nearer and nearer the frozen regions, 
and after climbing six thousand feet, we found our- 
selves in ice and sleet. Neither man nor beast can 
stand the severity of the winter here. A large sum 
has been offered to any one who would remain in the 
"Tip Top" house during the winter months for the 
purpose of "taking observations;" but no money-lov- 
ing Yankee has been willing to contend for the prize. 
As the thermometer is ten degrees below freezing 
point in August, you must know mid-winter is con- 
siderably cooler. 



Wayside Travel. J\ 

I suffered more from cold to-day than at any time 
last winter. The wind blew a gale all the time. The 
"Tip Top" house is built of stone on the summit. 
Many visitors spend the night there. About one 
hundred and fifty of us got a respectable dinner. In 
one end of the building they keep what the travellers 
call "a New England clock." They charge you 
twenty-five cents for the privilege of winding it up, 
and give you a drink of whiskey or brandy in the 
bargain. "Winding the clock" seemed a favorite 
occupation of some of our party. 

While we were ascending the mountain, we passed 
quite a number walking, and one old grey-headed man 
found the task too great for his strength, and gave out, 
after performing two-thirds of the journey. Some 
laughed at him, others pitied and passed on. Dr. L., 
of South Carolina, dismounted, and placed the old man 
on his horse, and "footed" it the rest of the way. 
Would New Hampshire have done so much for South 
Carolina? 

After a descent of two miles, we get below the 
clouds and hazy atmosphere, and then have a very 
good view of the mountains and surrounding coun- 
try; but I do not think the scenery is equal to Yonah 
or the peaks of the Blue Ridge in Georgia. From 
Yonah, you have in one direction an "ocean view," 
that I did not find here, and from another point of 
Yonah, you have a succession of mountains rising 
gradually, until they seem to hide their heads in the 
very skies. Here a few high mountains stand out in 
such bold relief as to shut out all else beyond them. 



J 2 Wayside Travel. 

I do not know but that we visited the White Moun- 
tains under rather unfavorable circumstances, but I 
have yet to see the first man who has had an unob- 
structed view from them. 

After a tour through most of the "free States," we 
have come to the conclusion that a wonderful change 
has come over the people on the subject of slavery. 
We have been in crowded public houses, on railroads 
and steamboats, in private families, and have not heard 
one word spoken against the South or her institu- 
tions. I begin to think the Union will stand as long 
as the granite mountains of New Hampshire. The 
free negroes found that they could make more by 
playing "fugitive slaves," than working with their 
hands, and the people are getting their eyes open to 
this new species of humbuggery, and are heartily sick 
of it. 

The New England States are far from being pros- 
perous at this time. The South and great West are 
absorbing their capital and enterprising men. A large 
amount of the money invested in railroads and manu- 
factures will be a total loss. The men and women 
have to work hard, live poor, and avoid debts, or they 
find themselves ruined. The women of the North are 
slaves to their families, and I think have a much 
harder time than the men. We see at the North 
much to admire and imitate, but I was never better 
satisfied with the South than I am now. 

August, 1857. G. W. W. 



LETTER THIRD. 



Visit to Canada — Quebec and its Environs. 

A traveller from the Southern States, I think, will 
be as much interested with Quebec and its surround- 
ings as any city he may visit — at least this has been 
our experience. It is unlike any American town I 
have ever seen, and may truly be called the "Gibraltar 
of America." Quebec is indeed a well-fortified city, 
being encircled by huge walls, varying from twenty to 
three hundred feet in height, and the deadly cannon 
faces you at nearly every entrance. The " red coats," 
which are to be seen in all directions, remind one of 
the American Revolution. 

It was deeply interesting to us to stand on the 
Plains of Abraham, and look upon the battle-ground 
where the gallant young Wolfe, one hundred years 
ago, led his army on to victory. Two brave spirits 
met and fell on those plains, Montcalm and Wolfe, 
the respective commanders of the French and Eng- 
lish forces. General Montcalm received a mortal 
wound ; and, when told by his surgeon that he could 
live only a few hours, he called a council of war, and 
said to his soldiers, " To your keeping I commend 
the honor of France ; as for me, I must pass the night 
with God, and prepare myself for death." Wolfe had 
received two wounds ; and, while making the last 
10 



74 Wayside Travel. 

and successful charge upon the enemy, he received a 
mortal wound in the breast. When he heard that the 
French fled, he said, " Now, God be praised, I die 
happy." Thus, at the early age of thirty-five, fell a 
scholar and brave commander, in the hour of victory- 

In the battle-field, on the spot where Wolfe fell, a 
monument has been erected, containing the simple 
inscription, " Here died Wolfe, Victorious." Near by 
is the old well from which he quenched his thirst for 
the last time. A bucket of cool water was drawn from 
it for us, and our party drank to the memory of Wolfe. 

You will not, perhaps, have forgotten the memorable 
anecdote told of Wolfe, the night before the battle. 
While crossing the river, with his aids around him, he 
repeated the famous Elegy, by Gray, " written in a 
country church-yard," saying, at the close, that he 
would rather enjoy the fame of having written that 
poem, than that of conquering Montcalm on the 
morrow. 

Montcalm was a man also of remarkable intellectual 
and moral superiority. He was at once a warrior, a 
statesman and a patriot. To convince you of this, I 
subjoin his letter to M. de Mole, President of Paris, 
almost the last letter from his pen, which will wonder- 
fully illustrate his sagacity, prophetic foresight and 
intrepid patriotism. The letter is little known in this 
country, even among historical students : 

Marquis De Montcalm to M. De Mole, 

First President of the Parliament of Paris. 

Dear Cousin : For more than three months Mr. 

Wolfe has been hanging on my hands. He bom- 



Wayside Travel. J 5 

bards Quebec night and day, with a fury of which 
scarcely an example can be found in the siege of 
a place, which the enemy wishes to take and pre- 
serve. Their artillery has already destroyed almost 
all the lower town, and a great part of the upper 
has been demolished by their shells ; but, although 
not one stone should be left upon another, they can 
never carry their point while they are content to 
attack us from the opposite shore, which we have 
abandoned. 

After three months they are no further advanced 
with the siege than they were the first day. They 
ruin us, but do not profit themselves. 

The campaign cannot last above a month longer on 
account of the approach of autumn, which is terrible 
to a fleet in these seas, as the winds blow constantly, 
periodically, and with great fury. It would seem, then, 
after such a happy prelude, that the colony is not in 
much danger. Nothing, however, is less certain. 

The taking of Quebec depends on one masterly 
stroke. The English are masters of the river ; they 
have only to effect a landing on that part of it where 
the city is unfortified and defenceless. They are in a 
condition to give us battle, which I must not refuse, 
and cannot hope to gain. General Wolfe, indeed, if 
he understands his business, has only to receive our 
first fire, and then advancing briskly on my army, and 
giving one heavy and general discharge, my Cana- 
dians, undisciplined, deaf to the sound of the drum 
and other military instruments, and thrown into dis- 
order by the slaughter, will no longer keep their ranks. 



7 6 Wayside Travel. 

Besides, they have no bayonets to make good their 
ground against those of the enemy. Nothing remains 
for them but to run, and thus I shall be totally de- 
feated. 

Such is my situation, — a situation most grievous 
to a general, and which, indeed, gives me many bitter 
moments. The confidence I have in these views has 
induced me always to act on the defensive, which has 
hitherto succeeded ; but will it succeed in the end ? 

The event must decide. But of one thing be cer- 
tain, I shall not survive the loss of the colony. There 
are situations in which it only remains to a general to 
fall with honor. Such this appears to me ; and on 
this point posterity shall not reproach my memory, 
though fortune may decide on my opinions. These 
are truly French, and shall be so even in the grave, — 
if in the grave we are anything. I shall at least con- 
sole myself on my defeat and the loss of the colony, 
by the full persuasion that this defeat will one day 
secure my country more than a victory, and that the 
conqueror in aggrandizing himself will find his tomb 
in the country he gains from us. 

What I have here advanced, my dear cousin, will 
appear to you paradoxical ; but a moment's political 
reflection, a single glance upon the situation of affairs 
in America, and the truth of my opinion must appear. 

No, my dear cousin, men obey only force and 
necessity ; they submit when armies sufficient to con- 
trol them are before their eyes, or when the chain of 
their destiny reminds them of the law. Beyond this 
they yield to no yoke ; they act for themselves, be- 



Wayside Travel. yy 

cause nothing external or internal compels them to 
give up their liberty, which is the greatest ornament 
and privilege of human nature. Scrutinize mankind, 
and the English above all, who, whether from educa- 
tion or sentiment, are on this point more men than 
others. Constraint displeases them ; they must breathe 
free and unconfined air, or they are out of their ele- 
ment. But if this is the genius of the English of 
Europe, it is still' more so with those of America. A 
great part of these colonists are the children of those 
men who emigrated from England when their rights 
and privileges were attacked in that country, then torn 
by dissensions. They went to America in search of 
a land where they could die free and almost inde- 
pendent, and their children have not degenerated from 
the republican principles of their fathers. 

Others there are, enemies to all restraint and sub- 
mission, whom the government has transported thither 
for their crimes. Lastly, there are others, a collec- 
tion from the different nations of Europe, who, in 
their hearts, care very little for England. All, in 
general, have no great attachment to either king or 
Parliament. 

I know them well ; not from the report of strangers, 
but from confidential information and secret corres- 
pondence, which I myself managed, and which, if God 
spare my life, I will one day turn to the advantage of 
my country. To add to their happiness, the planters 
have attained a very flourishing condition ; they are 
numerous and rich ; they enjoy, in the bosom of their 
country, all the necessaries of life. 



78 Wayside Travel. 

England has been so weak and foolish as to suffer 
them to establish arts, trade and manufactures, and 
thereby enabled them to break the chain of necessity 
that bound them to and made them dependent on her. 

All the English colonies would long since have 
shaken off the yoke, and each province formed itself 
into a little independent republic, if the fear of seeing 
the French at their door had not been a check upon 
them. 

Master for master, they prefer their own country- 
men ; their favorite maxim, however, being to obey 
as little as possible. But when Canada shall be con- 
quered, and the Canadians and these colonies become 
one people, on the first occasion, when England strikes 
a blow at their interest, do you believe, my dear 
cousin, that they will submit ? And what would they 
have to fear from a revolt ? Could England send an 
army of a hundred or two hundred thousand men to 
oppose them at such a distance ? It is true, she pos- 
sesses a fleet, and the towns of North America, few 
in number, are all open, without citadels or fortifica- 
tions, and a small naval force in their ports would 
suffice to keep them in their duty. But the interior 
of the country, an object of much greater importance, 
who would attempt its conquest, over rocks, lakes, 
rivers, woods and mountains, intersecting it in all direc- 
tions, where a handful of men, acquainted with the 
ground, would suffice to destroy the greatest armies ? 

Besides, should the planters be able to bring the 
savages into their interests, the English, with all their 
fleets, might be masters of the sea, but I doubt 
whether they could ever make good a landing. 



Wayside Travel. 79 

Add to this, that in case of a general revolt, all the 
powers of Europe, secret and jealous enemies of 
England, would assist them, first privately, and then 
openly, to throw off the yoke. 

I must confess, however, that England, with a little 
policy, might always keep a resource to assist in bring- 
ing her colonies to reason. Canada, considered in 
itself, its riches, forces and population, is nothing 
compared to the English colonies. But the valor, 
industry and fidelity of its inhabitants, so well supply 
the place of numbers, that, for more than an age, they 
have fought with advantage against the colonies. 
Ten Canadians are a match for a hundred English 
colonists. 

Daily experience shows this to be a fact. If Eng- 
land, after conquering Canada, knew how to attach 
it to her by policy and kindness, and to reserve it to 
herself alone — if she left the inhabitants their religion, 
laws and language, their customs and ancient form of 
government — Canada, separated in every respect from 
the other colonies, would never enter into their views 
or interests, were it from the difference of religion 
alone. 

But this is not the policy of Britain. If the Eng- 
lish make a conquest, they are sure to change the 
constitution of the country, and introduce their own 
laws, customs and religion, which they impose, at 
least, under the pain of disqualification for office. A 
persecution more intolerable than torments, because 
it attacks men's pride and ambition, while tortures 
affect only life, which these passions often make us 



8o Wayside Travel. 

.despise. In a word, are you conquered by English- 
men ? you must become Englishmen ! But ought 
not the English to remember that the heads of men 
are not all alike, much less their minds? Ought they 
not to perceive that laws should be suitable to 
climates, and the manners of the people, and prudently 
varied according to circumstances ? 

Each country has its own trees, fruits and riches. 
To transport the fruits of England thither would be 
an unpardonable folly. It is the same with their laws, 
which ought to be adapted to the climate, on which 
men themselves so much depend. This is a policy 
which the English do not understand ; or rather they 
understand it well, (for they have the reputation of a 
thinking people,) but they cannot adopt it from the 
defects of their own constitution. 

Upon this account, Canada, once taken by the Eng- 
lish, would, in a few years, suffer much from being 
forced to become English. Thus would the Canadians 
be transformed into politicians, merchants, and men 
infatuated with a pretended liberty, which among the 
populace of England often sinks into licentiousness 
and anarchy. Farewell, then, to their valor, simplicity, 
generosity, respect for authority ; farewell to their 
frugality, obedience, fidelity ; they would soon be of 
no use to England, perhaps even oppose her. 

I am so clear in what I assert, that I would not 
give more than ten years after the conquest of Canada 
to see it accomplished. 

See, then, what now consoles me as a Frenchman, 
for the imminent danger my country runs of losing 



Wayside Travel. 81 

this colony ; but, as a general, I will do my best to 
preserve it. The king, my master, orders me to do 
so ; that is sufficient. 

You know we are of that blood which was always 
faithful to our kings, and it is not for me to degenerate 
from the virtues of my ancestors. I send you these 
reflections, that, jf the fate of arms in Europe should 
ever oblige us to bend and receive the law, you may 
make such use of them as your love of country may 
direct. 

I have the honor to be, my dear cousin, 

Your most humble servant, 

MONTCALM. 

Camp before Quebec, August 24, 1759. 

No one from the " States " will visit Quebec with- 
out looking with more than ordinary interest upon 
that steep and rugged hill where the lamented Mont- 
gomery fell, sword in hand, in 1775. It was in the 
same memorable battle that Arnold was shot in the 
knee ; — far better would it have been for him and his 
country if the ball had entered his heart ! Arnold 
was a brave, bold, but calculating, selfish man, who 
for money was willing to barter away his country. 
Let his fate be remembered by all who would sacri- 
fice principle for " filthy lucre." 

Quebec naturally presents more the appearance of 
a French than of an American city. The same old 
walls and low, one-story stone houses, with their 
sharp roofs, that were standing when Wolfe and 
Montgomery fell, are here yet ; and the old " ca- 
lashes," such as were brought over by the Pilgrim 
11 



82 Wayside Travel. 

Fathers, are still in use. I went out to hire a carriage, 
and, to my surprise, scarcely any of the drivers could 
speak English. I succeeded finally in finding one, 
who said, " May it plaze yer 'onor, I spakes nootheng 
boot Hanglish." I made a bargain with him, and got 
more " Hanglish " than I contracted for. 

After procuring a permit, we started in search of 
the various points of attraction. From the citadel we 
had a splendid view of Quebec, Point Levi, Orleans 
and the surrounding country. This fortification covers 
forty acres of ground, is protected by immense walls, 
and is entered through five gates from different points. 
These gates are made of large iron chains. I did not 
find as much difficulty in getting admission into this 
fortification as into Moro Castle. The old French 
Cathedral, with its statuary and paintings, is worthy 
of a visit. I have observed that a large proportion 
of the Roman Catholic paintings have reference to 
Christ and his crucifixion. The Wesleyans have some 
handsome churches here also. We drove eight miles 
through a Canadian-French village to the Falls of 
Montmorenci. The fall is said to be two hundred feet 
higher than that of Niagara. It is certainly very 
beautiful ; a suspension bridge which was built over 
it, fell last year, carrying with it several persons, who 
were dashed to pieces on the rocks below. The road 
for eight miles on either side is lined with small 
French stone houses. These people seem to pre- 
serve their national characteristics. They are much 
more cleanly and industrious than I expected to see 
them. The women work on the small farms, with 



Wayside Travel. 83 

their heads covered by broad-brimmed hats. From 
the proceeds of these farms many of them grow rich. 
They are mostly Roman Catholics, and are a careful, 
economical people. 

The St. Lawrence is a noble stream. The largest 
ships come to the City of Quebec without difficulty, 
and vessels of six hundred tons go to Montreal, one 
hundred and eighty miles above. This magnificent 
river drains the vast lakes and inland seas. Quebec 
is now connected with Portland, Maine, and Detroit, 
in the West, by the " Grand Trunk Railroad." The 
Canada railroads are the broadest I have ever seen, 
and they move on them with a rapidity that I admire. 
From here we go to Montreal, and thence to Toronto, 
in Canada West, now the capital. 

G. W. W. 

Quebec, August 27, 1857. 



LETTER FOURTH 



A Trip from Quebec to Niagara Falls. 

Bidding adieu to the antique and picturesque City 
of Quebec, we went on board the fine steamer Napo- 
leon, which was to sail at 4 o'clock, P. M., for Mon- 
treal. The St. Lawrence is a magnificent river, and 
boasts of some of the best steamers on the American 
waters, but recently they have met with frightful acci- 
dents and great loss of life. I was surprised to see 
so much shipping in this out-of-the-way city. The 
river was filled with sail vessels and steamers from the 
Atlantic, floating palaces and propellers for the river 
and lake navigation of the far West. 

The lumber trade is carried on extensively here. 
For many miles above Quebec the shore is covered 
by rafts of timber ready for shipment. An hour's 
sail brought us to the wreck of the ill-fated steamer 
Montreal, which was recently burnt, and some two 
hundred and fifty persons perished. The captain, 
mate and owners are all in prison, and will doubtless 
be hung ; but that will not restore to the distressed 
families their lost friends. It is said the captain had 
been " winding the clock " too often, and was not 
in a condition, when the ship was found to be on 
fire, to give the necessary orders. They were within 
fifty yards of the shore, and if they had steered for 



Wayside Travel. 85 

land, every soul might have been saved. The cap- 
tain of our boat saw the flames and went at once to 
their relief, and succeeded in saving one hundred and 
twenty-five passengers from the burning steamer. We 
have a "clock" on board the Napoleon, and our cap- 
tain's nose looks rather red, but that is not always a 
sure sign that a man drinks. I certainly should feel 
more secure if there was no liquor on board; but you 
find the destructive "fire water" in all the hotels and 
steamboats: even down in the good old temperance 
State of Maine, I saw more barrels branded "Pure 
New England Rum" than I thought the health of 
the people required. You know they are allowed 
to take it medicinally. Spirituous liquors are the 
curse of our country, North and South, spite of their 
medical properties. 

Well, we are at Montreal. How very different from 
Quebec. The Anglo-Saxon energy and activity is per- 
ceptible here in every thing. This is the largest city 
in British America, and presents a fine appearance as 
you approach it from the river. The wharves are 
built of rock, and are the most substantial I ever saw. 
The situation of Montreal, at the head of ship naviga- 
tion, gives her fine advantages for trade and commerce. 
The Grand Trunk Road runs daily to Portland, Me., 
and this company have a line of steamers running to 
Boston and New York, and various ports in Europe. 
The city is also connected with the West by railroads 
and lake steamers. The surrounding country is very 
rich and productive, and I see no reason why Montreal 
should not be one of the great cities of America. 



86 Wayside Travel. 

The Victoria Bridge, over the St. Lawrence, is two 
miles long and is a gigantic work. It will cost, when 
completed, some ten millions of dollars. It is built on 
the tubular principle, having a railroad track through 
the centre. On the outside of the tube there will be 
a way for foot passengers. 

The French Cathedral here is an immense building, 
constructed in the Gothic style. It has six towers. 
The views from them are very beautiful. The church 
can accommodate twelve thousand persons. 

We visited the Grey Nunnery, and were shown into 
the hospital, containing some two hundred persons, 
sick with all imaginable diseases. We did not remain 
long in that loathsome place, as an acquaintance of 
ours, a few years since, visited this same establish- 
ment, and contracted the small pox. I am surprised 
at their admitting strangers into such a place ; but it 
is quite as surprising that strangers should desire ad- 
mittance. The foundling department of the nunnery 
is interesting. The "Sisters" seem to be very suc- 
cessful in finding children, for they have some three 
hundred little ones under their care. 

It was a beautiful morning in September, when we 
tool- the train from Montreal for the Falls of Niagara. 
The foliage on the route was in the full flush of au- 
tumnal glory, which makes September so lovely in 
Canada. The maple, oaks, alanthis, and the elm, 
were in their splendor. Many of the leaves of the 
forest trees are turned to blood-red color by the first 
touch of autumnal frosts. Twelve hours swift railway 
travel through a fine country, and we are safely landed 



Wayside Travel. 87 

at Toronto. This is the largest city in Canada West, 
and is now the seat of government. Toronto is five 
hundred miles from Quebec, situated on Lake Ontario. 
We find the country here as flat as the piny-woods of 
the Carolinas. About Coburg they have the best farm- 
ing country I have seen in Canada. The railroad runs 
for several hundred miles along the shore of Lake On- 
tario. There is not as much shipping on the lake as 
I expected to see. Toronto is a flourishing city, with 
forty-five thousand inhabitants. Fifty years ago its 
population consisted of two Indian families. We saw 
here what I never expected to witness on the Ameri- 
can continent — a white lady (?) married to a flat nose, 
unadulterated, black negro. The woman was about 
twenty-five years old, and rather good looking ; the 
man forty, and as ugly a darkey as you ever saw. An 
Anglo-African, six months old, was the result of the 
happy union. I asked her why she married a negro. 
The reply was, that she was not the first white woman 
in Canada who had married a colored man — that it 
was a common occurrence. Upon further inquiry, I 
learned that intermarriage between the whites and 
blacks seldom occurred. The Canadians are getting 
heartily sick of the hordes of "fugitive slaves," whom 
the abolitionists from the United States have run over 
there; and the government is taking active measures 
to get rid of their negro population. How to dispose 
of them is a grave question. The non-slaveholding 
States have shut their doors against them. The truth 
is, the African, like cotton, rice and sugar, will not 
flourish north of Mason and Dixon's line. The ne- 



88 Wayside Travel. 

groes look like a poor, cast-off, forsaken race ; and 
the severe winters are sending many of them to an 
underground road, where they will remain until the 
last day. When I saw so many wretched negroes 
without homes, and excluded from their churches, 
railroads and omnibuses, I thought of our Methodist 
Churches in Charleston, with their six thousand happy 
colored members, and of our noble missionaries who 
jeopard their lives in travelling through the rice 
swamps, exposing themselves to the deadly miasma, 
to preach Christ and Him crucified to the slave. How 
different from the abolitionists, who do all in their 
power to seduce the slaves from their comfortable 
homes, and then abandon them to want and misery. 
This is abolition consistency! "Bleeding Kansas" 
has been a rich theme for these underground thieves, 
and scores of honest-hearted men and women have 
been "bled" to feather the pockets of these swindling 
imposters. 

In a few hours we leave for Hamilton — and here we 
are at Niagara. What a fall, my countrymen ! 
Truly yours, 

G. W. W. 

Niagara Falls, September, 1857. 



LETTER FIFTH 



Falls of Niagara — The Lakes — The Rapids — Table 
Rock — Suspension Bridge — Prospect Tower — Steamer 
Detroit — BcJdnd the Horseshoe — Brainard's Poem. 

Gentle reader, have you ever visited the Falls of 
Niagara ? If so, then I shall offer no apology for not 
attempting to describe the greatest natural wonder of 
the Western World. 

This most stupendous cataract, with its ceaseless 
roar, perfectly overpowers all my senses. I stand 
awe-struck when I gaze upon the raging, thundering 
waters, as they come dashing and tumbling down into 
the yawning abyss. Man, as he looks upon this 
awfully grand sight, realizes his littleness. In this 
creation's wonder, he is compelled to feel and 
acknowledge the hand of a Master Architect, and 
that "God is great!" We stood with mingled awe 
and admiration as we gazed on this world's wonder. 

It was after sunset when we arrived at Niagara, but 
it was full moon, and I shall never forget my feel- 
ings as our party stood almost speechless, beholding 
by moonlight this sublime picture. The waters fran- 
tically rushed over the precipice, falling nearly two 
hundred feet in perpendicular height. This was our 
first sight of the lunar bow. 

These waters overflow from the immense lakes of 
Superior, Michigan, Huron and Erie, discharging 
themselves through the Niagara into Lake Ontario. 
12 



go Wayside Travel. 

For nearly a mile the river races over an incline 
of sixty feet descent. Above the rapids the river is 
as tranquil and smooth as a lake. 

Goat Island, which is a quarter of a mile wide and 
half a mile long, is a charming spot, covered with a 
forest of trees, shrubs and flowers, and lovely enough, 
I think, to have a prettier name. It extends to the 
brink of the precipice, and divides the falls into two 
portions. The highest fall is on the American side, 
but the great body of water is on the Canadian. 

Table Rock is quite a resort for visitors. Our party 
sat for nearly an hour near the great cataract, and 
watched the moon's calm, cold beams falling upon 
the maelstrom of ever-running waters over the steep 
precipice. 

We also stood on the frail bridge leading to -Goat 
Island. Here you have a fine view of the Rapids. 
We looked at the rushing water, as it came for nearly 
half a mile over the rocks with the impetuosity of a 
hurricane, leaping faster, swifter and more turbulent 
before taking its last long leap into the eternal sea. 
These are scarcely less interesting than the Falls 
themselves. 

Below the cataract, the river runs between cliffs 
several hundred feet high, and with great force. No 
one knows how much of this chasm has been made 
by the fretful waters. The river is spanned by a sus- 
pension bridge, eight hundred feet in length and two 
hundred and thirty feet above the water. Here John 
and Jonathan shake hands. Immense trains pass over 
this bridge daily. It makes one shudder to be drawn 



Wayside Travel. 9 1 

by the iron horse, with his ponderous train, over this 
apparently slender structure ; should the wire-cable 
break, it would prove a terrible leap into the deep 
green waters below. The cable, however, is composed 
of several wires, and is of immense strength. 

Prospect Tower is built on Goat Island ; it is fifty 
feet high. From the tower you have a magnificent 
view of the whole scene of Niagara above and below 
the falls. The depth of water that flows over them 
of course can never be known ; but the steamer 
Detroit, drawing eighteen feet, was carried over the 
falls as light as a duck. It is said she never touched 
the rocks with her keel until she was forced one 
hundred and sixty feet below. 

After diving into a deep chasm, scooped out by 
the constant action of the water, she arose a chaotic 
mass of beams, spars and broken floating timber. A 
small steamboat, appropriately called " Maid of the 
Mist," runs up into the very spray of the cataract. 
From its deck a view is presented to be found no 
where else. 

None of our party penetrated behind the Horseshoe 
Fall ; I did not care to have a foretaste of a watery 
grave. It is said to be both uncomfortable and dan- 
gerous. 

" It may be supposed," says a writer, who had 
explored the cavern, " that every person who has 
been dragged through the column of water which 
obstructs the entrance to the cavern behind the 
cataract, has a pretty correct idea of the pains of 
drowning. It is difficult enough to breathe, but, with 



92 Wayside Travel. 

a little self-control and management, the nostrils may- 
be guarded from the watery particles in the atmos- 
phere, and then an impression is made upon the mind 
by the extraordinary pavilion above and around, 
which never loses its vividness. The natural bend 
of the cataract, and the backward shelve of the preci- 
pice, form an immense area, like the interior of a tent, 
but so pervaded by discharges of mist and spray that 
it is impossible to see far inward. Outward, the light 
struggles brokenly through the crystal wall of the 
cataract, and when the sun shines directly on its face, 
it is a scene of unimaginable glory. The footing is 
rather unsteadfast ; a small shelf composed of loose 
and slippery stones, and the abyss boiling below 
like — it is difficult to find a comparison. On the 
whole, the undertaking is rather pleasanter to remem- 
ber than to achieve." 

We have spent several days at Niagara. In our 
rambles of many thousand miles we have found no 
place of such thrilling interest, and have fully realized 
the fact that it is a charming spot to visit. 

The Falls of Niagara are indeed grand ; yea, beauti- 
fully grand ! As you stand spell-bound, looking on 
this sublime scene, the waters thunder in your ears 
" Eternity ! Eternity !" and on the swift wings of Time 
you feel that you are irresistibly drifting into this 
eternity. The sensation produced is one of joy and 
sadness. 

I have never had hysterics, but imagine the feelings 
you undergo are not unlike one under the influence 
of hysteria. 



Wayside Travel. 93 

Their ceaseless thunders ring in your ears, even 
when miles away. 

We visited the Whirlpool, and were quite pleased, 
as it quieted our nerves after the scenes we had just 
passed through. 

The Falls of Niagara have been the frequent theme 
of poetry. 

The following lines, by Brainard, have been much 
admired : 

" The thoughts are strange that crowd into my brain, 
While I look upward to thee. It would seem 
As if God poured thee from His 'hollow hand,' 
And hung his bow upon thine awful front; 
And spoke in that loud voice, which seemed to him 
Who dwelt in Patmos for his Saviour's sake, 
'The sound of many waters;' and had bade 
Thy flood to chronicle the ages back, 
And notch His centuries in the eternal rocks ! 

"Deep calleth unto deep, and what are we, 
That hear the question of that voice sublime ? 
O ! what are all the notes that ever rung 
From War's vain trumpet, by thy thundering side? 
Yea, what is all the riot man can make, 
In his short life, to thy unceasing roar! 
And yet, bold babbler, what art thou to Him, 
Who drowned a world, and heaped the waters far 
Above its loftiest mountains ? — a light wave, 
That breaks, and whispers of its Maker's might!" 

We are receiving terrible accounts here of the 
Great Cataract in Wall street. Little else is talked 
of but the failures in New York and in the West 
The panic produced by these is said to be frightful. 
Few persons are prepared for this state of things, as 
it is like a thunder-clap on a clear day. 



94 Wayside Travel. 

I cans, hardly realize that the reports we get from 
the "States" are true, as, only six weeks since, when 
I was in New York, money was abundant at less than 
legal interest, and the most sagacious Wall street 
bankers saw no indications of a commercial storm. 
The failure of the Ohio Life and Trust Company was 
a terrible shock to the public mind. 

The avalanche of discredit, caused by this failure-, 
is sweeping down merchants and bankers. 

These troubles make it necessary that I should 
return to the South sooner than I anticipated, to look 
after my own commercial ship. We leave to-morrow 
for Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Yours, truly, 

G. W. W. 

Niagara Falls, September, 1857. 



LETTER SIXTH 



Cincinnati, Ohio, Sept 8th, 1857. 

A short run from Niagara, by rail, brought us safely 
to Buffalo. This city is situated on the eastern 
extremity of Lake Erie, only a few miles from the 
head of Niagara River. 

Buffalo has a fine trade, and its position is such as 
to render it the entrepot through which much of the 
commerce and travel between the West and East must 
pass. 

The completion, in 1824, of the great Erie Canal, 
three hundred and sixty-four miles long, gave the city 
its first commercial impulse. Since then immense lines 
of railways have been constructed, opening communi- 
cation with the cities on the Atlantic coast, in Canada, 
and in the fertile valleys and growing cities of the West. 

Buffalo boasts of a dozen banks, fifty insurance 
companies, and eighteen newspapers. Population, 
seventy-five thousand. 

Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 5th. — After spending nearly 
a day in Buffalo, we left on the night boat for Cleve- 
land. 

A few hours pleasant sail, and here we are safely 
landed, amid the yells of a hungry crowd of hackmen. 

This town is on the southern shore of Lake Erie, 
and is the port of entry of Ohio. 



g6 Wayside Travel. 

Next to Cincinnati, it is the largest town in the 
State. In addition to its lake and railroad facilities, 
it is connected with the Ohio River by a canal. The 
city is finely situated on a hill, one hundred feet 
above the lake. It has eight banks, and more news- 
papers than pay the publishers. Population about 
fifty thousand. 

Columbus, Sept. 6th. — One hundred and thirty miles 
by swift rail, through a fine agricultural country, and 
we find ourselves at Columbus, which is distinguished 
mainly for its broad streets and magnificent new State 
House. 

It surpasses any building of the kind we have yet 
seen. It is three hundred feet long and two hundred 
wide, and covers an area of fifty-six thousand square 
feet. The height to the top of the rotunda is one 
hundred and sixty feet; the material of which it is 
built is white limestone, but resembles marble. The 
penitentiary is a fine structure, built of Ohio marble. 

It comprises a square of six acres; some seven 
hundred persons are confined within its walls. It will 
be seen that this is a favorite institution, so much so 
that the population is constantly on the increase. They 
are, however, employed in useful manufactures, and 
make more than enough from their labor to pay 
expenses. 

It might be well for South Carolina to appropriate 
some of the money she is investing in her marble 
State palace, and build a substantial penitentiary. It 
will be needed. Columbus has a population of about 
thirty thousand. 



Wayside Travel. 97 

We spent part of a day and night pleasantly in that 
town, and left early this morning for Cincinnati. 

One hundred and twenty miles through the finest 
and richest country we have yet seen, and we find 
ourselves in the greatest of the Western cities. We 
reach Cincinnati at an unfavorable time. The failure 
of the Ohio Life and Trust Company has cast a gloom 
over the whole community, as the citizens are all 
more or less interested in this institution, the credit of 
which stood, a few months ago, beyond suspicion. 

This great failure has thrown distrust and discredit 
on nearly every species of credit. A commercial 
panic, which had its beginning here, is spreading over 
the whole country; men who considered themselves 
rich a few months ago, are now bankrupts; a heavy 
gloom, like a nightmare, oppresses merchants, bank- 
ers, mechanics and farmers. 

When these troubles are to end, no one can tell. 
Will our people be the wiser for these sad lessons? 
We shall see. Overtrade, extravagance, speculation, 
and too free use of credit, cause these troubles. 

Cincinnati, the metropolis of Ohio, is on the right 
bank of the Ohio River. It is the most populous city 
in the Western States, and is fifth in size and import- 
ance among the cities of the Union; it is remarkable 
for its extensive trade, enterprising merchants, rapid 
growth, and productive industry. Cincinnati is beau- 
tifully situated in a valley, and is justly entitled to be 
called the " Queen City of the West." It is surrounded 
by a range of hills four hundred feet above the river ; 
from these you have a splendid view of the city, and 
13 



98 Wayside Travel. 

the "vine-clad hills." It boasts of her Broadway, 
Pearl and Main streets. Here you find spacious 
stores, warehouses and dwellings, built substantially 
of brick and stone. This city is distinguished for its 
literary and benevolent institutions. 

It ought to be pious, as it has over one hiindred 
churches, besides several synagogues. 

It abounds in good hotels ; the Burnett House, at 
which we are stopping, would do credit to New York. 
It has three hundred and fifty apartments, and is sur- 
mounted by a dome which is one hundred feet above 
the basement. The Burnett House cost over eight 
hundred thousand dollars. 

The observatory is a fine stone edifice; it is situated 
on Mount Adams, which is five hundred feet above 
the river; commands a wide and varied prospect of 
the city and surrounding country. 

This is the city Madame Trollope described in her 
"Manners of the Americans" as being distinguished 
for its "hogs and hominy." I do not think she over- 
rated the importance to Cincinnati of the hog product, 
as a large portion of her wealth is derived from the 
pigs raised in the rich agricultural districts of the 
State. It is said nearly a million are slaughtered here 
annually. The hogs in Cincinnati, like the buzzards 
in Charleston, act the part of street scavengers. 

The Charleston scavenger, however, does not fill 
the streets and houses with fleas, and do not prowl 
about the streets so promiscuously as the hogs do 
here; but the hog is a very useful if not an ornamen- 
tal animal — nowhere have we found better hams than 



Wayside Travel. 99 

at the Burnett House. The feet and entrails of the 
swine are no longer cast into the Ohio as rubbish, to 
be washed into the Mississippi, but the pork packers 
have learned to save every particle of the animal. 
The entrails are boiled into lard, the feet are prepared 
as an article of food, and the blood is used for "pud- 
dings" and for chemical purposes. 

Our party had a pleasant visit to Mr. Longworth's 
vineyards. These are situated on the hillsides which 
overlook the windings of the Ohio River. 

Mr. Longworth has in his employ Germans who 
are skilled in the cultivation of the grape and manu- 
facture of wine — his dry Catawba and sparkling Ca- 
tawba are considered his best wines. 

The increase of the cultivation of the vine in Ohio 
has introduced to this State many hardy, useful and 
economical Germans, who make good citizens. 

The annual products of the vine, in the neighbor- 
hood of this city, is estimated at about three hundred 
thousand gallons. This branch of business is rapidly 
on the increase. 

Cincinnati carries on an extensive trade by her 
rivers, canals and railways. She connects with the 
great lakes by the Miami Canal, with the Gulf of 
Mexico through the Ohio River, and the Atlantic 
cities by her various lines of railways. 

I was surprised to find the manufacturing interests 
of this city of such magnitude. 

The value of manufactured articles, the past year, is 
said to swell up to the enormous magnitude of eighty 
millions of dollars! 



ioo Wayside Travel. 

Cincinnati has two hundred thousand inhabitants, 
and is rapidly increasing both in wealth and popula- 
tion; at present, however, trade is prostrate, and a 
gloom hangs over the people. 

We leave here to-morrow for Louisville, Kentucky, 
to attend the great State Agricultural Fair. 
Ever yours, 

G. W. W. 



LETTER SEVENTH 



Louisville State Fair — Mammoth Cave — Nashville — 
Chattanooga — Madison — Red Old Hills of Geor- 
gia — Home. 

Louisville, Kentucky, Sept. ioth, 1857. 

A pleasant run of one hundred and thirty miles 
down the Ohio, in a fine steamer, and we are safely 
landed at Louisville. 

A large and profitable trade is carried on here. 
The commerce of Louisville is said to amount to one 
hundred millions of dollars ! 

The exports comprise tobacco, hemp, grain, pork 
and various articles of manufacture. Bagging, rope 
and twine are manufactured largely in this State, and 
sent here for sale. 

Louisville, as well as Cincinnati, owes its pros- 
perity mainly to Madame Trollope's favorite animal, 
the Kentucky hog! and Kentucky is as famous for its 



Wayside Travel. ioi 

splendid corn and wheat fields as for its pigs and pork. 
The hotels are full to overflowing in consequence of 
the State Agricultural Fair, which is being held here. 

Our friend, Colonel R., took us to-day to the 
fair grounds, and such an exhibition of horses and 
cattle my eyes never feasted on before. A fair like 
this is worth a trip across the Rocky' Mountains 
to see. 

I must not forget to mention, last though not least, 
the splendid-looking men and women of Kentucky. 
I believe no other State in the Union can produce 
such a type of the descendants of Adam and Eve. 

To call them splendid is too feeble an expression ; 
physically, the men and women are unsurpassed. 

We leave this pleasant city in the morning to visit 
the Mammoth Cave. 

Mammoth Cave, Sept. nth. — Well, here we are at 
this great underground wonder of the Western World. 
Kentucky is slow in developing her system of rail- 
ways. Only thirty miles of the Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railroad is completed. 

At New Haven we had to take a stage-coach for 
this place. You can imagine the discomfort when 
twelve passengers were packed into seats for nine. 
The gentlemen readily yielded the most comfortable 
seats to the ladies, but this arrangement did not suit 
a fair daughter from Down East. She wanted her 
sweetheart by her side, and insisted on his occupying 
a place that was filled by my sweetheart. 

I took my chance among the trunks and hat-boxes 
on the top of the coach, and requested Mrs. W. not 



102 Wayside Travel. 

to change her comparatively comfortable quarters. 
Finding that we were decided in maintaining our 
rights, Boston offered no further opposition. 

Mammoth Cave is indeed a mysterious freak of 
nature, but should by all means be visited before you 
have looked upon the grandeur of Niagara. 

We wandered for many miles in those dark and 
dismal caverns, passing in our rambles many frightful 
pits. The myriads of stalactites and petrifications 
hang on the walls of these subterranean chambers, 
glistening like icicles. A river, navigable for small 
boats, winds its way in these recesses. Only two 
kinds of fish have been found in this stream ; one of 
these is eyeless ; the other has eyes, but cannot see. 
This cavern is a favorite resort for bats, owls and the 
like. 

This is said to be the largest cave in the world. 
But I do not like these underground marvels of nature. 

Nashville, Sept. 14th. — After a most uncomfort- 
able ride by stage-coach from Mammoth Cave, we 
gratefully find ourselves here alive — and but alive ! 
In Nashville we stop a day to rest, and will avail our- 
selves in seeing what we can see. 

We take a hasty glance at the book establishment 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In this 
mammoth concern we find our old Charleston friend, 
Dr. S., looking just as quisical and honest as if he 
had lived in the Queen City all his life. Not far from 
our hotel, on an elevated situation, is one of the finest 
State Houses in America, constructed of pure Ten- 
nessee limestone marble. A view from the tower of 



Wayside Travel. 103 

this magnificent building is worth a hundred mam- 
moth caves. Nashville has a fine trade, and is in- 
creasing in wealth and population. 

The widow of ex-President Polk resides here, and 
twelve miles from the city is the Hermitage, the cele- 
brated residence of the late Andrew Jackson. 

Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 16th. — One hundred and 
fifty miles over the Nashville and Chattanooga Rail- 
road, through the mountain gorges of the Blue Ridge, 
and we find ourselves at Chattanooga. This road 
passes through many lovely valleys, and some of the 
finest scenery in America. The construction of a 
railway through such a mountainous country was a 
gigantic undertaking. The City by the Sea contri- 
buted largely of her means to this enterprise. Chat- 
tanooga is situated on the Tennessee River, under the 
shade of majestic Lookout Mountain. The town is 
badly located, and is subject to overflow when there 
is a flood in the Tennessee. It bids fair, however, of 
becoming one of the largest manufacturing towns in 
the State. We leave here to-morrow for Charleston. 

Madison, Ga., Sept. 18th. — We stop here a day to 
rest and see the loved ones of dear " Forest Home." 
Madison is the old home of Mrs. W., and, of course, is 
doubly dear to her. It is one of the prettiest towns in 
Middle Georgia, and has long been distinguished for 
its excellent schools and good society. Many wealthy 
planters have settled here for educational advantages. 
It is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile country. 
Some twenty-five thousand bales of cotton, raised in 
the vicinity, are shipped to Augusta and Charleston. 



104 Wayside Travel. 

Yesterday we passed through the rich agricultural 
district of Cherokee, which is the grainery of Georgia, 
and to-day through 

"The red old hills of Georgia! 

So bald, and bare, and bleak — 
Their memory fills my spirit 

With thoughts I cannot speak. 
They have no robe of verdure, 

Stript naked to the blast; 
And yet of all the varied earth, 

I love them best at last. 

"I love them for the pleasure 

With which my life was blest, 
When erst I left, in boyhood, 

My footsteps on their breast. 
When in the rains had perished 

Those steps from plain and knoll, 
Then vanished, with the storm of grief, 

Joy's footprints from my soul ! 

" The red old hills of Georgia ! 

My heart is on them now; 
Where, fed from golden streamlets, 

Chattahoochie's waters flow ! 
I love them with devotion, 

Though washed so bleak and bare; — 
Oh ! can my spirit e'er forget 

The warm hearts dwelling there ? 

"I love them for the living, 

The generous, kind and gay; 
And for the dead who slumber 

Within their breasts of clay. 
I love them for the bounty 

Which cheers the social hearth; 
I love them for their rosy girls — 

The fairest on the earth ! 



Wayside Travel. 105 

" The red old hills of Georgia ! 

Oh ! where, upon the face 
Of earth, is freedom's spirit 

More bright in any race ? 
In Switzerland and Scotland 

Each patriot breast it fills, 
But, oh ! it blazes brighter yet 

Among our Georgia hills! 

"And where, upon their surface, 

Is heart to feeling dead ? 
Oh ! when has needy stranger 

Gone from those hills unfed ? 
There bravery and kindness, 

For aye, go hand in hand, 
Upon your washed and naked hills, 

'My own, my native land!' 

"The red old hills of Georgia 

I never can forget; 
Amid life's joys and sorrows, 

My heart is on them yet; — 
And when my course is ended, 

When life her web has wove, 
Oh ! may I then, beneath those hills, 

Lie close to them I love ! " 

Now we are nearing Charleston, passing through 
luxuriant gardens and groves of grand old moss-clad 
oaks, brilliant magnolias and palmettoes. 

To the right is Chicora, and to the left Etiwan. 
Between these rivers nestles Charleston, the Queen 
City of the South ! And there is the beautiful bat- 
tery, the spacious harbor — and beyond, Fort Sumter 
and the deep blue sea. 

But here is " Sweet Home !" With grateful hearts 
we offer up devout thanks to God for his protection 
14 



106 Wayside Travel. 

over us during our rambles of five thousand miles 
by land and water, amid dangers seen and unseen. 
It has, indeed, been to us a tour of varied and in- 
tense pleasure ; having, in some five months, visited 
the principal objects of interest in North and British 
America. 

We are glad to be again at our quiet home, believ- 
ing that earth possesses no greater joys than the 
peaceful comforts of home ! At least, this is the 
experience of 

G. W. W. 

Charleston, S. C, Sept. 20th, 1857. 



SKETCHES 



WHAT I SAW 



EUROPE 



PREPARING 



VOYAGE TO EUROPE. 



All Right, says the Captain — All Wrong, thou gl it the 
Passengers. 

A few days since the heat became so intense in 
New York that I determined to leave its glowing 
masses of brick and mortar and look for a cooler 
abode. I engaged passage and sailed at 5 o'clock 
on the evening of the 5th for the celebrated summer 
retreat of Newport. We had a fine view of the ship- 
ping in New York harbor; and it is a sight worth 
looking at. The change from the heated brick walls 
and noisy streets to the fresh sea-breeze was delight- 
ful. Our steamer moved swiftly through the placid 
Sound, and all on board seemed to enjoy the voyage 
exceedingly. I inquired of a fellow-passenger the 
character of our steamer; he replied, "A No. 1 — 
cost six hundred thousand dollars." I discovered 
that his estimate of the quality of the ship was 
governed by the dollars she cost. 



1 10 Preparing for a Voyage to Europe. 

About 1 1 o'clock the passengers began to retire 
for the night. I was on deck, talking over, with 
an old Charleston friend, the years of trial through 
which we had passed in the tempest-tost Confederacy. 
Suddenly the great wheels of the A No. i steamer 
ceased to turn. "What's the matter?" says one. 
"A boat ahead; stopped to let her get out of our 
way." I noticed considerable confusion among the 
passengers, and heard a lady say, "O, Harry, the 
boat is on fire! we are lost! we are lost!" Poor 
Harry was endeavoring to assure his frightened wife 
that there was no danger, but his pale face told that 
he too was alarmed. I stepped quickly to the side of 
the steamer, and, sure enough, she seemed to be on 
fire! The captain, however, assured the passengers 
that "it was all right," but the steamer stood still and 
the excitement increased. "Bring out the hawser, 
and all hands on deck," cried the captain. "Bill," 
says John, "what does the captain want the 'horser' 
brought on deck for?" "To enable the passengers 
to swim ashore, I guess," coolly replied John. " How 
far is to land?" "Seven miles to the Connecticut 
shore, fifteen to Long Island." "I'm bound for 
wooden nutmegs, then, certain," says Bill. "Bring 
the axe and saw here; hurry up, cut away these 
planks. Be in a hurry." "What is the matter, cap- 
tain?" was asked again, for the hundredth time, to 
his great annoyance, and the same satisfactory (?) 
answer was given — "All right!" 

The captain moved quickly into the pilot house 
and brought out a bundle of rods. " My dear, what 



Preparing for a Voyage to Europe. 1 1 1 

is the captain going to do?" inquired an affectionate 
wife of her husband. "Take a sounding, I calculate!" 
I did not profess to be much of a sailor, but sky- 
rockets seemed to me queer instruments with which 
to try the depth of the sea. The captain ordered a 
match to be brought him quickly. Away went the 
streak of lightning, exploding several hundred feet 
above the ship. This circumstance added new terror 
to the alarm of the frightened passengers, and I 
began to feel a little shaky myself. We all knew 
that the rockets were signals of distress, but we 
did not know how soon we were to be blown up 
or go to the bottom. One, two, three, four rock- 
ets were sent up, giving us quite a Fourth of 
July display of fireworks, which, however, was not 
much enjoyed by the spectators. The captain was 
looking anxiously through his glasses, and again he 
says, "All right; they see us, and are coming this 
way." 

Several miles distant the light of a steamer could 
be seen approaching us, and as she came nearer and 
nearer, all hearts grew stronger; and when a voice 
through a speaking trumpet cried out, " Who are 
you, and what can I do for you?" the passengers, for 
the first time, began to think perhaps all would be 
right; and when we were lashed securely to the 
strange steamer, we felt — that we had two strings to 
our bow. During the night the damages to the 
machinery were repaired, and next morning we landed 
safely at Newport, feeling thankful that we were 
neither burned nor drowned. 



1 1 2 Preparing for a Voyage to Europe. 

Having enjoyed the refreshing sea-breezes and 
bathing of this famous summer resort for some days, 
I returned to New York, and have taken passage in 
the fine steamship "Napoleon III," which leaves on 
Saturday, direct for France. When I learn to speak 
and write French, you shall hear from me again. 

G. W. W. 

New York, July 12, 1866. 



EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENCE. 



LETTER FIRST 



Across the Atlantic. 

Steamship Napoleon III, 
New York, July, 1866. 

Having engaged passage on the fine French steamer, 
I gladly quit my heated apartments at the Fifth Ave- 
nue Hotel, and embark on board the noble steamship 
Napoleon III. 

At 7 A. M., a salute from the booming cannon, and 
we bid adieu to the great American Metropolis and 
the friends who crowd the wharves to speak a last 
farewell ! 

My heart beats with delightful anticipations, as our 
splendid ship, with her bow turned towards beautiful 
France, gracefully glides from her moorings, and cau- 
tiously feels her way down the Bay of New York, 
through the shipping which fills that spacious harbor. 
An hour more and New York fades from our sight. 
We are now enjoying a delightful sea-breeze. 

What a change from the heated walls of Gotham ! 

We are fairly launched on the glorious Atlantic, 
with three thousand miles of restless ocean before us, 
but sailing as fast as wind and steam can drive us, 
15 



114 European CoiTcspo7idence. 

The dream of childhood is about being realized ; 
from my earliest recollection, I have always had a de- 
sire to travel by land or sea. 

Even when a wee mountain boy, I would climb the 
loftiest peak of the Alleghany's, and look with admi- 
ration upon the mountains, as they lay heaped around 
me, and the lovely valleys which nestled at my feet. 

As much as I dislike the boisterous ocean, yet I 
am willing to encounter all its perils for an opportu- 
nity of wandering amid the classic and historical 
scenes of the Old World. It is especially refreshing 
after having been shut up for so many years in the 
shipwrecked Confederacy, to travel and breathe a 
little fresh free air. 

I must now take a survey of my compagnons de voy- 
age. From their cheerful and respectable appearance, 
we have promise during our voyage of an agreeable 
party. The two hundred and fifty passengers are 
made up of a mongrel and merry set of persons. 
Here we find the gay and light-hearted Frenchman, 
the musical German, the consequential John Bull, the 
polite Spaniard, and last, though not least, the wide- 
awake American. 

Among the passengers is a group of beautifully 
dressed ladies. They are natives of dear old France, 
but speak English, and have a polite word for all. 
Quite a number of this party, I understand, are milli- 
ners and dressmakers of New York, Philadelphia and 
New Orleans, on their way to Paris, for the latest 
fashions, over which the fair creatures of Jonathan's 
land will run mad. 



European Correspondence. 115 

At table No. 3, sit two elderly ladies in whom I am 
wonderfully interested, not only because they are 
Georgians, but from the fact that they are the daugh- 
ters of one of Georgia's earliest settlers, and most 
honored sons. Their father was a native of honest 
old Scotland, who, when quite a youth, left his home 
for the New World. After a stormy passage he 
landed in Charleston, a poor boy, without money or 
friends; but he possessed intelligence, energy, activ- 
ity and sobriety, necessary qualifications to ensure 
success. At that time Georgia was a colony, inhab- 
ited mainly by the Indians, and was a good field for 
the young Scotch adventurer. He settled in Savan- 
nah and opened a small store. His stock in trade 
consisted of a few hundred dollars worth of English 
and Scotch notions. These he exchanged with the 
Indians for furs, hides, game, and the like. In a few 
years he extended his trade as far as Augusta, at 
which place he established a branch of his Savannah 
house. At that period, Bristol was the Liverpool of 
England, and carried on considerable trade with the 
West Indies and American colonies. Small cargoes 
of such articles as were suited to the wants of the 
Indians and half civilized whites were shipped from 
Bristol to Savannah, consigned to the father of these 
two ladies. 

He had lived long enough in the Old World to un- 
derstand the value of land. He purchased large tracts 
of rich lands in the valley of the Savannah River for 
a trifling consideration, and became one of the most 
successful planters in the South. The few families of 



1 1 6 European Correspondence. 

imported Africans which he settled on his plantations, 
by kind usage and good treatment had increased to 
nearly one thousand when the Emancipation Procla- 
mation was issued. Our Scotch merchant and planter 
became a member of the Continental Congress, and 
was, subsequently, governor of Georgia. He sent 
from Savannah to Boston some of the powder that 
was used at the battle of Bunker Hill. A friend in- 
quired of me, "What makes the two Savannah ladies 
look so sad — have they lost everything by the war?" 
"Not everything," I replied. Their income, which 
was very large, has been reduced to forty thousand 
dollars per annum. And yet they feel as if they were 
on the broad road to the almshouse — and why should 
they not? Four years ago they counted their wealth 
by millions, and they felt secure in that wealth, as it 
was guaranteed to them by the Constitution of the 
United States — a guarantee their venerable father had 
taught them was beyond question. What do they see 
now? A million of dollars worth of property swept 
away by a paper proclamation, followed almost imme- 
diately by Sherman's army, torch in hand. The home 
in which their father, Governor Telfair, brilliantly en- 
tertained General Washington during his visit to 
Georgia in 179 1 , was consigned to the flames. The 
family treasures, in the shape of paintings, furniture, 
etc., which had been accumulating for more than a 
century — treasures that cost large sums of money, 
but treasures which cannot be computed by dollars 
and cents, many of them being family portraits and 
relics — were, in a few short hours, either stolen or 



European Correspondence. 1 1 7 

reduced to ashes. Have these ladies not good reason 
for looking sad? Have they anything left that they 
can call their own? Can they make a contract with 
a servant that was born in their own house, without 
the sanction of the Freedmen's Bureau, the managers 
of which no more understand the negro character than 
they understand the principles of honesty? And 
moreover, has not the property for which their father 
worked so hard been taken from them without trial by 
judge or jury? Have they killed anybody that they 
should be thus treated? Why is it that the protection 
of the government their father helped to make should 
be denied them ? Is it any wonder that they look and 
feel sad, and quit the country that has afforded them 
so little protection? But enough. This picture in- 
creases my sea-sickness. I must go on deck and get 
some fresh air. 

The more I see of the deep, wide ocean, the more 
my admiration of Christopher Columbus increases. 
It required greater courage to sail in those frail boats 
of his, in an unknown sea, and with an ignorant and 
mutinous crew to manage, than Napoleon the Great 
possessed to fight all the battles that won him so much 
glory. I am sure that if the discovery of America 
had been left to men of my stamp, the wild Indians 
would now be enjoying the fishing and hunting 
grounds in the sweet Vale of Nacoochee, and eating 
codfish and clams on the Plymouth Rock. Some 
people were made to fight ; some to navigate ; some 
to tame the lightning ; but the majority to work in 
humbler walks of trade, agriculture or mechanics. 



1 1 8 European Correspondence. 

We must have war to fulfil the Scriptures ; telegraphs 
to send forth knowledge with the swiftness of light- 
ning, and navigation to transport the products of com- 
merce from land to land. 

This is Sunday, and the eighth day at sea. The 
day is being spent by many in card-playing. Not a 
Bible have I seen in the hands of saint or sinner; but 
among the passengers I observed a devout Catholic 
lady this morning counting her beads. The two 
priests on board are jolly-looking fellows ; but if they 
have their prayer-books, I have not seen them. In 
the English ships, the American Bible Society deposit 
a Bible in each state-room. On the French line of 
steamers I understand this is forbidden. 

I have made up my mind that a voyage across the 
Atlantic, imprisoned for two weeks with three hun- 
dred men, women and children, representing all grades 
of American and European society, is about the best 
school for the study of human nature that is presented 
to a man in his wanderings through life. I have made 
the acquaintance of ladies and gentlemen, and already 
feel attachments for them, akin to those for relations 
and old friends. There are some of our passengers, 
however, who are anything but agreeable or lovely. 

I have been surprised to see how ignorant of the 
South and its people the majority of the Northerners 
seem to be. Their information is derived mainly from 
ignorant or partisan newspapers, and Radical lecturers. 
The pulpit is also responsible for many of the errors 
which have crept into the public mind in reference to 
the habits and customs of the Southern people. 



European Correspondence. 119 

Many believed that those who owned slaves took 
delight in torturing them. A greater falsehood was 
never promulgated. The Southern planter, before the 
war, was the highest type of a humane gentleman. 
He knew that he could no more be respected by his 
neighbors or considered a gentleman, if he maltreated 
his slaves, than if he were a blackleg and a rogue. 
Besides, what nonsense to suppose that any sane man 
would destroy or injure his own property? He was 
impelled by self-interest, if by no higher motive, to be 
humane to his people. 

I hear them cry out, "Land," and I see the green 
hills of dear old France. Don't my heart beat with 
joy. G. W. W. 

Steamship Napoleon III, July, 1866. 



LETTER SECOND 



First Impressions of France. 

Harbor of Brest, 
Steamship Napoleon III, July, 1866. 

We are now in full view of the vine-clad hills and 
valleys of the beautiful land of France. The passen- 
gers have the choice of landing at Brest and travelling 
eighteen hours by rail to Paris, or of proceeding in 
the steamer to Havre, some two hundred and fifty 
miles distant, from which point they have a run of 
only five hours by rail to Paris. The day is charm- 
ing, the sea smooth, and most of my friends have 
decided to go to Havre. The inducement to ac- 
company them is great, but I am tired of the sea, 
and want to stand once more on terra firma. This 
eighteen hours of railway will give me an opportunity 
of travelling several hundred miles through an inter- 
esting portion of France. 

The great iron wheels of Napoleon III stop for the 
first time in twelve days ; a small steamer approaches, 
and seventy passengers are transferred to her. The 
polite captain assists each passenger from one steamer 
to the other, wishing them a safe and pleasant journey. 
Napoleon III is a splendid ship, and Captain Bocande 
has the entire confidence of his passengers, as being 
an experienced and skilful navigator. Success to 
the captain and the ship that carried us safely across 
the Atlantic. 



European Correspondence, 121 

Never did a boy's heart beat faster at the sight of 
his sweetheart than mine does as I step from the 
steamer for the first time upon the soil of the Old 
World! A desire of my heart, long delayed, is at 
last gratified. We are safely landed at Brest, which 
is a beautiful city, situated on the western extremity 
of France, and has a population of sixty thousand. 
Brest has a secure and commodious harbor, with 
twenty-five feet of water. The emperor is making it 
one of the strongest naval stations of his empire. 

The town clock strikes eleven, but my watch indi- 
cates the time 'to be six. We have travelled nearly 
three thousand miles, in the direction of the rising of 
the sun, which makes the difference in the time 
between New York and Brest five hours. Have I 
gained or lost five hours in the voyage? Our baggage 
is conveyed to the customhouse, and a strict search 
made for dutiable goods. It would be a "green" 
man indeed, who would attempt to smuggle merchan- 
dise into France that had passed through the hands 
of the internal and eternal revenue officers of the 
United States. Unfortunately for us, there is not an 
article we can produce except .cotton, or, perhaps, 
tobacco, that can be exported, and these are not 
commodities likely to be found in one's trunk. 

As we walk along the streets the granite pavement 
seems much more unsteady than the ship. They say 
this unpleasant motion will be felt for several days. 
I am quite surprised to see the women hobbling along, 
their little French feet covered with wooden shoes. 
It reminds one of the days of the "make shift" and 
16 



122 European Correspondence. 

I. 

emergency in the Confederacy. We have taken a 
hasty view of the city, and are off for Paris. 

The cars or coaches here are very different from 
those on our roads. The first-class coaches have six 
seats, the cushions stuffed with hair and lined with 
silk. The second and third class cars are much more 
crowded, and not so comfortable. The fare is two to 
three cents per mile. The roads are kept in splendid 
order, and to prevent accidents you will see a woman 
standing at each station and crossing with a red flag 
in one hand and a trumpet in the other, ready to 
sound the alarm if all is not right. They have no 
sleeping cars, as with us. 

This mention of sleeping cars, reminds me of an 
abominable practice they have on the night trains 
running between Washington and New York. To 
secure a good night's rest, I engaged a berth in a 
sleeping car at Washington early in the day, as I was 
informed that those who failed to take this precaution 
had to sit up all night. My check called for letter D, 
No. 32. As I was preparing to retire for the night, 
the weather being quite hot, I began to doff the 
heaviest portion of my wardrobe ; to my surprise, in 
stepped a lady into my quarters, and was preparing 
to retire. I said to her, " Madame, I presume you 
have made a mistake in your room." She said her 
check called for "31," which was immediately under 
mine. I asked the steward to explain matters, and 
was coolly informed that ladies were as much en- 
titled to sleeping cars as the men, and that the tickets 
were sold indiscriminately. The lady did not seem 



European Correspondence. 123 

scared. I imagine she was a traveller ! I turned in 
for the night, and thought of the wonderful improve- 
ment on the roads during our four years imprison- 
ment in the Confederacy. These night trains are said 
to be very popular with the members of Congress ; 
they all have free tickets. 

The railways in France are generally enclosed with 
green hedge fences, and are lined with beautiful 
flowers. 

The hills and valleys through which we are pass- 
ing are picturesque. The impression, however, that 
" every foot of land in France is in a high state of 
cultivation " is a great mistake. I should think that 
at least one-third of the country between Brest and 
Paris is uncultivated. The soil is naturally very poor, 
and no fertilizer has been found to make oats, rye, 
grass and barley grow on the barren hills of France. 
The country is very broken and rocky, and I am 
struck with the extreme poverty of the people. I 
was not prepared to find so many beggars, they are 
glad to receive even a copper. The women work in 
the fields, generally without shoes, bonnets or hats, 
and do not require Paris hoops to show off their well 
proportioned limbs. They live in low stone houses 
looking as old as the hills by which they are sur- 
rounded; the houses are covered with straw, and 
poorly ventilated. In the same yard, you find a 
dwelling-house, barn, kitchen, stables, pig-pens and 
haystacks, having anything but a cleanly and inviting 
appearance. I understand, however, that this is much 
the poorest portion of France. The agricultural im- 



124 European Correspondence. 

plernents used are of the cheapest quality. I observe 
them cutting oats and rye with reap-hooks, such as 
were in use before the Christian era. Many of these 
people do not know what it is to sit by a comfortable 
wood fire, the trees having disappeared from the land 
many hundred years ago. I see them digging up 
the low turfy ground, which, when dried, possesses 
a combustible quality, like peat, and is used as a sub- 
stitute for wood or coal. You will learn, from the 
above picture that I am somewhat disappointed in the 
agricultural appearance and condition of the people 
and country. I was not prepared to find so much 
poverty. I wish, however, to be understood as de- 
scribing the general appearance, manners, habits and 
customs of the inhabitants as they appear to me at first 
sight. In our journey, we have passed, for miles, 
through districts in the highest state of cultivation, 
and have seen residences that would do credit to 
Broadway. We have also passed through quite a 
number of beautiful villages and cities, ornamented 
with fine churches, public buildings and manufactur- 
ing establishments. A large proportion of the men 
are either in the army, or are employed on the rail- 
roads, and in the workshops. The women till the 
soil and populate the rural districts, often without 
husbands ! I think the country daughters of France 
have a hard time of it. The curse put upon mother 
Eve, when banished from the Garden of Eden, rests 
heavily upon them. The Old Serpent's head may be 
bruised, but he is not dead ; his foot-prints are to be 
seen all along these valleys, so rich with flowers and 



European Correspondence. 125 

fruit. But here is Paris ! What a change in the pros- 
pect and the picture ! This wondrous city will need 
a letter of itself, and, possibly, many letters. Nous 
verrons ! 

G. W. W. 
Paris, July, 1866. 



LETTER THIRD. 



Paris and Napoleon. 

Well, my friend, I have been in this wonderful city 
for ten days, and with the best possible facilities for 
sight-seeing; yet I have had but a bird's-eye view of 
the thousand and one objects of interest to be seen 
here. No city in the world possesses such attractions 
as the metropolis of France. It is the policy of the 
government, by every possible means, to make Paris 
the centre of refinement, luxury and pleasure. In 
her palaces you find spacious galleries filled with 
the paintings, statues, and antiquities of all ages, 
executed by the best artists throughout the habitable 
globe. To examine each painting and statue care- 
fully would require months. Here you find a city, 
the work of eighteen hundred years, encircled by a 
wall twenty-one miles in circumference, covering an 
area of nineteen thousand acres, with a population of 
two million souls. Paris has been the recipient of 
the rich spoils of the most successful generals that 



126 European Correspondence. 

ever engaged in warfare ; and it has been the prize 
over which ambitious warriors have been contending 
since the reign of Julius Caesar. There is scarcely 
a fruit or flower in the known world that cannot 
be found in the open gardens or conservatories of 
Paris. 

Rome, in her days of glory, extended her con- 
quests over France, and was mistress of this country 
for several centuries, during which time the seeds of 
the Romish Church were sown broadcast, and they 
have taken deep root. In the administration of the 
government, the Church, through the clergy, often 
exercises greater influence than the kings. I do not 
look upon the Romish Church as I did in my youth. 
There are priests in Protestant Churches of whom I 
know, who would, if an opportunity offered, be as 
fierce in their persecutions as the Jacobins of France. 
In the sixteenth century, in the reign of Charles IX 
and Henry III, the last kings of the Orleans race, the 
Protestants were persecuted with wanton cruelty. 
Many of them sought a refuge in the Carolinas, and 
their descendants are our most honored citizens. The 
successful termination of the American Revolution, 
which French money and French valor did so much 
to accomplish, doubtless hastened the terrible scenes 
of the French Revolution. In the history of France 
there are many bloody pages, but none of them com- 
pare with those which record the horrors of the Reign 
of Terror. Young Napoleon Bonaparte was the man 
to bring light and order out of chaos and darkness. 
His successful campaigns in Italy, Spain, Germany 



European Correspondence. ' .127 

and Egypt, contributed largely to the galleries of 
paintings and statues that are found so interesting to 
the stranger in Paris. 

Napoleon gave the French capital an impetus which 
has been onward and upward in a career of increasing 
prosperity. During his short reign he spent twenty- 
five millions of dollars in beautifying and improving 
Paris. But Napoleon, like other great generals, al- 
lowed an ill-fated ambition to ruin him. 

Ambition ! Ah, it wells up even in the bosom of 
the bare-footed school boy on discovering that he can 
whistle Yankee Doodle, and has mastered his A B 
C's ; and when he can begin to spell dog and cat, he 
feels that he is a scholar, and destined to be a states- 
man. When he learns to read of the conquests of 
Alexander the Great, and of the discoveries of Chris- 
topher Columbus, he turns soldier, and marches his 
imaginary army to the music of an old tin pan, and 
he launches his little bark on the ocean under the sail 
of a pigeon's wing. Ambition is a noble virtue when 
properly directed ; but when it impels a man to put 
aside a Josephine, because she cannot be the mother 
of young kings and princes, and sacrifices half a mil- 
lion of lives in attempting to march to the snow-clad 
city of Moscow, ambition of such a kind becomes a 
criminal passion meriting God's judgment. 

Josephine was the guardian angel of Napoleon, and 
when he put her away for a new wife, Fate turned 
against him, and his star set to rise no more ! Napo- 
leon's remains were brought from St. Helena by 
Prince de Joinville in 1840. Few persons come to 



128 European Correspondence. 

Paris without visiting the tomb of Napoleon. More 
than a million of dollars have already been expended 
upon it, and the mechanics are still at work. It is 
one of the most splendid monuments in the world, 
but the name of Napoleon Bonaparte will last when 
this magnificent monument shall crumble into dust. 
On the tomb is the following inscription, extracted 
from his will : " I desire that my ashes may repose on 
the banks of the Seine, in the midst of that people of 
France whom I have loved so much." In a recess 
are placed his sword and hat, also a large number of 
flags captured in battle, and the golden crown pre- 
sented to him by the town of Cherbourg. No man 
ever wound himself around the hearts of the people 
of France as did Napoleon Bonaparte. 

Napoleon III is the man of the nineteenth century. 
He has the head of Napoleon I ; but thus far has 
steered clear of the rock on which his uncle foun- 
dered. The French nation, under the rule of the 
present Emperor, has made rapid progress in wealth, 
power and greatness. Napoleon had been President 
of the Republic of France only two years when he 
was proclaimed Emperor in 1852. Napoleon III has 
now governed France as long as any of his prede- 
cessors since the days of Louis XV, who reigned 
for forty years. No monarch ever governed a nation 
with better judgment than the present Emperor, and 
he exerts this day greater influence over the destinies 
of Europe than all the kings and queens on this con- 
tinent. Through his diplomacy nearly all the wars 
that have occurred in Europe since his reign have been 



European Correspondence. 129 

settled. The Emperor will be likely to embrace the 
present opportunity of restoring some of the territo- 
rial lines that were so deranged when Napoleon I 
was banished. It is a bold thing to make a demand 
on a nation like Prussia, which has so recently 
vindicated its character for military prowess, and 
a nation, too, that has seven hundred thousand 
trained soldiers, flushed with victory and distin- 
guished for valor to stand behind the celebrated 
" needle-gun." 

It would be a terrible thing for two great nations 
to go to war about such an insignificant territory as 
that of Sarlouis, but when the pride of a nation is 
aroused, and its national honor seems at stake, the 
question of a few square miles may bring the armies 
of the two great nations of France and Prussia into 
bloody conflict. When Napoleon makes a demand, 
he will be likely to adhere to it at all hazards. I 
cannot think that Prussia will risk the advantages 
so recently obtained over Austria, by refusing what 
seems a reasonable demand of France. France does 
not ask that the kingdom conquered by Napoleon be 
restored, but that the old lines of 1792 and 18 14 be 
re-established. After the battle of Waterloo, a treaty 
known as the Peace of 18 15 was made, and the 
fortresses of Sarlouis and Landau were taken from 
the French. They cover a territory not twenty-five 
miles square. Prussia only has possession of Sar- 
louis ; Landau is in Rhenish Bavaria. The Germans 
say they will not be " treated as Mexicans," but resist 
to the last extremity any interference by France with 
17 



130 European Correspondence. 

their domestic relations. A few weeks will decide the 
question, and it is greatly to be desired that it be 
settled without the shedding of blood. 

G. W. W. 
Paris, August, 1866. 



LETTER FOURTH 



The Emperor 's Fete — Decoration of Napoleon's Grave — 
Mimic War and Real War. 

The 1 6th of August in Paris is like the 4th of July 
in New York, and Christmas at the South, only "a 
good deal more so." From the 1st to the 16th, little 
else is talked of here but the Emperor's fete. This is 
a national and a church festival combined. On this 
grand occasion free indulgence, and the greatest lib- 
erties, are granted both by Church and State. The 
lame, the halt, the blind, who have been shut up for 
twelve months by the strictest police regulations, are 
now permitted to ascend from the dark, damp cellar, 
and descend from the lofty cramped attics to beseech 
alms of the millions who are swarming in the streets. 
The privilege of asking alms in Paris is granted only 
on the occasion of the fete. Large sums of money 
are expended by the government in preparing for this 
annual celebration. The railways reduce their fare to 
a very low rate, and the country comes to town, from 
A to Z. I made four excursions on the tops of the 



European Correspondence. 131 

omnibuses to the suburbs of Paris, to see the vast 
multitude of people, as they came crowding into the 
city in the antiquated carriages of the first century. 
The throng was so great in the streets, it was worth 
one's life to attempt to walk. The houses from cellar 
to garret were decorated with national flags. Even 
the horses' heads were ornamented with them. 

The honor of announcing that the fete had com- 
menced was conferred on the small remnant of Napo- 
leon's veterans and invalids. The booming cannon 
was heard at an early hour from the hospital for the 
superannuated soldiers. At various points in the city 
depots of provisions were established, and gratui- 
tously distributed to the poor and infirm. Many a 
poor soul was made happy by this charity, which is 
said to have been paid for out of the Emperor's private 
purse. The six hundred thousand troops received a 
double portion of wine, and all who could be relieved 
from service were permitted to leave the barracks and 
be out till 12 o'clock at night. The military with their 
splendid bands paraded the streets, and were objects 
of great attraction. 

On this occasion, it is the custom of the old soldiers 
of the First Emperor to visit his tomb and decorate 
his grave with a fresh wreath of flowers. This, to me, 
was an affecting and interesting sight. The number 
of these faithful veterans is diminishing every year. 
Like the fathers of our own Revolution, they have 
nearly all gone to their rest. 

At 1 o'clock the theatres, operas, museums, and 
all public places of amusement were thrown open 



132 European Cotrespondence. 

without charge for admittance. The vast multitude 
of people began to assemble around these houses at 
the dawn of day. Many stood at the doors five to 
six hours. They were kept in a line of ten abreast 
by the police. These lines were often several hun- 
dred yards in length. 

This is a proof of the fondness of the French for 
amusements. They are a gay, light-hearted people. 
On the River Seine the boat races took place. These 
races drew large crowds to witness the successful 
competitors for the prizes. 

The garden of the Tuileries was thronged all day. 
Near the Royal Palace was erected a lofty colonnade 
formed of colored lamps, arranged with great taste; 
the letter N in gold color, and the imperial crown, in 
crimson, appeared on the columns. The four side 
avenues, leading from the palace to the fountain, 
were beautifully decorated with lamps and Chinese 
lanterns of the variegated colors of orange, pink, 
blue, red and green. The effect was very beautiful. 
The fountains were all set free for performance, and 
the display of water works seen at night through the 
brilliant illumination was grand to behold. Down 
the centre avenue of the garden, stood at equal dis- 
tances, lofty piles, bearing each an escutcheon of 
colored lamps having an N in green, surmounted by 
white, and a crown in yellow. The tri-colored French 
flag floated at the top of each. In the Place de Con- 
corde — the famous square where Louis XVI and 
Marie Antoinette were guillotined — the globes were 
lar<je and of ground elass, lighted with eas. In the 



European Correspondence. 133 

centre of that avenue is an ornamental garden, gotten 
up for the occasion, filled with the choicest flowers 
and shrubs. This was formed around an " Egyptian 
Palace," with lofty colonnades, having gas pipes run- 
ning through it, which would give more than fifty 
thousand jets of flame. On the faces, north and south, 
appeared the Imperial Eagle, and on the east and 
west, two immense suns. Up the avenue of the 
Champs Elysees rows of white globes ran along each 
side for more than a mile, extending to the Triumphal 
Arch. This grand monument was brilliantly illumi- 
nated, displaying to fine advantage the historical 
scenes illustrative of the many hard fought battles and 
victories of Napoleon I. 

A little after dusk we started in a carriage to the 
garden of the Tuileries and Champs Elysees, but 
the police stopped us, as carriages were not permitted 
to be driven within a mile of either place. Not will- 
ing to risk our lives in the crowd, we drove some four 
miles, and came into the rear of the illumination 
where the crowd was not so dense, and where we had 
a fine view from a high hill, near the new Fair Grounds. 
The festoons of lights crossing each other in every 
direction, and the beautiful effect of the fountains 
playing, made the scene quite enchanting. The pri- 
vate houses, markets, hotels, etc., were generally 
illuminated either with long lines of gas-burners, or 
with Venetian lanterns. The use of fire-crackers in 
the streets has wisely been abolished. The fireworks 
on the Seine were grand. They commenced by a 
flight of rockets, succeeded by an eruption of Roman 



!34 European Correspondence. 

candles, filling the air with various hues. The illumi- 
nation representing the initials of the Emperor's 
family was probably more admired than any part of 
the exhibition. 

We reached home a little after midnight, highly 
delighted with the day's entertainment. A finer dis- 
play of fireworks I do not suppose could be produced 
in any country. On this occasion there were twice as 
many people in the streets of Paris as there are in the 
great State of Georgia ; and to their credit be it said, 
I did not during the whole day see a drunken man. 
This vast mass of human beings was to me wonderfully 
interesting. The spectacle of a great city pouring 
forth its swarms by concert, numerous as bees, is 
always a sight to seize upon the senses as with a feel- 
ing of awe. At one or two crossings on the Seine, 
the crowds were so dense that hundreds were tram- 
pled under foot, and.some twenty persons killed. The 
wonder is that more accidents did not occur. 

About io o'clock, we stood on a high point of land 
near the Triumphal Arch, and had a fine view of the 
whole display of fireworks. They represented in one 
portion of the exhibition a battle of infantry and 
artillery. You could hear the sound of the musketry, 
and see the flash of the cannon, and then the fuse 
shell burst in the air, and in a moment more you 
would hear the explosion. The scene reminded 
me forcibly of the fete on Morris's Island, gotten 
up by General Gilmore, and suddenly opening at 
midnight for the amusement (?) of the people of 
Charleston. 



European Coircspondence. 135 

Just think of a Christian nation who were for two 
years employed in throwing hot shot and shell into a 
city among helpless women and children ! Let it not 
be told abroad, or written in history, that a nation all 
one blood could be engaged in such warfare. History 
teaches us, that civil wars, of all others, are the most 
terrible, reckless and remorseless. Just look at Ger- 
many. You see a million and a half of men speaking 
the same language, sons of the same Fatherland, 
divided only by artificial lines, engaged in the most 
deadly conflict, and sending death, desolation and 
misery throughout the land. Hear what a heart- 
broken mother says after the last battle fought in 
Germany, near Prague, when the Austrians suffered 
so severely : 

" Deeply afflicted, I announce to our relations and 
friends, that my beloved husband died yesterday 
morning from the terrible agitation caused by the 
death of our children. Our five sons, Francis Joseph, 
Ernest, George, Leopold, and Henrich de Stovolinski, 
have all laid down their lives for their beloved Em- 
peror and master. Four young widows and an only 
sister mourn with me ! De Stovolinski." 

What a picture ! Such is war ! May a kind and 
merciful Providence guide our people for all time to 
come, in the paths of peace, love and unity. 

G. W. W. 

Paris, August, 1866. 



LETTER FIFTH. 



Preparing to Leave Paris — Market-places — Pere la 
Chaise — Population of Paris — Revenue — Bank of 
France. 

If I am to visit Southern France ; to sail on the 
lake of Geneva; to climb the snow-capped Alps of 
Switzerland; to look upon the million and a half 
of Austrian and Prussian soldiers who are standing in 
battle array, awaiting the orders of their generals, I 
must not linger too long on the banks of the Seine — 
in the garden of the Tuileries, nor wander in the 
market-places looking at the women coming in from 
their little country gardens with their long baskets 
strapped on their backs, filled with vegetables to feed 
the millions of hungry people ; nor linger even to 
admire the five thousand fat butchers, with miles of 
stalls, filled with beef, pork, mutton, lamb and veal ; 
nor pause to survey the myriads of fish, and the acres 
of wine, beer, cider, ale, eggs, butter and cheese ; and 
the white "maummas" with twenty thousand baskets 
filled with peaches, nectarines, pears, plums, grapes, 
prunes and figs, all from the valleys and vine-clad 
hills of France. 

But I must linger awhile longer in the flower 
market, among the three thousand Gypsy girls, for 
they have the choicest bouquets, made from the 



European Correspondence. 1 37 

sweetest flowers of France. The flower markets of 
Paris are very agreeable sights, and here floriculture 
is brought to the highest state of perfection. 

When I walk through these miles of markets, and 
look at the immense quantity of vegetables, beef, pork, 
mutton, poultry, fish, butter, cheese, wine, beer, eggs, 
fruit, etc., I can but ask the question — "Where will 
they find purchasers for these vast supplies ?" But 
when I have left the market-places, and walked 
through the broad avenues and boulevards, jostled on 
every side by the masses of all sorts of people, then I 
find myself asking the question — " How is this vast 
multitude to be fed ?" To associate, in one idea, the 
markets with the masses, gives us the immediate 
reply. 

These market-places were originally in a cemetery. 
The dealers had their stalls among the tombstones. 
In the course of time, burials in the cemetery were 
interdicted, and the tombstones gave place to perma- 
nent market-booths, and at length the graveyard was 
dug up and levelled, and these long lines of markets 
established. The foundations for life are thus ever 
laid on those of death ! 

The cemeteries of Paris have interested me, and I 
have visited several of them. Interments in church- 
yards have, for a long time, been wisely prohibited. 
The early burying-grounds have all been levelled, and 
splendid houses and streets have been built over them. 
Pere la Chaise is the largest cemetery, and contains 
two hundred acres of land. It is beautifully situated 
in the suburbs of Paris ; is surrounded by valleys ; 
18 



138 European Correspondence. 

and commands not only a fine view of the city, but of 
the surrounding country. It remains to be seen 
whether this cemetery will share the fate of its prede- 
cessors. The number and costliness of its monuments 
and the celebrated names it contains, may protect it 
from the encroachments of the city, for at least one 
generation. 

In this silent " city of the dead," I spent nearly a 
day in looking at the monuments of the great men 
and women of France. 

The first monument that attracted my attention 
here was that of M'lle Rachel, the celebrated actress. 
The last time her charming voice was heard on the 
stage, was in the winter of 1855, in Charleston, S. C. 
She was then on her way to the beautiful land of 
Cuba for the benefit of her health. I was a fellow 
passenger of hers on the Steamship Isabel from 
Charleston to Havana, and shall never forget her 
sad, sweet countenance. After reaching Havana, the 
balmy climate so revived her that she made an effort, 
at the solicitation of many admirers, to appear again 
on the stage — but alas! the slow but fatal consumption 
had made too deep inroads on her shattered constitu- 
tion — she could not fulfil her engagements. Poor 
Rachel ! On being told that there was no hope of 
her recovery, she asked to be carried to her native 
land to die. After arriving in Paris, she lingered 
a few weeks, and passed away. She was buried in 
the Jewish cemetery, which is separated from the 
Christian portion by a wall. The simple inscription 
" Rachel," appears on her monument. In the same 



European Correspondence. 139 

enclosure are the family vaults of the celebrated 
Rothschilds. " Rothschild" is all that is inscribed on 
the handsome but plain tomb. 

I was surprised to find the graves of a number of 
Englishmen in this cemetery — among them that of 
Sidney Smith. The most expensive monument is that 
of Countess Demidoff. It rests on a huge basement 
of sculptured masonry, and is accessible by a flight of 
stairs. The monument itself consists of eighteen 
columns of white marble — the tomb is ornamented by 
a cushion, bearing the name and coronet of the de- 
ceased. Not far from this magnificent monument, is 
a garden ten feet square, which interested me more 
than the splendid tomb of the Countess. The garden 
is filled with roses, violets, lilies, and other flowers. 
The short mounds of earth indicate that there had 
been six children buried within the enclosure. On a 
small marble tablet which stands in the centre, is in- 
scribed : " Rachel weepeth for her children, and will 
not be comforted because they are not." Here is a 
beautiful tribute of a sorrowing mother to her beloved 
children. 

We next come to an iron railing, enclosing the re- 
mains of the unfortunate friend of Napoleon, Marshal 
Ney. No monument marks his grave. The ground 
is laid out as a small flower garden. A monument, 
however, has been erected at the end of "Boulevard 
de Sevastapol," on the spot where Marshal Ney was 
shot. This was raised in December, 181 5. 

Since the opening of Pere la Chaise, in 1804, more 
than thirty millions of dollars have been expended in 



140 fc European Correspondence. 

monuments alone. The number of tombs is twenty 
thousand, and of persons interred, three hundred and 
twenty-five thousand. As some fifty thousand per- 
sons die every year in Paris, the cemeteries neces- 
sarily fill up very rapidly. Whole families are often 
buried in a space occupied by one grave — the first in- 
terment is made very deep, and the coffins are placed 
over each other, being separated by stone slabs. I 
saw the seventh coffin put into one of these vaults. 
The poor are buried quite shallow, and their time of 
rest in the cemeteries is of very short duration — only 
the rich are able to have perpetual graves. The ex- 
perience is, that no cemetery stands in Paris more 
than a century. A hundred years hence it will not 
make much difference with the dead, whether their 
ashes lie in marble vaults or have been scattered in 
the valleys to make the flowers grow more beautifully. 
It is the immortal part of man that we are interested 
in. If that is in a safe place, then all will be well. 

Notwithstanding there is much poverty and suffer- 
ing in Paris, still the condition of the poor has greatly 
improved within the past twenty years, and if France 
will cultivate peace, the improvement will be much 
greater. War has been the curse of the Old World 
since the days of Julius Caesar. Population in Eu- 
rope does not increase as with us. France had a 
population in 1800 of twenty-seven millions; she now 
has thirty-seven million eight hundred thousand, an 
increase in sixty-five years of only forty per cent. 
The population in Paris in 1800, was seven hundred 
thousand, now it is two million. It will be seen that the 



European Correspondence. 141 

increase of the city has been far greater than that of 
the country. The number of births in Paris is sixty 
thousand per annum, twenty thousand of this number 
are illegitimate. One-third of the inhabitants of the 
city, and a greater proportion in the country, are not 
recognized by their parents. 

Paris is draining the life-blood of the agricultural 
and manufacturing districts by heavy taxation. A 
farmer cannot enter the city without having his trunk 
examined by a public officer. A poor market woman, 
the mother of half a dozen little children, who wades 
through wet and cold for miles, with her basket of 
vegetables strapped on her back, and often with a 
child in her arms, is required to make a declaration 
and pay the duties. Nothing is exempt. The amount 
of revenue derived from the agricultural and manu- 
facturing districts is immense ; but it is all needed. 
The expenses of the city government are startling, 
amounting to forty millions of dollars per annum — 
being greater than the expense of the whole United 
States Government in its early administration. The 
military, police, and public assistance of Paris costs 
eight million per annum, and there was expended 
last year for public works five million. The present 
Emperor thinks nothing of pulling down a hundred 
houses to widen a street, and to exhibit a better view 
of a favorite church — the Cathedral of Notre Dame 
for instance. 

Paris being an inland city, has a limited foreign 
commerce, but the amount of merchandise sold in the 
hundred thousand stores and shops is immense. 



142 European Correspondence. 

There are twenty-five thousand clothing establish- 
ments in Paris. Nearly half a million of men and 
women are employed in the shops ; the wages received 
give them a bare subsistence. The Emperor, in 
1856, purchased eighteen thousand square metres of 
ground, on the Boulevard Mazas, on which houses 
have been erected and rented to the poor at low 
rates. 

The Bank of France is a mammoth concern ; is 
under government control, and has the exclusive 
monopoly of issuing notes, which are payable at sight 
in coin. The bank was established in 1803, with a 
capital of ten million dollars, which has been increased 
to forty millions. It is managed by a governor, two 
deputy governors, three censors, and a council com- 
posed of twelve members. The accounts are made 
up daily and laid before the Board of Directors, and 
are published monthly. Their last statement showed 
thirty millions of dollars of specie in the vaults. It 
pays twelve to fifteen per cent, to its shareholders. 
The lowest rate of discount since 1852, was three and 
a half — the highest, nine per cent. During the past 
six months, when the rate of interest in the Bank of 
England was ten per cent., money was abundant in 
Paris at four per cent. Napoleon has in his council 
men well versed in political economy and finance. I 
asked my banker why he did not use his money 
in London while there was a difference of six per 
cent, in the rate of interest between the two cities. 
His reply was, that if his depositors knew he was 
using funds in London there would be a run on 



European Correspondence. 143 

his bank. The recent heavy failures in London have 
shaken the confidence of capitalists here in English 
credits. 

G. W. W. 



LETTER SIXTH. 



Humiliation of Napoleon III — Triumph of tlie Ger- 
mans — Paris a Hive of Busy Bees — Grand Hotel — 
Hotel Dieu — Cliolera — Armistice between Austria and 
Prussia. 

If the Emperor made a mistake in claiming Lan- 
dau and Sarlouis of the Prussians, he has shown his 
great wisdom in quietly and peaceably withdrawing 
his claim on German territory. Napoleon First would 
have risked his government, and sacrificed the lives 
of a hundred thousand men, rather than submit to 
the humiliation of being backed down by Bismark, 
which the present Emperor and every Frenchman 
must feel at this time. 

Napoleon III was not slow in discovering that there 
was fight in the obstinate Germans. The old King of 
Prussia is never happier than when engaged in the 
thickest of the battle, and he has at his command the 
best disciplined and trained army in the world, ready 
to march at a moment's notice to the battle-field. 
Count Bismark could therefore give a prompt and 
decisive reply to the modest request of the Emperor : 



144 European Correspondence. 

" Not one foot of German territory will Prussia yield." 
The mortification to French pride is withering in any 
light in which you can view the question. 

If the demand was so small as to be yielded, rather 
than provoke a dispute, it proved clearly the strength 
and mettle of the German power in promptly declar- 
ing that they would go to war with France rather than 
submit to even the shadow of dictation or exaction 
from the French Government. The settlement of 
this queston proves that the French are not prepared 
for war, and that they have a prudent and wise ruler. 
It also establishes the fact, that there is a great Ger- 
man Confederacy, which is not afraid to cross swords 
with the most powerful nation in Europe. I heartily 
rejoice that this question, which threatened the peace 
of Europe, has been settled, without a resort to arms. 

I have now been fifteen days looking at the beauties 
of the French metropolis. A fortnight more, and I 
hope to be pretty well acquainted with Paris. 

I was fortunate in making the acquaintance of Dr. 
Bogle, of New Orleans, on my way from New York. 
We are joined here by his brother, who is a surgeon 
in the Austrian army. My friends speak English, 
French and German, which facilitates our sight-seeing 
very much. We go forth from early morning till late 
at night. When it rains we visit the galleries of fine 
arts, museums, etc., and when the sun shines we ride 
on the tops of the omnibuses, and look at the crowds 
of people, at the fine houses and gardens. 

The omnibus lines run through the splendid boule- 
vards and broad avenues of Paris — streets as smooth 



European Correspondence. 145 

as the ocean beach. We have climbed to the tops of 
the lofty church steeples, and triumphal arches, and 
looked at the wonderful spectacle of more than a 
hundred thousand houses encircled within the walls 
of Paris. In this busy hive — this aggregation of two 
millions of souls — you see the restless French people, 
who, not a century ago, under the guidance of such 
spirits as Robespierre, made the streets run with 
blood. You remember a famous reply of Robespierre, 
justifying his massacres : " It should not be denied to 
the people, who have suffered for ages, to enjoy the 
vengeance of a single day." It was an uprising of a 
long oppressed democracy, against a tyrannical feudal 
aristocracy. The mob was not satisfied with the blood 
of the living monarchs, but they destroyed the long 
range of royal tombs, scattering their bodies in every 
stage of decay. The remains of Louis XVI, and 
Marie Antoinette, were burned. The Bastile was 
destroyed, and the churches and the galleries of art 
suffered severely in this reign of terror. The vast 
living multitude beneath us, unite in shouting, " Long 
live the Emperor." When the inmates of these dese- 
crated tombs had life in their bodies, the same homage 
was paid them by many who indulged in the savage 
brutality of desecrating their graves. Thus has it 
been from the beginning, and thus it will be to the 
end of time. 

The present Emperor is undoubtedly very popular, 

but there is a vast multitude of Frenchmen, of the 

Bourbon school, who regard him as an usurper, and 

say no nation in the world is governed with such 

19 



146 European Correspondence. 

tyranny as France. The elective franchise is nomi- 
nally extended to all, but those who are elected by the 
people cannot even introduce a bill before the legisla- 
tive body, without the sanction of the power controlled 
by the Emperor. The press, which is a true index of 
freedom of speech, has the eye of the censor on every 
line written, before it is read by the people. All the 
officers of this vast army of six hundred thousand 
men are appointed by the Emperor. Napoleon III, 
with all his faults, is doing a great deal for the 
French nation. He knows the composition of his 
people, and just how much liberty they can endure. 
The Emperor encourages the division of the great 
landed estates, and thus stimulates men with limited 
means to become owners of the soil. I am sure that 
the wealth of our own sunny South will be increased 
by the adoption of the French system. Our large 
landed proprietors must cut up their broad acres into 
small farms, and invite foreign immigration, and make 
it to the interest of the active laborers of the North, 
East and West, to come South with their energy and 
capital. 

I have been struck with the uniformity of the archi- 
tecture in Paris. The houses are substantially built 
of free stone, often six and seven stories high ; they 
frequently contain a family on each floor. 

The hotels are numerous, and some are very fine. 
The Grand Hotel is the largest in Europe, it has 
seven hundred rooms, and seventy saloons. The 
Hotel de Louvre has six hundred rooms. These two 
mammoth hotels are owned by one company. I have 



European Correspondence. 147 

divided my time between them, to learn their manage- 
ment, and to see the vast multitude of English and 
American travellers who frequent them. The French 
are too careful of their money to pay eight francs for 
a dinner, when they can get just as good for four. 
They generally stop at the smaller hotels. The Paris- 
ians are much more economical than the English or 
the Americans. 

You pay at the hotels a stipulated price for a room — 
the charge being regulated by the flight of stairs you 
have to climb. You can take your meals in the hotel, 
restaurant, or wherever it may suit your convenience. 
I engaged a room, according to the French count, on 
the second floor, but found it located on the fourth. 
I make it a rule now always to examine a chamber 
before engaging it. 

My travelling companions are both physicians, and 
regard it as a great privilege to visit the hospitals in 
Paris, as they are the finest in Europe. I tried to ex- 
cuse myself from this part of my sight seeing ; but 
my companions said that I would be much interested 
in the surgical operations we should witness. Our 
first visit was to one of the oldest hospitals in 
France, established in the year 1012 — Hotel Dieu the 
most ancient hospital in Paris. We were conducted 
through a number of dark rooms, rather poorly venti- 
lated, and having anything but an inviting appearance 
to me, especially as I observed them bringing in a 
good many sick persons on litters. The director of 
the hospital informed us that there were several hun- 
dred cases of cholera in the hospital, and that seventy 



148 Europe art Correspondence. 

patients had died the day previous, and that no sur- 
gical operations would be performed in the hospital 
for fear of spreading the cholera. This information 
quite astonished me, as the newspapers had not re- 
ported any deaths by cholera. My curiosity was 
satisfied, and I took French leave — that is to say, 
without inquiring for any gratuitous courtesies. I 
learn that the newspapers are not permitted to report 
the cholera deaths. 

I am much better pleased with the galleries of fine 
paintings than with the hospitals. Of the many 
things that my eyes have feasted upon during the 
past fortnight, I have been most pleased with the mag- 
nificent pictures and statuary. I shall not attempt to 
go into a minute description of what I see in my 
travels in Europe. I have not the time, as I am 
occupied from morning often till late at night in visit- 
ing the various objects of interest. A description of 
the sights to be seen in Paris alone would make a 
book — nay, many books. I do not propose, however, 
to write one. 

I shall leave here in a few days for the south of 
France. From thence I shall go (D. V.) to Switzer- 
land, Italy, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Austria, Bohemia, 
Saxony, Prussia, Hamburg, Holland and Belgium. 
Returning to Paris, for a few days, I will then take a 
peep at London, Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, 
Edinburgh, pass through the Green Isle to Queens- 
town, and then sail for sweet home ! I shall keep my 
eyes, ears and heart wide open, and endeavor to give 
your readers a brief account of what I see, and of 



European Correspondence. 149 

how the cities, the country, the people, the govern- 
ments, and things generally, look from my point. 
The armistice between Austria and Prussia will afford 
me a fine opportunity of visiting the Continent, and of 
looking upon the great armies of a million and a half 
of men, as they will remain in the field until the 
armistice expires. During the armistice neither army 
can change its position without written permission. 

The general impression is, that the war in Germany 
is ended. Napoleon III is understood to be very 
unhappy ! '• 

G. W. W. 

Paris, August, 1866. 



LETTER SEVENTH 



Railroad Ride from Paris to Lyons — Manufacture of 
Wine — Lyons — French Revolution — Jacobin Cruelty 
— Lyons Surpasses in Manufacture of Silk. 

An express train from Paris to Lyons will convey 
you in ten hours three hundred miles through a pic- 
turesque and interesting portion of France. On this 
route the soil is much better, and in a higher state of 
cultivation than between Brest and Paris. I have 
seen nothing in France to compare with the barren- 
ness of poverty-stricken Brittany. There a traveller 
looks in vain for neat and comfortable farm-houses. 
The frequent wars in France made it necessary in the 
early settlement of the country for the inhabitants to 
live in villages. 

The French are famous for clinging to old habits. 
The farmers live in low houses ; the stables, cow-stalls 
and pig-pens all within the same enclosure. Instead 
of a neat flower-garden, a huge mass of manure is 
piled up in front of the door. The people generally 
look cheerless and comfortless, as though they found 
it hard work to keep soul and body together. As 
you approach a town, avenues of majestic poplars 
line the splendidly macadamized roads on each side, 
and you are prepared to find stately mansions. But 
when you look at these trees, nearly a century old, 
rising more than a hundred feet in the air, and then 



European Correspondence. 151 

see the little squalid houses ten to twenty feet high, 
surrounded by scrubby weeping-willows, you feel how 
sudden is the descent from the sublime to the ridicu- 
lous. 

On our route we passed through Burgundy and 
Champagne, the celebrated wine districts of France. 
Near Dijon begins a chain of hills, about a thousand 
feet in height. These are covered with vineyards 
which ascend in rows on the sunny sides of the hills, 
and spread along the table-land on the summit. The 
vines are planted, in trenches two feet apart, and are 
trained on poles three to four feet high. It is said the 
quality of the grape improves with the age of the 
vine. The young vines produce larger quantities, but 
of inferior quality. An acre of ground will yield 
about four hundred gallons of wine. Potatoes, clover, 
grass and maize are interspersed with the vineyards, 
and the cherry, prune, almond and walnut trees are 
dotted over the fields. 

For the making of red wine, grapes are thrown 
into troughs and are trodden by men and women with 
heavy wooden shoes till the grapes are broken. They 
are then transferred to vats into which the juice of 
the grape, as it ran from the treading press, had been 
conveyed. Fermentation takes place generally in a 
few days. As it slackens, the liquor begins to sub- 
side, and, finally, sinks within the top of the vat. 
The stalks and skins of the grapes float on the top. 
The wine is then drawn off into large hogsheads and 
barrels, but is not generally offered for sale until it is 
two or three years old. 



152 t European Cofrcspondencc. 

The champagne wine is made from a small but 
extremely sweet grape. The preparation is much 
more difficult and expensive than that of the ordinary- 
wines. After the champagne is bottled, a second fer- 
mentation is produced by putting into each bottle a 
small solution of sugar candy dissolved in wine. The 
bottles are closely watched and the temperature of the 
air carefully regulated, often by the use of ice, to pro- 
mote or check fermentation. It is said that at least 
ten per cent, of the bottles burst from fermentation. 

The high price of genuine champagne may be 
accounted for by the loss from breakage, and the cost 
of manufacture, and the immense demand for it. You 
seldom see the Frenchman drinking champagne. The 
cheap claret and beer are their constant drinks. When 
the Parisian would drink champagne, he goes without 
the walls, and then escapes the octroi, or municipal 
duty, which doubles the price. 

As we proceed south, we pass through a number 
of fertile valleys filled with orchards and green pas- 
tures, on which fine herds of cattle and sheep are to 
be seen, and frequently immense flocks of geese and 
ducks. You seldom see chickens around the farm- 
houses ; but the splendid fat cow is the most com- 
fortable looking animal in or out of the establishment. 

And now we are in the beautiful City of Lyons. 
Like our own City of Charleston, it nestles between 
two rivers, the Rhone and the Saone. Lyons was 
founded six hundred years B. C. Few cities possess 
historical associations of such deep and thrilling inter- 
est. Large silk manufactories were established here 



European Correspondence. 153 

as early as 1450. It was here that in the sixteenth 
century the Roman Catholics and Protestants carried 
on a war, which was only exceeded in atrocity by the 
French Revolution of 1793. At that period, Lyons 
was the second city in France in size and population, 
and superior to Paris in commerce and manufactures. 
In 1793, the Jacobins, under Chalier, made an attack 
on Lyons. The merchants and manufacturers united 
with the royalists, and, after great slaughter on both 
sides, were victorious. The notorious Chalier was 
captured, and the guillotine, which he had sent from 
Paris to destroy his enemies, was used in severing his 
own head. 

This only the more excited the Jacobins, who were 
led on by such blood-thirsty men as Robespierre, 
Marat, Collot d'Herbois, Fouche, and others. The 
National Convention ordered Kellermann, commander 
of the Jacobins, to concentrate his forces around 
Lyons. The loyalists, priests, and royal families had 
fled to Lyons from Paris, and from all quarters. The 
city was under the command of Precy, who, with 
thirty thousand citizens and refugees, gallantly de- 
fended it for more than two months. Lyons was not 
surrendered until forty thousand had perished by shot, 
shell and fire. The royal forces were reduced to a 
few thousand — their ammunition exhausted. Famine 
and disease arrested the power of all further resist- 
ance. Precy, with three thousand of his brave com- 
rades, made their escape from the city, but were 
pursued, and most of them slain. The total annihila- 
tion of Lyons was decreed by the National Conven- 
20 



154 European Correspondence. 

tion, and faithfully carried out. It was ordered that 
the very name of the city should perish, and it should 
henceforth be known as the "Free City." A monu- 
ment was erected amid the ruins, with the inscription, 
"Lyons took up arms against liberty. Lyons is no 
more." 

The Jacobins, after the fall of the city, to further 
enrage the soldiers, exhibited in the streets an urn 
containing the ashes of Chalier — " Chalier," exclaimed 
Fouche — "the blood of the aristocrats shall be the 
incense we will offer you. We have sworn the peo- 
ple shall be avenged, and all that vice and crime have 
erected shall be destroyed. The traveller shall be- 
hold in the ruins of this superb and rebellious city 
naught save a few huts inhabited by the friends of 
equality." 

More than twenty thousand men were employed 
for weeks in destroying Lyons. The prisons, dun- 
geons, and cellars were filled to overflowing with the 
citizens and the noble families who had taken refuge 
in the city. The guillotine was kept at work night 
and day, until the public square became so flooded 
with human blood that the Terrorist chiefs, fearing to 
rouse the sensibility of the people, decided on a 
wholesale massacre. The prisoners were conveyed to 
the opposite shore of the Rhone. As they marched 
through the streets in chains to the place of execution 
they united in singing, "To die for one's country is 
the happiest and most enviable fate." They were 
placed in long lines of a hundred each, and mowed 
down with grape and musketry. Those who escaped 



European Correspondence. 155 

immediate death were charged upon by the cavalry, 
and with the horses' feet, sabre and pistol shots, were 
slain to the last victim. Their bodies were thrown 
into the Rhone. Thus perished the flower and youth 
of Lyons, and those who had taken refuge from the 
surrounding country. 

The clergy, nobility, citizens and tradesmen — all 
who opposed Jacobinism — shared a similar fate. The 
reign of terror was at its height. Reason, religion 
and justice had fled. The teachings of the Jacobins 
were: that all things were admissible to those who 
acted in the spirit of the revolution, (or the devil.) 
From those who opposed them, life, property and 
everything was to be taken. The rich were to be 
stripped of their wealth, under the plea of replenish- 
ing the National Treasury, i. e. their own lustful 
carpet-bags ? All forms of worship were abolished. 
The Roman Catholic was as obnoxious as a Protes- 
tant. The Republican's God was his country ! 
Fouche, on entering the city, issued the following 
proclamation : 

" All those who favored rebellion in any way, have 
forfeited their heads to the block. If you are patriots, 
you will be able to distinguish your friends — you will 
sequestrate all others. Let no consideration stop you 
— neither age, sex, or relationship. Take by force all 
that a citizen has that is superfluous. For any man 
to have more than he requires, is an abuse — extirpate 
all forms of worship — elevate the temple of reason — 
aid us in striking these great blows, or we shall our- 
selves strike you." 



156 European Correspondence. 

What a pity Brownlow and Butler, and too many of 
their kidney, were not born in France, instead of 
America. They are as full of the Jacobin spirit as 
Robespierre or Fouche. There are men now living 
in Lyons who witnessed the horrid massacre of 1793. 
They have seen the beautiful city which was levelled 
to the ground and the ploughshare ordered to pass 
over its edifices, spring again into life and prosperity. 
So may it be with the desolated cities of our own 
dear South. 

Lyons has now a population of three hundred 
thousand, and is one of the most important commer- 
cial and manufacturing cities of France. There are 
eight thousand establishments for the manufacture of 
silk, employing thirty thousand looms. In the manu- 
facture of silk, Lyons surpasses every city in Europe. 
The weavers are a boisterous set. In 1834 there was 
a revolt among them, and the mob held the city 
for several days. They were put down by the mili- 
tary, but not until several thousands were killed. It 
was found for a long time necessary to keep a stand- 
ing army in Lyons of thirty thousand men, to 
preserve order. A large number of the male operatives 
have gone into the army, and the women have taken 
their places at the loom, and are not so difficult to 
manage. A commercial tribunal has been established, 
composed half of masters and half of workmen, to 
settle disputes respecting wages. This council has 
been found to work well. 

From the observatory you have a magnificent view 
of the city and surrounding country. I was told we 



European Correspondence. 157 

could see Mt. Blanc. There was, however, too much 
smoke arising from the factory chimneys to see a 
hundred miles in the distance. In Lyons I hear the 
familiar buzz of mosquitoes and feel their pointed 
attentions. I am thus keenly reminded of certain 
precincts of my own sunny home. 

G. W. W. 
Lyons, 1 866. 



LETTER EIGHTH 



Lyons to Strasburg — Manufactures in France— Cathe- 
dral of Strasburg — Remarkable Clock — Pates de foie 
gras — Mummies in Cathedral of St. Thomas. 

From Lyons to Strasburg, you pass through many 
fertile valleys, bounded by precipitous mountains of 
considerable height. At Millhouse, I stopped a few 
hours to look through that interesting manufacturing 
city of sixty thousand inhabitants. Here I find large 
warehouses filled with American cotton. Owing to 
the ragged and soiled appearance of the bales, they 
looked as if they had run the blockade. I doubt not 
some of it was hidden away in the swamps of Carolina 
and Georgia to escape the torch of Sherman's army. 

Millhouse is one of the greatest manufacturing 
cities in France. The mills are turned mainly by 
water conveyed through canals from the River 111, 
which flows in the suburbs of the city. The opera- 



158 European Correspondence. 

tives do not live in houses near the factories, as with 
us, but many of them come from small villages for 
miles around, bringing with them their scanty meals. 
The most of the mills are employed in the manufac- 
ture of cotton prints and muslins. It is said that the 
quantity of prints manufactured here exceeds that of 
any other city in the world. The goods are of a very 
superior quality, and have a fine reputation in Paris 
and other large cities. There are a number of mills 
for the spinning of cotton, but in this article they find 
it difficult to compete with the English manufactories. 
Here is a manufacturing town that labors under the 
great disadvantage of having to transport the raw cot- 
ton from America, three thousand miles by water, and 
five hundred miles through France by rail, with the 
further disadvantages of a great scarcity of coal and 
wood. Our manufacturers have the raw material at 
their very door — water, coal, and wood in abundance, 
provisions cheap — and yet the cry is, protection ! pro- 
tection ! The time will come when the Southern 
States will become the great manufacturing districts 
of the universe — cheap labor will find its way South 
from the over-crowded States of the Old World. 
What we want now is a united and stable govern- 
ment — a government that will protect life, liberty and 
property. It matters not so much whether we have a 
King or a Democratic President, so that we have wise 
rulers. Capital will go where it is protected and 
yields the largest return. Scarcely a generation has 
passed away since the first bale of cotton was shipped 
from America to England. A hundred years will 



European Correspondence. 159 

work wonderful changes in our great republic. The 
North American States will drain Europe and Asia, 
not only of their surplus population, but of the vast 
wealth which has been for so many ages accumulated 
there. 

We are now at Strasburg. This was formerly a 
German free independent city. Louis the XIV seized 
it in time of peace and annexed it to France ; but this 
unwarrantable act did not make Frenchmen of the 
people of Strasburg. They look German and generally 
speak the Ge'rman language thoroughly. French is 
taught in the schools. 

The greatest attraction in Strasburg is the cele- 
brated cathedral with its lofty spire, on which busy 
mechanics have been at work for six hundred years, 
and have not yet reached the height of the ambitious 
architect. The cathedral is one of the finest Gothic 
edifices in Europe. Its spire is the highest in the 
world. It is thirty feet higher than the pyramids of 
Egypt, and one hundred and thirty feet higher than 
St. Paul's, London. This is one of the church steeples 
I did not have the courage to climb, as I was informed 
people occasionally dropped through the open work, 
falling a distance of some five hundred feet. The 
bishops have found it necessary to issue many indul- 
gences to procure money to build the " Notre Dame" 
or Cathedral of Strasburg. The church is decorated 
with some fine statues and numerous paintings. Its 
extreme height has made it a mark for the lightning, 
and it has been struck more than a dozen times. In 
1654, the spire was entirely demolished by lightning, 



160 European Correspondence. 

but was soon restored. In 1728, an earthquake came 
near shaking it to the ground. Its stained windows 
are beautiful. One of them is unusually large, being 
fifty feet in diameter. In 1793, a year long to be re- 
membered throughout France, the cathedral fell into 
the hands of the Jacobins. They caused several hun- 
dred statues of kings and saints to be cast into the 
streets and river, and converted the church into an 
arsenal and commissary store. The cut of the Jacobin 
sabre is to be seen on many statues, paintings and 
church altars, not only in Strasburg, but in Paris and 
other cities. 

In the cathedral is an astronomical clock almost as 
celebrated as the tall spire. Three German professors 
spent a lifetime in trying to perfect it, but did not 
complete their work. It is called " the clock of the 
three sages." This celebrated clock had racked the 
brains of the German mathematicians for three hun- 
dred years, and was finally perfected by Schwilgne, 
who is now a resident of Strasburg. It shows the 
hour, day of the week, of the month, the year, and 
many church celebrations. Precisely at twelve its 
full mechanism is set in motion. At that hour the 
crowd is generally so great as to require the police to 
preserve order. The figure of Death is surrounded 
by four figures — representing the four ages of life. 
Childhood strikes the first quarter — Youth the sec- 
ond — Manhood the third, and decrepit Old Age the 
fourth ; (on the Continent the clock always strikes 
each quarter of the hour.) As Death strikes the 
hours, Youth turns over the hour-glass that he holds 



European Correspondence. 161 

in his hand. The twelve Apostles then make their 
appearance, bowing before Christ, as they pass, one at 
a time. Our Saviour lifts his hand to bless them. 
During that time a cock, which is perched on the 
right, flaps his wings and crows three times. Mr. 
Schwilgne has recently added an ecclesiastic compute, 
with all its indications, presenting also the revolu- 
tions and eclipses of the sun and moon for an in- 
definite time. As an intricate and fine piece of 
workmanship, the old clock surpasses anything I 
have yet seer.. Perhaps to the majority of Americans 
it looks like an unnecessary expenditure of time and 
labor. It proves, however, what skill and mechanism 
can produce. 

Strasburg is about as celebrated for its pates dc foie 
gras, as for its tall spire and wonderful clock. The 
pates are made from the livers of geese, which are 
enlarged to an immense size by shutting the geese in 
coops, too narrow to allow them to turn, stuffing 
them three times a day with maize made into paste, 
and steeped in sulphur water to increase the appetite. 

The lager beer of Strasburg is very fine. The hop 
from which it is made grows to a great height in the 
valleys of the 111 and the Rhine. Our guide pointed 
out the place where two thousand Jews were burned 
in 1348. They were accused of having poisoned the 
wells and fountains, causing the plague which deso- 
lated the city about that time. For nearly a century 
no Israelite was permitted to live or worship in the 
town. Now every one is free to worship under his 
own vine and fig-tree. Religious toleration is general 
21 



1 62 European Correspondence. 

throughout France. Those who choose to keep their 
shops open and work on the Sabbath can do so. 
A true Catholic never fails to go to mass on Sabbath 
morning. Searching, stinging poverty makes it nec- 
essary for the poor to labor on the seventh day of 
the week. With us we make a great show in the 
observance of the Sabbath, by requiring the stores 
and places of business to be closed. A conscientious 
Jew, who shuts his shop on his Sabbath, is also re- 
quired to close on the Christian Sabbath, while the 
mammoth railroads and steamships, employing thou- 
sands of men and women, are permitted to run extra 
trains on Sunday. This looks to me like straining at 
a gnat and swallowing a camel. Perhaps the public 
authorities are of the opinion that. corporations have 
no souls to be saved or punished. 

Strasburg is regarded as one of the strongest forti- 
fied cities in France. The arsenal contains one hun- 
dred and seventy-five thousand stand of arms and 
one thousand cannon. There is an ordnance foundery 
here, and one of the largest depots of artillery to be 
found in France. The country around the city, 
between the Rhine and the 111, can be laid under 
water — thus rendering Strasburg almost unapproach- 
able by an army. Louis Napoleon made an unsuc- 
cessful effort to seize Strasburg in 1836. The River 
111 runs through it, forming canals over which there 
are numerous bridges to connect to different quarters 
of the city. It is a place of considerable commerce, 
and has numerous manufactories of cloth, linen, car- 
pets, tobacco, beer and ale. It is connected with the 



European Correspondence. 163 

Mediterranean and the Atlantic, by canals, and with 
the North Sea by the Rhine. The city is surrounded 
by a strong wall. At 10 o'clock the gates are closed, 
after which neither ingress or egress is allowed. 

We visited the Cathedral of St. Thomas (Protes- 
tant) to see the monument of the famous Marshal Saxe, 
erected to his memory by Louis XV. It represents 
the Marshal descending to the grave, while France, 
personified in a female figure, is endeavoring to detain 
him, and at the same time to stay the threatening 
advance of Death. In this church are deposited in 
metallic coffins, covered with glass, two bodies said 
to be those of a count and his daughter. It is a 
disgrace to humanity to exhibit to strangers such 
disgusting spectacles. When I was a boy, in the 
mountains of Georgia, I rode twelve miles, on a cold 
December day, to see a man hung up by the neck 
until he was dead, dead, dead ! From that time to 
this I have been haunted by the remembrance of that 
poor fellow. I presume I shall be haunted the rest 
of my life by the horrid Strasburg mummies. 

G. W. W. 

Strasburg, August, 1866. 



LETTER NINTH. 



Switzerland — Grand Scenery — Bath of Plcffcrs — Fatal 
Accident to four Ladies — Coirc — Crossing the Alps 
over a road hewn out by First Napoleon — Gorge of 
Via Mala, Italy — Lake Como. 

In extent of territory Switzerland is about as large 
as the State of South Carolina, and is the oldest liv- 
ing republic in the world. Surrounded by kings and 
emperors on all sides, it is wonderful how she has 
been able to maintain her republican form of govern- 
ment. The framers of the American Constitution 
must have copied extensively from that of Switzer- 
land ; in many respects the laws, customs, and usages 
of the two republics are the same. 

The people of Switzerland are hardy, robust, indus- 
trious and economical. The women, as in France, 
work in the fields, artd make themselves useful as 
well as ornamental. The peasants are more comforta- 
ble and look happier than the same class in France. 
They retain their ancient manner of dress, and live 
upon oat-bread, milk and cheese. If a French peas- 
ant visits Paris a few times she doffs her old costume, 
and is next seen, especially on holy-days, in the gay- 
est attire. The plain white handkerchief is supplanted 
by a small cap worn on the back of the head, covered 
with trinkets and brass embroidery, and a boddice 
decorated with gay ribbons. 



European Correspondence. 165 

The houses in Switzerland, although generally 
small, look clean, and wear an air of freshness. 

I had heard much of Switzerland, and was prepared 
to find charming lakes, lovely valleys, and majestic 
mountains, but the half had not been told. No coun- 
try of the same extent in the world presents such a 
diversity of appearance and climate. You look at 
the long range of Alps, with frightful precipices cov- 
ered with perpetual snow, and hundreds of glaciers 
resembling so many seas of glittering ice, and at the 
lower range of mountains green with forests of fir, 
vines, flowers and grass, on which herds of cattle, 
sheep and goats are to be seen grazing, watched by 
the lonely shepherd boy and his faithful dog. Turn 
your eyes and behold the verdant valleys, as they 
nestle between the mountains with their crystal im- 
petuous iced streams, as they come falling and dash- 
ing thousands of feet over precipices and rocks from 
the snowy regions ; and there you see the charming 
lakes covered with steamers, conveying the delighted 
traveller, and rich manufactures of the beautiful cities 
that line their borders. All these sights, however 
varied, are to be seen in the travel of a few days. 

I spent four days in Switzerland, and thought I 
had seen enough of its beauties, and was en route 
for Austria, when at the Falls of the Rhine near 
Schaff hausen — which an English writer compares to 
Niagara, and which are about as far short of the Falls 
of Niagara as Tom Thumb is of the Russian giant — 
I accidentally met with Judge Aldis, of Vermont, and 
his good wife, who were on their way to Pleffers, 



1 66 European Correspondence. 

which they described as the most remarkable spot in 
Switzerland. 

I decided to accompany them. We sailed through 
the Lake of Constance to Rorschalk. The Lake of 
Constance is tame compared with other Swiss lakes. 
Its peculiarity is that it is bordered by five different 
States. In a sail of as many hours, your baggage is 
examined by the customhouse officers of Switzerland, 
Baden, Wurtemberg, Bavaria and Austria. From 
Rorschalk we travelled by rail, arriving at Ragatz 
about 9 o'clock, P. M. The hotels were crowded and 
we found difficulty in getting accommodations. We 
finally obtained comfortable quarters at Hotel Tamina, 
where we met a party who gave such glowing de- 
scriptions of the Pass of the Splugen over the Alps, 
that we decided to go there also — thus taking me still 
farther out of my route in the direction of Italy. 

We arranged to be up at 5 o'clock next morning 
and start for the Bath of Pleffers, two and a half miles 
distant. We were nearly an hour in ascending the 
steep mountain which afforded the wildest scenery — 
arriving at the baths a little after sunrise. There are 
two large buildings connected by a chapel a short 
distance above the roaring Tamina. The narrow road 
leading to the hot springs is grand beyond anything 
I have seen. You pass through a mountain gorge a 
quarter of a mile long, too narrow to admit the rays 
of the sun. Only a small skirt of the sky is to be 
seen, and in many places the mountain closes over 
your head entirely. I could but think of the possi- 
bility of a land-slide, which frequently occurs in these 



European Correspondence. 167 

ravines, in which event we should be shut out from 
the world quite too long for our comfort. At the 
extremity of the narrow bridge you enter a tunnel 
dark as a dungeon, which leads you to the hot springs. 
The temperature is one hundred and twenty Fahren- 
heit. In this smoking, hot, sulphurous cavern, you 
feel as if you were not far removed from the gulf of 
the region that burns with fire and brimstone. 

The springs are celebrated for their medicinal qual- 
ities, and visitors are attracted here from all quarters. 
Formerly patients were let down from the cliffs of the 
mountain by ropes into the baths. Living in them 
night and day, they required neither fire nor blankets 
to keep them warm. The road leading to the baths 
is a very dangerous one. Only a few days since, as 
four English lady travellers were descending the 
mountains, their horses became frightened and dashed 
over the steep precipice, dragging the unfortunate 
ladies with them. They were instantly killed or 
washed over the Falls of Tamina and drowned, the 
driver escaping. Three of the bodies were found and 
buried at Ragatz, near the monument of the German 
philosopher, Schelling. The British chaplain had 
great difficulty in getting permission to perform the 
ceremony according to the ritual . of the Church of 
England. The Roman Catholic authorities granted it 
on condition that the cross should be carried before 
the corpses. 

It was said the government would take immediate 
measures to remedy the unguarded state of the road, 
but nothing has been done. You wind around the 



1 68 European Correspondence. 

mountains over deep precipices without the slightest 
protection. The wonder is that more accidents do 
not occur. Our driver dashed down the mountain as 
though we were in the most secure road. I did not 
feel at all comfortable until we reached the plain. 

From Ragatz we went by rail to Coire, the termi- 
nus of the railways leading into Italy. Coire is an 
old Roman town of six thousand inhabitants. The 
bishop's palace and the quarters occupied by the 
Roman Catholics are walled around and closed by 
gates, it is said to keep out Protestants. In most of 
the old palaces and cathedrals on the Continent you 
are shown pieces of the original cross (?) on which our 
Saviour was crucified. I suppose those who have 
charge of these precious relics have told the story so 
often that they now really believe it. 

In 1799 a great battle was fought at Coire between 
the French and the Austrians. The Austrian army 
was surprised by the rapid movements of the French 
and was defeated. Young Napoleon commanded the 
French ; his ambition led him across the Alps into 
Italy ; but there being no roads at that time over 
which he could pass, he put thirty thousand soldiers 
at work, and, in a few months, was able to take his 
triumphant army across the Alps into Italy. 

At Coire we hired a coach drawn by four horses 
to carry us to the Pass of the Splugen. The verdant 
valleys abound in fine scenery, and are covered with 
good pastures, orchards, and moderately comfortable 
farm houses. The high mountains, to the right and 
left, look like so many huge banks of snow. In the 



European Correspondence. 1 69 

little village of Reichenau our guide pointed out the 
cottage in which Louis Phillippe (late King of the 
French) took refuge during the revolution. He 
entered the town on foot with a pack on his back in 
1793. Royalty at that period was greatly below par. 
It was temporarily "played out" in France, if not 
elsewhere. The young Frenchman was employed as 
a teacher of French history and mathematics. While 
residing here his mother was banished from France 
and his father fell under the Jacobin guillotine. 

On the brew of the green hills are to be seen 
numerous tenantless castles, relics of glorious old 
days. I visited a few of them to see the remains of 
the fallen splendor of the feudal aristocracy who 
were driven from the castles by the peasants they 
had so long oppressed. 

Through this portion of Switzerland you have a 
mixed population of Germans, Italians and French, 
speaking as many languages as there are nations. 
German is taught in the schools. We arrive at Zillis, 
where we get dinner and change our jaded horses for 
four mountain ponies, and also change our coach for 
one suited for crossing the Alps. The valley of the 
Rhine is closed by the mountains, and we now com- 
mence our assent over the Alps through the gorge of 
Via Mala. Language fails to describe the awful 
scenery met with on all sides. Just imagine your- 
self in a narrow road hewn out of the mountain sides 
— you look upward at the almost perpendicular rocks 
and cliffs hanging over your head, three thousand feet 
high, and beneath you into a chasm one thousand feet 
22 



I jo European Conrspondcnce. 

deep, so narrow on each side as to be spanned by a 
suspension bridge, which is hung from mountain to 
mountain like a spider's web, five hundred feet high, 
over the rushing, roaring Rhine; the river being fre- 
quently lost to sight in the depth of the chasm beneath. 
Before reaching the summit we cross four suspension 
Bridges. This road seemingly so perilous, is yet 
more secure than that of Pleffers. 

The scenery descending into Italy is almost as wild 
and grand as through Via Mala. You pass water- 
falls several hundred feet high, and through narrow 
fertile valleys until you reach Lake Como, which is 
said to be one of the most charming lakes in Italy. 

As I travel through this part of the world — old 
they call it, but all new to me — with my eyes, ears 
and heart open all the time, looking at its magnificent 
scenery, its long range of lofty mountains, its old 
quaint houses, its kingly mansions, its peasants in their 
simple costume, and its princes clothed in their rich 
robes; milch cows driven in carts by Swiss and 
Italian dames, with a few bushels of oats to be ground 
into meal to feed the hungry children of their mother's 
numerous household; at the cataracts as they come 
dashing down the rugged mountains; the green 
fertile valleys filled with gentle lakes, flowers, fruits 
and flocks; at the faithful shepherd dog as he keeps 
the old widow's goat (which to her is milk and bread) 
on her plantation of a hundred square feet — all these 
make pictures which are indelibly impressed on my 
heart — pictures stored away in memory to be called 
up when I shall have grown weary, or when misfor- 



European Correspondence. 171 

tune or cruel war takes from me the means of travel. 
Here I have locked up securely in my bosom a rich 
album, filled with pictures more beautiful than 
Raphael's or Rubens's, because they are the work 
of the great and sovereign Master Architect. 

G. W. W. 



LETTER TENTH. 



Basle — Geneva — John Calvin — Arrival at Munich — 
Stopping by Mistake with the King — Fine Accom- 
modations — Artists Encouraged in Munich — Royal 
Bronze Foundery — Monument of Son of Josephine in 
Church of St. Michaels. 

Basle which is within a short distance of the French 
and German lines, was the first city I entered in 
Switzerland. In wealth and population it ranks next 
to Geneva. The Rhine divides the city, but it is 
united by a fine bridge and small ferry boats. 

Basle has several cotton and paper mills, and ribbon, 
muslin and other manufactories. It carries on consid- 
erable trade, and does a large banking business. 
A few hours run by rail and by steamer on the lake, 
brings us to the pretty City of Geneva, on the Rhone, 
which has a population of fifty thousand. Geneva is 
the largest city in Switzerland, and the great thorough- 
fare for travellers from Paris to Italy. Its delightful 
climate and good society attracts foreigners. Geneva 



\J2 European Correspondence. 

has the largest foreign population of any city in 
Switzerland. It was the home of the celebrated John 
Calvin, whose religious doctrines have found their 
way to all parts of Christendom. Calvin was elevated 
from an itinerant preacher to Dictator of the Republic, 
and it is said he ruled the Democracy with an iron 
rod. Those who entertained and preached anti-Calvin- 
istic doctrines, were punished in the most cruel and 
summary manner. 

During the French revolution the city and territory 
of Geneva fell into the hands of the French, and was 
made a department of France under the name of 
Leman. After the expulsion of the French in 1814, 
it was annexed to Switzerland. Geneva is celebrated 
for the manufacture of watches and jewelry. There 
are made here more than one hundred thousand 
watches per annum. 

The Lake of Geneva is the largest in Switzerland, 
and possesses some fine scenery, but not equal to that 
of Lucerne and Brienz. These lakes are small, but 
their surroundings are charming. Interlaken is the 
Saratoga of Switzerland. Here you meet the gay and 
fashionable from all quarters. 

I must bid adieu to Switzerland and its beauties, 
and pay my respects to the German Fatherland. On 
my way to Munich,. I inquired of a gentleman for the 
best hotel in Munich, and was told the Hotel of the 
Four Seasons was the finest in Germany — "equal to 
a palace." I arrived about 9 o'clock at night; was 
tired and had fallen asleep. The conductor awoke me 
for the ticket. I jumped into a carriage, with my eyes 



European Correspondence. 173 

scarcely open, and requested the coachman to drive 
me to the Hotel of the Four Kings. "Yah! Yah!" 
he replied, and drove me through long winding streets, 
finally stopping at what I supposed to be the hotel. 
I passed the Bavarian soldiers who were marching in 
front of the door, rung the bell, and out stepped two 
porters in livery. They ushered me into a large room 
filled with pictures, portraits, and fine furniture. I 
thought it was rather a queer looking hotel, but quite 
coming up to my friend's description, being equal to 
a palace. I ordered supper, and told them to be in a 
hurry, as I had eaten nothing since breakfast. I was 
leisurely taking my tea, when a gentleman entered 
the room and apologized in broken English for the 
absence of the King! said he was on a visit to the 
mountains for a few weeks, but the secretary would 
receive any message or communication for his majesty. 
I discovered that I was in the King's palace instead 
of a hotel, and had to get out of this pleasant little 
difficulty in the best way I could. I regretted the 
absence of his majesty, pulled out my passport, 
stretched out the American eagle, giving my papers 
as much the appearance of official documents as 
possible, folded them with great care, and requested 
the porter to order a carriage and I would go to the 
hotel. 

At Basle, Switzerland, I had stopped at a very fine 
hotel called the Three Kings. I associated the two 
hotels, and asked for the Four Kings instead of the 
Four Seasons — perhaps a very natural mistake. On 
the Continent the first-class hotels are generally finer 



1/4 European Correspondence. 

and handsomer buildings than the palaces. The 
palaces and all public buildings are also called hotels. 
The carriage was announced as being ready, and you 
may imagine my surprise to find that it was from the 
royal stables. Coming as I did from the palace, I 
was ushered into a large room, opening into an 
elegant saloon, and was waited upon with marked 
attention. I began to feel the advantage of associating 
with royalty. On arriving in a city it is my custom 
to request the landlord to engage a carriage and 
guide for me, so as to lose no time in visiting the 
various places of interest. My host, instead of 
employing a one-horse cab — such as I generally use 
when alone — engaged a splendid carriage drawn by 
two horses, with liveried driver and footman, and 
the guide was also in uniform. I thought as I had 
started out on a grand scale in Munich, I might as 
well go through with it. I never had so little trouble 
in getting access to the various places I desired to 
visit. I could but laugh as I drove through the 
streets of Munich in such style, the people staring at 
me — little dreaming they were looking at a poor 
subjugated rebel ! I was glad there were no Americans 
in Munich. I have not seen an American or English 
traveller in two days. They have not yet ventured 
into the war territory. My aristocratic equipage and 
fine apartments cost me fifteen dollars in gold, which 
was quite cheap, considering the style in which I 
moved. My meals were served in my room. I left 
Munich as quickly as possible, quite satisfied with 
my experience in high life. 



European Correspondence. 175 

When the Prussians came like an avalanche through 
Hanover and Soxony into Bavaria — walking over the 
Bavarians as though they were Mexicans — the King 
grew nervous and fled to the mountains; hence his 
absence when I called upon him. I had the pleasure 
of seeing his pretty mother, who, judging from her pic- 
ture, was a beauty when young. She looked at me 
as though she thought I was a Prussian after her son, 
Maximilian II. The late King Louis is still alive, but 
does not reside in the palace. He is a poet and artist, 
and to him the magnificent metropolis of Bavaria is 
indebted mainly for its splendor and prosperity. He 
encouraged the fine arts, and collected galleries of the 
finest paintings in Germany. More than a thousand 
artists reside in Munich. I was shown by an artist 
long lists of paintings purchased by the Allstons, 
Chisolms, Horlbecks, Rutledges, Pinckneys, and other 
South Carolina names. I saw many of these pictures 
shortly after the fall of Charleston, carted in govern- 
ment wagons through the desolate streets of the Queen 
City, destined for the North, and transferred to gov- 
ernment transports. On whose walls do they now 
hang? 

The palace in Munich has a fine collection of paint- 
ings and statuary. One of the paintings struck me as 
typifying the king; the difference, however, is that 
Joseph is represented as fleeing from a woman, when 
the King is only running from the men. 

I was much interested in the Royal Bronze Foundery. 
Most of the statues erected in Germany of late years 
are cast here. In the foundery I saw the statues of 



176 European Correspondence. 

Washington, Patrick Henry, Jefferson, Madison, Henry- 
Clay, Thos. H. Benton, Horace Mann, and others. 
Also, models of the new Capital at Washington, and 
the State House at Richmond, with its memorable 
motto, " Sic Semper Tyrants." The sight of this 
brought to mind the crazy Booth and the late unfor- 
tunate President Lincoln. 

The Bavaria, which was cast here in bronze, is a 
female figure nearly one hundred feet in height. It 
represents the protectress of Bavaria, accompanied 
by a lion; a stairway leads up into its head, which is 
large enough to hold six persons. There are a num- 
ber of fine churches and cathedrals in Munich. The 
"Church of our Lady" is, perhaps, the handsomest. 
The son of Josephine and step-son of the first Napo- 
leon, Eugene, Duke of Leuchtenburg, was buried in 
the handsome church of St. Michaels, and a suitable 
monument erected over his grave. He married a 
daughter of the King of Bavaria. 

I go from Munich to Vienna, and hope to visit the 
great battle-field of Koniggratz. 

G. W. W. 

Munich, Bavaria, August, 1866. 



LETTER ELEVENTH 



Vienna — Disgraceful Defeat of the Anstrians — Pnissian 
Needle-Gun — Strength of the Austrian and Prussian 
Armies. 

All Europe is surprised at the sudden and disgrace- 
ful defeat of Austria — especially when her numerical 
strength is considered, and the character which her 
soldiers have always maintained for bravery and skill 
in warfare. Austria has a population nearly double 
that of Prussia, and the States which allied themselves 
with her were capable of furnishing a respectable 
army. Bavaria alone can muster one hundred thou- 
sand brave soldiers. Wurtemburg is a State of con- 
siderable power. The Bohemians and Hessians have 
the reputation of fighting like tigers, and the Han- 
overians are noted for their skill and bravery ; the 
Saxons also have a high reputation. Some persons 
attribute the failure to the terror of the Prussian 
needle-gun, and its superiority over the weapon used 
by the Austrians. The odds were always three or 
four to one against them, even when their numbers 
were equal. Many attribute the failure to a want of 
efficient generals and a more thorough organization. 
The Austrian army was made up of such a variety of 
troops and races of men, that it often occurred that 
soldiers serving in the same company were unable to 
understand each other's speech and word of command. 
23 



178 European Correspondence. 

So far as I can judge, after a free intercourse with 
men and officers, whose States had allied themselves 
with Austria, there is a religious and political element 
that has had much to do in bringing about the failure 
in the great battles fought in Bohemia the last of June, 
and the decisive battle of July 3d, which is compared 
in Europe only to the battle of Waterloo. The Gov- 
ernment of Austria is thoroughly Roman Catholic 
and aristocratic, while that of Prussia is Protestant. 
Besides, their ruler, although a king, was at the head 
of his army with his two sons, in the thickest of the 
fight — thus endearing himself and government to the 
people. The Protestants and Republicans are quite 
content to be under the great Protestant Prussian 
Government. If the people of Austria had been 
united, as were the Southern Confederates, they never 
could have been conquered. The Prussian system of 
making every man in the kingdom a soldier, I may 
say an educated soldier, gave them from the beginning 
of the war three hundred thousand men in line of 
battle, which were rapidly marched into Hanover and 
Saxony, and were followed in quick succession by 
fresh battalions, batteries, etc. General Benedek pre- 
tended to have three hundred thousand or four hun- 
dred thousand men in the field, when he really did 
not have an army of one hundred and fifty thousand 
efficient soldiers. There is no doubt the majority of 
the people in the States, adhering to Austria, were 
opposed to the war, and, of course, the soldiers were 
anything but united. Benedek talked of marching 
upon the Prussian capital. The first thing he knew 



European Correspondence. 179 

the Prussians were thundering at the very gates of his 
capital. The long lines of entrenchments around 
Vienna, show that his soldiers were employed in 
throwing up breastworks to defend their imperial city, 
instead of marching into the heart of Prussia. 

In Bohemia the Prussians united their forces ; and 
although the Austrians fought with great bravery, 
until some twenty thousand of their men lay bleeding 
on the battle-field, yet they were overpowered and 
crushed by the superior forces of the enemy. Proud 
Austria is humbled in the very dust — her prestige is 
gone, and her bitter enemy, Count Bismark, glories 
in her shame. The great Prussian Minister was, a few 
months ago, the most unpopular man in Germany, but 
success, with its magic power, has placed him among 
the first men of Europe. In his sudden elevation he 
even eclipses the renowned Emperor of the French. 
"Nothing succeeds like success," Talleyrand says. 
Success makes friends, and Prussia will ultimately 
absorb Germany. The majority of the small States 
will gladly take shelter under her victorious banner ; 
they are heartily sick of the multitude of petty kings 
and princes, who have for so many years ground them 
to poverty, in keeping up their own splendor and 
extravagance. Of course nobility will die hard, espe- 
cially when reduced to oat bread and straw beds. 

From Munich to Vienna you pass through a beau- 
tiful country. The scenery in some of the valleys 
and mountains, to one not just from Switzerland, 
would be considered grand. Over a portion of the 
route through Bavaria, a traveller is struck with the 



180 European Correspondence. 

odd appearance of the tall white houses, filled, like a 
pigeon's nest, on every side with diminutive windows; 
but, to an American, a more novel sight is that of a 
Bavarian belle ploughing with a milch cow. "Brin- 
dle" supplies the family not only with butter, milk 
and cheese, but also with bread. 

The cars were crowded with the military, and 
hundreds of the poor sick and wounded soldiers were 
trying to reach their homes ; many of them were 
accompanied by their wives and parents. The cholera 
prevails throughout the camps, and many of the poor 
fellows who escaped death on the battle-field, are fall- 
ing victims to this terrible disease. 

Vienna is situated in the valley of the Danube, 
about two miles from the river, and is one of the finest 
cities in Germany, with a population of six hundred 
thousand. Of course I found everything in the- 
greatest confusion here ; the citizens have not recov- 
ered from their fright caused by the unexpected and 
near approach of the Prussians, whose roaring cannon 
can be heard without difficulty in the city. There is 
no material change in the position of the two great 
armies of a million and a half of men, since the cessa- 
tion of hostilities. There is no danger of a renewal 
of the conflict at this time. I was told by one in 
authority that peace would be declared in a day or 
two ; that the terms had been agreed upon, and would 
be promulgated very soon. Thus ends what the 
French style the great "seven days' war." 

The hotels are crowded with sick and wounded 
officers. As each officer is attended by half a dozen 



European Correspondence* 181 

common soldiers you may judge of the comfort in the 
hotels. I have not seen, in a journey of five hundred 
miles, an English or American traveller. The railway 
will be open for civilians in a day or two. The Aus- 
trian soldiers, whose uniform is gray, like that of the 
Confederates, are a splendid looking set of men. Of 
course they look and feel deeply humiliated at the 
result of the war; they seem calm and determined, 
but are full of wrath and indignation. I imagine 
under this quiet stream dark and turbid waters flow, 
which will some day be poured out upon the proud 
Prussians like a mountain avalanche. 

The great Austrian Empire, with a splendid country 
and forty millions of brave people, may for the time 
submit to being ruled out of the German Confederacy 
— but they will not live long under the disgrace which 
now overwhelms them. Her mechanics are already 
at work on the needle-gun, which will be found as 
terrible in the hands of a revengeful Austrian soldier 
as in that of a Prussian. I drove for miles through 
the Austrian camps, and was struck with the discipline 
and order that prevailed among the men. I have not 
seen a drunken soldier, and I may add civilian, since 
my arrival in Europe. The people all drink wine and 
beer, but they don't get drunk. They smoke, smoke, 
smoke ; but few of them chew tobacco — gentlemen 
never. The rations issued to the soldiers appear to 
me to be of inferior quality ; the dark, hard loaf of 
oat and rye bread is loaded into the wagon like so 
many brick, and thrown upon the ground — not even 
protected from the dirt by plank. 



1 82 European Correspondence. 

The fields and gardens for miles around the fortifi- 
cations are uncultivated. In a few of the fields I 
noticed that the ploughshare had just taken the place 
of the cannon. The long miles of zigzag trenches and 
fortifications proved to be of about as much use as 
those built around the Queen City of the South — but 
not defended quite as long. The Emperor and 
Empress of Austria, who, by the way, are a very 
handsome couple, reside in Vienna. They say the 
Emperor was so shocked and surprised when he heard 
of the defeat at Konigratz that he fainted. The peo- 
ple were very much deceived. The Austrian officers 
had been sending accounts of great victories. Some 
of the dispatches are quite amusing. Benedek tele- 
graphed the Emperor during the action at Skolitz, as 
follows : 

" Eight in the Morning. — The action is commencing ; 
pray to God ! 

Noon. — The battalions are wavering ; pray to God ! 

Four in the Afternoon. — The Prussians are beaten ; 
return thanks to God ! " 

The royal palace is large, but not an imposing 
building in appearance. The interior, however, is 
very grand, and decorated with splendid paintings 
and statues. The main court was built nearly seven 
hundred years since. I do not think we have 
improved much in the fine arts or in architecture since 
that period. I got a permit to visit the apartments of 
the imperial family. One of the rooms contains a 
series of nearly one hundred stone landscapes, beau- 
tifully decorated with various mosaic stones, inlaid, 



European Correspondence. 183 

which are said to have cost an immense sum of money. 
In another apartment is a rich cabinet of minerals and 
crown jewels. There is also here one of the largest 
collections of coins and medals to be found in Europe. 
In walking through these magnificent courts, you 
could not suppose they were the apartments of an 
almost bankrupt court. As you step out of these 
splendid halls, with your eyes filled with the glitter 
of diamonds and gorgeous furniture, the first object 
that attracts your attention is a poor Austrian woman 
staggering under a hod, loaded to its utmost with 
brick or mortar, which she is carrying to a petticoat 
mason who is engaged in rearing the magnificent 
range of buildings which are in course of erection 
in Vienna. 

The women here not only cultivate the soil, furnish 
soldiers for the army, but they are converted into 
master mechanics. All this is the result of the fre- 
quent wars and large standing armies this Old World 
is cursed with. Ah, Mother Eve, when you yielded 
to the soft, beguiling whispers of the cunning, insidi- 
ous serpent, you little dreamed of the endless woes 
and misery you were entailing on you race. In pain 
and sorrow you brought forth your first born, only to 
have a brother's blood crying to God from the ground. 
These German hills and valleys are still moist with 
the gore of mingled blood from the sons of a common 
fatherland; and alas! the trail of the Old .Serpent is to 
be seen in the New World, and the crimson streams 
which flowed from the death wounds of myriads of 
our countrymen, are indelible stains on the hands of 



184 European Correspondence. 

those who slew them, and a reproach to civilization, 
humanity, and Christianity. God forbid that such 
scenes should ever be witnessed again in the land 
that claims to be " the land of the brave and the home 
of the free." 

G. W. W. 
Vienna, Austria, 1866. 



LETTER TWELFTH 



Visit to the Battle-field of Konigratz — Temble Effects 
of War both in the Old and Nciv World — Prague 
filled with Soldiers and Cholera — Declaration of 
Peace between Prussia and Austria. 

Having received permission to pass through the 
Austrian lines, I left Vienna on the first train that ran 
over the newly repaired roads, which had been de- 
stroyed by the Austrians in their retreat from Bohemia. 
I was anxious to visit the renowned battle-fields, and 
to see the great Austrian and Prussian armies which 
are spread over the country mainly from Vienna to 
Prague. 

An hour from Vienna by rail, and we entered the 
camps of the victorious Prussians. After a careful 
examination, I cannot discover much, if any, difference 
between the Austrian and Prussian soldiers. I imagine 
that the latter are a little taller and stand more erect ; 
this slight difference may be accounted for in the pres- 
ent position of the two armies — the Prussians are 



European Correspondence. 185 

flushed with victory, while the Austrians are crushed 
by defeat. If the latter were placed in the same cir- 
cumstances, and dressed in blue instead of gray, I 
doubt whether even a German could perceive any 
difference. They both are under fine discipline, march 
with even front and steady tramp, and are generally 
large, fine-looking men, with great breadth and depth 
of chest ; the firm muscles in their arms and chest 
made me envious of their superior physical develop- 
ment. They possess great strength and wonderful 
power of endurance. Their training and their bracing 
climate doubtless have much to do in promoting both. 

The militia of Prussia are very different looking 
men when compared with the same class of soldiers 
in America. They are called here Landwehr levies, 
and are generally older and better educated than the 
regular soldiers, and have received three years' train- 
ing, and are just such trustworthy soldiers as a general 
takes delight in commanding. The Prussian system 
in organizing and training in peace is, perhaps, supe- 
rior to that of any nation in Europe ; and while it 
gives them able and efficient men, always ready for 
line of battle, it obviates the necessity of keeping up 
such large standing armies as are to be found in 
France and Austria, and which are such moths upon 
the public treasury. I spent nearly two days in the 
camps and on the battle-fields, and saw quite enough 
of soldiers to satisfy me for a twelve-month. 

A portion of the journey had to be performed in 
very indifferent carriages, and the accommodations 
were not such as I had been accustomed to in Munich 
24 



1 86 European Correspondence. 

and other favored localities. There is much more 
cholera in Bohemia than any place I have yet visited ; 
the soldiers and people are dying at a fearful rate. 
The Austrians, in their retreat after the last great 
battle, burnt the bridges and tore up the railways. I 
saw hundreds of women, many of them delicate girls 
of fifteen to eighteen, working on the railroads which 
had been destroyed by the men. I have come to the 
conclusion that a woman on the Continent is a very 
useful animal, and she is appreciated by the men in 
proportion to her physical endurance. It is evident 
that the position of the women in Europe, especially 
on the Continent, is very different from that of the 
American ladies. With us, we have no women ; they 
are all ladies ; and the humblest has her eye on the 
White House at Washington, and stands a good 
chance of being the President's Queen. I think I can 
see why it is that women are appreciated here, only 
when they want the fields tilled, the houses built, and 
sons for the army. But I am now writing about bat- 
tle-fields. At another time I shall write a chapter for 
the benefit of the women of Europe, and tell them of 
the great American Eden, where the women are 
appreciated by the men for their social and intellect- 
ual worth, and where it is not a misfortune to be born 
a mother's daughter instead of a father's son. The 
blackened chimney stacks which line the road between 
Chlum and Konigratz are miniature representatives 
of Sherman's desolating march from the Savannah to 
the Congaree ; here the houses were burned when the 
two great armies of nearly half a million of men were 



European Correspondence. 187 

engaged in battle. In Carolina the work was delib- 
erate ; the torch was applied when the only weapon's 
of defence were a widow's tears, and the shrieks of 
orphan children. But what respect has the hyena 
for tears, age, or sex ? 

Sherman's "bummers " were worse than the fiercest 
hyenas that roam in the savage forests of Africa. 
They even tore the dead from their resting place in 
search of spoils, desecrating churches and graveyards. 
The roadside here is lined with knapsacks, tattered 
caps, belts, cartridge-boxes, bayonets and sheaths; 
the poor fellows who so recently wore them lie 
beneath the long range of fresh mounds which line 
the hills and valleys. Men and horses were piled in 
trenches by the thousand, and were imperfectly 
buried. The odor arising from them is horrid, and 
beyond endurance. No wonder that nearly every 
house you pass has been converted into a hospital, 
with a white flag hung over the door. The houses 
are filled with the sick and wounded of both armies, 
attended by the Austrian and Prussian surgeons. 

If any one has a doubt about the utter depravity of 
the human family, let him visit a battle-field, where 
myriads of his fellow-creatures have been butchered 
by their neighbors and relatives, and thrown into long 
trenches, with horses and mules, only a cross here 
and there to denote that the bodies of those who 
recently possessed immortal souls are mingled in this 
mass of putrefaction. The widow searches for the 
grave of her husband, the mother for her only son, 
and they find the vultures preying upon their car- 



1 88 European Correspondence. 

casses, and the peasants dressed in the clothes that 
were worn by the husband and the son when they 
bade adieu to home never to return again. 

These are no fancy pictures! Would to God they 
were. But one need not come to Europe to look 
upon scenes like these. The past five years' history 
of our own country will furnish scenes equally horrid 
and revolting. Soldiers were thrown into prisons at 
the North to freeze, and into pens at the South to 
starve. When a torpedo would explode under a ship, 
sending hundreds of men unprepared for eternity to 
the bottom of the ocean — when the battles that sent 
most souls to eternity were fought, these events would 
furnish occasion for extra prayer-meetings and Chris- 
tian exultations. Christian (?) ministers could see the 
hand of God in all these things. The hand of God ! 
Merciful Father deliver us from the teachings of such 
men ! It is horrid butcheries like these that elevate 
States into proud kingdoms, and make a Bismark, 
who was detested by his own countrymen, the most 
popular man in Europe. 

I found the City of Prague, which is the capital of 
Bohemia, full to overflowing. The Prussian officers 
occupy the hotels from cellar to garret. I was so 
fortunate, after waiting a couple of hours, as to secure 
lodgings in a bath room, sleeping on a Prussian army 
bed. I intimated to my landlord that he must be 
doing a fine business, seeing that he had such a full 
house. He shrugged his shoulders, shook his head, 
and, glancing his eyes around to see if any of the 
officers were near, cursed and abused the Prussians in 



European Correspondence. 189 

a shocking manner. I could excuse the poor fellow 
for being angry when he informed me that he had 
been boarding one hundred officers for more than a 
month without receiving one dollar of compensation ; 
and what added to his wrath was the fact that the 
officers made out their own bill of fare, often ordering 
articles that, in a country overrun by war, it was 
almost impossible to procure. 

The cholera is epidemic here, and I am anxious to 
leave for Dresden, but the military hold the railways. 
I visited the palace, which is now occupied by the 
Prussians ; also the cathedral, the museum, Loretto 
Chapel, and last, though not least, the ancient Jewish 
Synagogue, which is a thousand years old; it looks 
antique, damp and dingy enough to have been fast- 
ened to Noah's Ark. I have not seen just such a 
place of worship in Europe. The dark, wet dungeon 
of the synagogue, among coffins and skeletons, is not 
far short of the Strasburg mummies. If a man can 
spend five minutes in such a place and not have the 
cholera, I think he is proof against it. Speaking of 
cholera, one of our passengers, an Austrian officer, 
was attacked yesterday. He was attended by a 
Prussian surgeon, who manifested as much interest, 
and was as attentive as if he had been his own brother. 
We had to leave the poor fellow in a small town ; 
the doctor stopping with him. When the paroxysm 
would occur, he would be drawn almost double ; his 
sunken eyes and pale cheeks made him look as if he 
were not long for this world. Severe cases of cholera 
often terminated fatally in a few hours. I made an 



190 European Correspondence. 

effort to leave Prague for Dresden on the 1 o'clock 
train. For the first time the California application 
failed. Just as the agent had the permit written, and 
we were about to exchange civilities, a Prussian 
officer stepped in, and our acquaintance ended. The 
glad tidings that a treaty of peace between Prussia 
and Austria was signed at Prague, have been promul- 
gated since my arrival at Bohemia. This news, which 
is good to all the civilized world, doubtless reached 
the New World before it was published in Prague. 
" Peace and friendship shall prevail in future and 
forever between his Majesty King of Prussia, and his 
Majesty the Emperor of Austria, their heirs and 
successors, their States and subjects." Thus reads 
the first article. For the sake of humanity I hope it 
may never be violated. 

G. W. W. 
Prague, Bohemia, 1866. 



LETTER THIRTEENTH 



Detained in Prague — Review of the Seven Days' 
War — Met Russell, the Correspondent of the Londo)i 
Times, on the Battle-field — Arrival at Dresden — 
Beautiful City — Fine Paintings. 

I was detained longer in Prague than I bargained 
for. Many travellers regard it one of the handsomest 
cities in Germany. Perhaps if I had been comfortably 
situated, and there had been less cholera, I should 
have enjoyed the visit more. My guide was a stupid 
fellow; the accommodations miserable; the city smoky 
and dirty, the people looked cross, being quite dis- 
pleased with the treatment they received at the hands 
of the Prussians. In Germany very few families have 
what we call in America, guest chambers, and they 
are not prepared to entertain company ; but that made 
very little difference with the Prussians. Every estab- 
lishment was assessed ; the lady of the mansion was 
not consulted as to how many soldiers should be 
billeted on her premises. The officers looked at a 
house and quartered three, five, ten or more, accord- 
ing to the size of the house. An accomplished and 
finely educated lady told me that she had to go into 
the kitchen and cook for half a dozen soldiers 
for more than a month. She thought cooking for 
friends was not a very pleasant occupation, but she 
considered roasting her pretty face over a hot fire for 



192 European Corresponde?ice. 

an enemy was quiet unendurable. She said, however, 
that the soldiers, almost without exception, conducted 
themselves with the utmost propriety, often assisting 
in cooking, and made the situation of the family in 
which they were billeted as comfortable as could be 
expected under the circumstances. American fami- 
lies who were keeping house in Germany were required 
to take their quota of soldiers just the same as the 
native citizens. 

The Landwehr battalions (militia) have been march- 
ing out of Prague. In a few days they will be per- 
mitted to return to their homes ; they are only called 
upon when their country is engaged in war. The 
more I look on the battle-field of the "seven days' 
war," the more my surprise increases at the sudden 
defeat of the Austrians. In Bohemia they had the 
selection of their position, were protected by fortifi- 
cations and an extensive forest, behind which were 
posted two hundred thousand brave and well disci- 
plined soldiers. The position of Chlum seems to 
have been the key coveted by the Prussians, which 
was taken and lost by the soldiers under Crown 
Prince eight times before they were masters of it. 
When this position was secured, the Austrians had 
the enemy in the rear, and they began the retreat in 
which they suffered so heavily. 

It is said the greater part of the Italian regiments 
which defended Chlum went over to the Prussians 
shouting "viva Garibaldi." One thing is yery certain, 
the Italians fought bravely or they could not have 
retaken a position that had been lost seven times. I 



European Correspondence. 193 

think they must have gone over to the Prussians after 
the Austrians began their retreat. In the great battle 
which ended the war, the Prussians had united their 
forces under Prince Frederick Charles and Crown 
Prince, which gave them two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand men. They made both a front and flank attack. 
When the Crown Prince broke their line at Chlum 
the victory was won. The loss of the Prussians was 
about fifteen thousand, while that of the Austrians 
was forty thousand. Eighteen thousand of the latter 
number, however, were taken prisoners. Just think 
of thirty-seven thousand men, in a battle of only a 
few hours, either killed or wounded. Prussia has, 
almost from the beginning of the war, subsisted her 
army at the expense of the enemy. She marched 
her troops with great rapidity into Saxony, Hanover, 
Hesse, Bodelen, Bavaria and Wurtemberg. In addi- 
tion to the heavy foraging, Prussia has made a cash 
levy on Austria and her allies, amounting to nearly 
one hundred million of dollars. She also gets the 
immense territories she has annexed, for nothing. 
Was there ever so much gained by any other nation 
in a " seven days' war ?" I left Prague for Dresden 
in a slow night train, but I was glad to get away even 
in a freight car. Russell, of the London Times, came 
on the same train. He had just returned from the 
battle-field in Bohemia, and was not feeling very well ; 
his courier bored me to death with horrid cholera 
cases. According to his account, we had to leave 
one-half of our passengers on account of "awful 
attacks of cholera." 
25 



194 European Correspondence. 

I had my eyes wide open, and saw only a few cases 
on our route from Prague to Dresden. Russell says 
that had the contest between the Prussians and Aus- 
trians continued, it is probable the cholera would have 
commanded an armistice — that even now its ravages 
are dreadful. He thinks there are at this time fifteen 
thousand Austrian prisoners suffering from illness of 
various kinds, and the Prussians in Bohemia are also 
suffering severely. If the troops had been marched 
in masses, during the summer months, in the low 
grounds around Vienna, or in Hungary, the pestilence 
would have been frightful. 

Russell says, that on his route from Paroubitz to 
Prague, he sat on boxes marked " cholera cure," and 
was surrounded with cholera patients. He regarded 
some of the passengers a little nearer the end of their 
journey than others. There are at this time thirty 
thousand to forty thousand in the Prussian hospitals 
under treatment. Oh, the horrors of war ! For every 
soldier it strikes down, it matters not how humble he 
is, there is a mother, wife, sister, or child that feels 
the blow. When Prince Frederick Charles passed 
over the battle-field, and saw the poor, wounded sol- 
diers by thousands crawling to the brook to drink 
water and die, he exclaimed, "What an awful sight! 
how dreadful war is after all !" Yes, war is a dread- 
ful thing. Oh, that our country may never again be 
cursed with the horrors of a civil or a foreign war ! 

Is Dresden one of the sweetest places in the world, 
or is it the change from the heart-sickening scenes on 
the Bohemia battle-fields ? I am quite sure I never 



European Correspondence. 195 

enjoyed a change more. Mr. Russell's courier went 
ahead of us and engaged rooms. It was, however, 
quite unnecessary, as we had a splendid hotel pretty 
much to ourselves. Thus far there are very few 
American or English travellers in Germany. The 
mass of the Prussian soldiers were farther south. Mr. 
Russell spoke of his visit to the South shortly after 
the fall of Sumter, when the Confederate heart beat 
high with the belief and hope of the success of the 
cause. He made inquiries respecting the welfare of 
Petigru, King, Gadsden and Grayson, and seemed dis- 
tressed when I told him they were all dead ! 

Dresden is the capital of Saxony, and has a popu- 
lation of one hundred and forty thousand, mostly 
Protestants, but the reigning sovereign is Roman 
Catholic. Few cities in the world are as attractive as 
this beautiful capital. Here you find a genial, bracing 
climate, good society, the finest educational advan- 
tages, and sufficient objects to gratify the taste and 
curiosity of the most fastidious traveller. I was bet- 
ter pleased with the Dresden picture galleries than 
any I have seen on the Continent. Of course they 
are not in extent equal to the Louvre at Paris, but 
according to my taste the selection is better. Here 
you find some of Raphael's best ; his Madonna is the 
finest painting I ever beheld, and is the gem of the 
gallery. It is thought to be one of his best, and 
executed in his most masterly style. I also find in 
Dresden many paintings from the hand of my favorite 
artist, Rubens. His fondness for painting fat ladies 
almost in a nude state is at first rather shocking to 



196 European Correspondence. 

Americans. I have seen charming paintings of Ru- 
bens' representing the Holy Family, and others rep- 
resenting spirited battle scenes. 

From the old bridge over the Elbe you have a fine 
view of the city and the valley of the Elbe. It was 
originally built with money received for the sale of 
indulgences for eating butter and eggs during Lent. 
The Cathedral or Court Church is a fine building. It 
is connected with the palace by a bridge thrown over 
the street. The music cannot be surpassed. It is under 
the supervision of the director of the opera, who merely 
transfers his band from the royal theatre to the royal 
Catholic Church. I attended high mass, and was 
charmed with the music. The congregation adjourned 
from the church to the beautiful flower gardens on the 
Elbe, where the rest of the day is spent in dancing and 
amusements. The Catholic Germans are as fun-loving 
as the gay and light-hearted French. They are as 
prompt at church on Sabbath morning as they are at 
the ball-room on Sabbath evening. The Protestant Ger- 
mans are more rigid in the observance of the Sabbath. 

The Prussians are throwing up fortifications with 
rapidity all around Dresden. The military governor 
has issued orders for eight thousand workmen to 
complete the fortifications in Saxony. Saxony may 
nominally be free, but she will be as much a depend- 
ent of Prussia as Bohemia is of Austria. I think the 
Protestant Saxons will be quite satisfied to have a 
change in rulers. The Prussian army has pretty well 
stripped Saxony of cattle, horses and provisions ; but 
such is the fate of war. G. W. W. 

Dresden, September, 1866. 



LETTER FOURTEENTH 



Arrival in Berlin — Captured by Napoleon in 1806 — 
Sight of King William and his Prime Minister, 
Count Bismark — Martin Luther and the Reforma- 
tion — Germans Light-hearted, Merry and Economi- 
cal — German System of Education superior to that 
of all Nations. 

I am now in the capital of the great Prussian 
kingdom — once the home of Frederick the Great. 
Of course I felt more than an ordinary interest in visit- 
ing this city of victorious generals. Shortly after 
leaving Saxony, you enter a flat, sandy country ; in 
many places the land is too poor to produce even the 
most meagre heath. A traveller is surprised to find 
here one of the finest and most prosperous cities in 
Germany, with a population of six hundred thousand. 
Berlin, with its broad, parallel streets, bounded by 
magnificent houses, reminds me more of Philadelphia 
than any city I have seen in Europe. Its large 
squares, splendid palaces, churches and other build- 
ings, are scarcely to be equalled. The royal palace 
and museum contain a rich cabinet of paintings, 
medals, statues and other curiosities. The city is 
encircled by a wall fifteen miles in circumference, 
which was being levelled to the ground at the veiy 
time when Benedek was threatening to march his 
army into Berlin. The late improvements in artillery 



198 European Correspondence. 

render these ancient fortifications of little value. The 
city has a flourishing trade, growing mainly out of 
its manufactures of cotton, wool, silk, Prussian blue, 
cutlery, and the like. The fact of its being the capital 
of a great nation, adds much to its wealth and pros- 
perity. The city has communication, by water, both 
with the Baltic and German Oceans. 

The inhabitants are accused of always being on a 
spree. Perhaps it is because they live on the River 
Spree, and the pun may be permitted to a traveller. 
In 1806 Napoleon captured the city, and held a grand 
court in the royal palace. The Triumphal Arch, 
with numerous fine paintings, were sent by Napoleon 
to Paris, but nearly all were restored in 1 8 1 5 , and the 
old " Arch" stands now proudly in its former position. 
I was anxious to see King William and his Prime 
Minister. This was not difficult, as the king could be 
seen almost any day driving out with his young 
queen. Count Bismark has a tremendous head, and 
looks as savage as a Russian bear. He has the repu- 
tation of being one of the most unscrupulous politi- 
cians in Europe. He is, however, a diplomatist of 
the first order. If Bismark is permitted to make a 
few more territorial strides, he will quite absorb the 
Fatherland. England and France are very jealous of 
the unprecedented success of the Black Eagle, and 
will do all in their power to stay its territorial flight. 
Austria is quite ruled out of Germany, and it will be 
many long, long days before she regains her former 
position. The Double-headed Eagle is crippled, but 
not dead ; far from it. 



European Correspondence. 199 

The great revolution or reformation of Martin 
Luther has been steadily advancing for three hundred 
years. The revolution resulted in the re-establish- 
ment of the principles of early Christianity. Luther 
laid down the broad doctrine that all power is derived 
from God; and that a man is justified before God by 
faith in Christ independently of priestly factorship. 
In Germany, those who are opposed to the Roman 
Catholic Church are called Protestants ; but it does 
not follow, because a man is opposed to Romanism 
that he is a Christian, or even a believer in the Chris- 
tian religion. Myriads of the Germans are transcen- 
dentalists. At the beginning of the present century, 
the German Empire was composed of three hundred 
distinct and independent States, divided into ten 
circles; each little State was weighed down by nu- 
merous petty royal families, to be supported in their 
extravagance andjjselessness by an overtaxed people. 

The French Revolution wrought many changes in 
Germany. After the downfall of Napoleon there was 
a reorganization of the German States ; they were 
reduced to thirty-eight States and one empire, which 
constituted the Germanic Confederacy, with Frankfort- 
on-the-Main for its capital. The Confederation had a 
standing army of four hundred thousand men ; fifty 
thousand were regiments of cavalry. It was a coali- 
tion of sovereigns, pledged to sustain each other on 
their thrones, which at that period were tottering. 
Austria and Prussia, with their allies, had a popula- 
tion twice as numerous as that of the United States, 
situated in the centre of Europe. When united, they 
became an irresistible power. 



200 European Correspondence. 

The Germans, as a nation, are devotional, if not 
religious. They are light-hearted, merry and fun- 
loving. They are industrious, economical, energetic, 
and the outside world thinks them very stubborn. 
When Napoleon III wanted a few feet of their terri- 
tory, merely to straighten old lines, he found them 
particularly so. They go from church to the public 
gardens, where they engage in music and dancing, 
which amusements are enjoyed equally by rich and 
poor. The Germans are noted for their economy. 
This trait in their character is carried to such an extent 
that, in the sight of the prodigal Americans, it looks 
like stinginess. They allow nothing to go to waste. 
You see the women gathering the sweepings of the 
public roads, which they transfer to their little farms 
and gardens. Land that has been in cultivation for so 
many ages is only kept alive by constant applications 
of manure and fertilizers. Every foot of ground is 
forced to its utmost in producing food for the millions 
who inhabit the Old Country. I wish these thrifty 
Germans could be transferred, by thousands, to our 
own slovenly cultivated farms; every inducement 
should be offered to encourage them to emigrate to 
the South. I was surprised to see so much land 
devoted to pasturage ; this is found necessary, not 
only to rest the land, but to produce food for the im- 
mense herds of cattle, sheep and horses. A good 
farmer changes the crop nearly every year ; the soil 
would soon become exhausted if a rotation of crops 
was not observed. In many places in Germany to- 
bacco is cultivated with great success. The wheat 



European Correspondence. 201 

and oat crops seldom fail ; the " Irish " potato is a 
favorite vegetable, and principal food in some sections ; 
the beet, turnip, cabbage and carrots are cultivated 
extensively. The hop and grape vineyards flourish, 
but not so well as in France. Manufactures in nearly 
every branch prosper, from the fact that the Germans 
work cheaply and make honest goods. 

I have drank many a glass of common beer as an 
excuse to see the domestic arrangements of a German 
cottage. The interior of their homes is much more 
comfortable than the exterior appearance would indi- 
cate. The necessity of keeping the cow-stall, pig-sty, 
and hay-stack within a few yards of the dwelling gives 
the surroundings rather a filthy appearance, but you 
nearly always find in a peasant's house neat beds, 
with white linen sheets and well scrubbed floors. The 
children are taught to read, in fact required by law to 
learn to read. The schools are conducted under 
State regulations, and only thorough teachers are 
employed. The German system of education is 
thought to be superior to that of all other nations. 
Prussia excels in education and a general diffusion of 
knowledge. Berlin takes the lead for a high order 
of accomplishments, but it is a much more expensive 
place than Dresden, Dusendorff or Hanover. I prefer 
Dresden to any city I have seen in Germany as a 
place of residence and for educational advantages. 
There you have all the opportunities for the acquisi- 
tion of languages, music, fine arts and other accom- 
plishments, which are desired by Americans who 
send their children abroad to be educated, The 
26 



202 European Correspondence. 

German system of education is very thorough; the 
climate gives to boys a robust constitution and fine 
physical developments, which are quite as valuable in 
future life as superior intellectual endowments. 

The peasants have their annual festivals, which are 
generally observed after harvest, and are enjoyed by 
them to the fullest extent. These dances partake 
something of the character of the Indian festivities 
that used to take place in the mountains of Georgia 
when I was a wee, wee boy, and when the red man 
was lord of the mountain and valley. It was Nature's 
children offering up thanks to the Great Spirit for a 
bountiful harvest of green corn and a plentiful supply 
of wild game. These feasts were generally opened 
by a ball play of the most exciting character. Fifty 
young warriors were engaged on each side, in almost 
a nude state, and painted in the most fantastic man- 
ner. One of the chiefs would throw up a buckskin 
ball, when the war-whoop would be raised and a gen- 
eral rush made for it. In the scramble a leg or 
arm would sometimes be broken; but that circum- 
stance did not interfere with the game. The green 
corn dance was the richest and wildest scene. 
There the squaws took their part. After the white 
man had introduced whiskey among the natives, 
scenes of disorder and bloodshed would often occur. 
I have seen the Cherokee squaws, when under the 
influence of liquor, fight and pull each other's raven 
locks in the most frightful manner. The last I saw of 
these poor creatures was when the United States Gov- 
ernment had hunted the families down to the number 



European Correspondence. 203 

of some ten thousand, and assembled them in the 
mountains of the Blue Ridge, preparatory to their 
removal to the far West. This was in the summer of 
1834. 

I shall never forget the heart-rending scenes that 
occurred on that occasion. The Indians have a super- 
stitious reverence for the graves of their ancestors, 
and many of them preferred death to quitting their 
homes. In their effort to escape they hid in the 
mountain caverns, and climbed the lofty forest trees. 
Orders were given by the United States officers to 
level the trees to the ground, regardless of consequen- 
ces. Some four thousand of these poor creatures 
perished, never reaching the homes destined for them 
west of the Mississippi River. These outrages were 
perpetrated on the Indians under the plea of advanc- 
ing civilization and Christianity ! It was the strong 
oppressing the weak. Thus it has been from the 
beginning, and thus it will be to the end of time. 
When Gabriel sounds his trumpet at the last day, and 
the great book of records is opened, there will be a 
vast multitude crying for the hills and mountains to 
hide their evil deeds. 

Please excuse this digression ; I frequently wander 
back from the Old to the New World. This is not 
strange, for my life's history is in the latter. The 
scenes of my boyhood in the sweet vale of Nacoo- 
chee, and in the lofty mountains of the Blue Ridge, 
where I hunted the fox and the deer, the wolf and 
the bear, the wild turkey and pheasant, and where I 
learned my alphabet in the rude log cabin, with the 



204 European Correspondence. 

black-eyed Indian damsels — these wild scenes made a 
deep impression on my young heart, and I often find 
myself unlocking, even in this grand old country, my 
own little storehouse of American memories. 

G. W. W. 
Berlin, Prussia, September, 1866. 



LETTER FIFTEENTH 



Berli?i — Monument of Frederick the Great — Palace of 
Charlottcnhoff — Birthplace of the great Naturalist, 
Baron Von Humboldt — Arrival in Old Hamburg. 

The stirring events of the past few months add 
much interest to the great Prussian metropolis. I 
spent two days in Berlin, and regretted that the time 
at my command would not allow me a week in this 
interesting city. The Prussians are an enterprising 
nation. Whatever they undertake must be executed 
on a grand scale, and thoroughly. I have seen no 
where in my travels a more striking monument than 
that erected to the memory of Frederick the Great. 
It is true, they have been slow in offering this tribute 
to one to whom they are so much indebted for their 
greatness. Frederick was to Prussia what Washing- 
ton was to the United States. He was both a hero 
and a statesman, and is regarded as the Father of his 
Kingdom. The monument in all its proportions is 



European Correspondence. 205 

splendid. The horse on which the king majestically 
sits is a noble looking animal, seventeen feet in height. 
The entire monument is some fifty feet high. The 
bronze pedestal is of huge dimensions, and is raised 
on blocks of beautifully polished granite. The entire 
monument consists of at least forty figures, and, as a 
work of art, it has never been excelled in Europe. I 
drove through a beautiful grove of trees, that would 
do credit to an American forest, to the Palace of 
Charlottenhoff, situated a few miles from Berlin. The 
buildings, although fine, will not compare with the 
dazzling palaces of the city. 

The site of the palace is good — standing, as it does, 
in a park beautifully ornamented with trees — the 
growth of centuries. The walks are lined with orange 
and choice shrubs ; but there is a stillness and want 
of life in the old palace, and I felt as if moving among 
scenes of days long passed away, while I really stood 
in the home of living monarchs. The marble statues 
scattered through the park have a dingy appearance ; 
they look like neglected monuments in a deserted 
churchyard. The most interesting spot in these 
grounds is the mausoleum, in which the late King 
Frederick III and his queen lie interred. Except that 
of Napoleon's in Paris, these tombs are the finest I 
have seen on the Continent. The lay figures are 
exquisitely cut in pure white marble. The soft and 
delicate blue light admitted from the dome of stained 
glass adds greatly to the beauty of the monuments. 
The queen was quite young when, in 1806, Napoleon 
entered as conqueror of Berlin. She was a clever 



206 European Correspondence. 

and spirited woman, and Napoleon suffered in the 
estimation of the Prussians in consequence of his 
treatment of their favorite queen. She died at the 
early age of thirty-five, while Frederick lived to the 
age of seventy-two. No traveller should leave Berlin 
without visiting these magnificent monuments. 

In one of the public squares are exhibited a large 
number of cannon captured recently from the Aus- 
trians. The Royal Botanical Gardens in Berlin are 
not as extensive as those in Paris, but the exotics, 
which grow in mammoth glass houses, interested me 
very much. The environs of Berlin, with their hand- 
some private dwellings and magnificent public parks 
and pleasure grounds, filled with beautiful trees and 
flowering shrubs, surpass anything I have yet seen in 
Germany. Villas and summer-houses for refresh- 
ments are scattered through these parks. Under these 
grand old trees rich and poor assemble to listen to 
the music or mingle in the dance. Berlin was the 
birthplace of the most distinguished naturalist the 
world has ever produced — Baron Von Humboldt. 
He was a great favorite with the sovereigns and peo- 
ple of Germany ; and his name is universally honored 
both at home and abroad, for his vast acquirements, 
attained by extensive travel, research and study. His 
mind was clear and active even at the advanced age 
of eighty-four. No man of his day possessed such 
general information, or had seen so much of the hab- 
itable globe. His great mind grappled with and 
comprehended nearly every department of human 
knowledge. He was eminently a working man. He 



European Correspondence. 207 

knew the value of time, and that knowledge was only 
to be acquired by toil, and it is said that he seldom 
slept more than four hours out of twenty-four. When 
this ripe scholar had reached the age of three-score- 
and-ten, full of glory and renown, it seems that he 
might well have rested from his labors ; but not so. 
He was as diligent in scientific research at eighty as 
at any former period of his life. Would that the 
young men of our country, whose ambition it is to 
retire from business at forty — to live a life of ease and 
idleness — would study the life and imitate the bright 
example of the great Alexander Humboldt. 

I left Berlin early in the morning. A few hours by 
the "lightning express," and I find myself in the 
quaint, and to me deeply interesting old town of 
Hamburg. In the new town are splendid streets, with 
magnificent buildings and royal palaces, while the old 
is composed of narrow streets and alleys, filled with 
a population of the poor. I explored one of these 
alleys, where I found the people even more degraded 
than in the " Five Points" of New York. I proposed 
to rny guide to accompany me. He declined upon 
the plea that gentlemen did not visit such places. 
Just imagine a street six feet wide, with houses on 
each side from four to six stories high, to say nothing 
of the cellars beneath, all of which are occupied, each 
room frequently accommodating two or more families. 

These narrow streets are several hundred yards in 
length, and what adds to the filthiness and discomfort 
of the buildings, is that there is in each but one mode 
of ingress or egress. The dirty, half-clad women 



208 *. European Correspondence. 

stared at me, the smut and grease dripping from their 
black faces. The squalid children held out their 
hands, begging for coppers. I stopped to take a peep 
into alley No. 2, when my guide assured me the 
small-pox and cholera were raging there. I had seen 
enough of poverty and wretchedness, and had no 
desire to extend or prolong my visit to such an atmos- 
phere. I inquired of a physician in reference to the 
health of these dirty alleys, and he informed me that 
the mortality was not greater here than in the best 
portions of Hamburg. I was surprised to find in 
one of the richest cities on the Continent so much 
poverty and degradation. The children who are born 
and reared in these dismal courts, or the Five Points, 
New York, are no more affected by the polluted air 
they breathe than are the rats which infest these 
haunts of filth ; but, as immortal beings, they must 
needs be corrupted by the loathsome associations and 
corruptions which surround them. 

Hamburg is one of the oldest of the free cities of 
Germany ; it invites the rich commerce of the world 
to enter its magnificent harbor, almost free of duty. 
Immense cargoes of merchandise are discharged from 
vessels that lie in the middle of the stream into small 
barges ; these are rowed to the warehouses at less 
expense than if the goods were landed at the docks 
from the ships. I drove along the banks of the river 
looking at the miles of shipping, and was surprised 
to see no docks ; but when I witnessed the facility 
with which the great cargoes were transferred, by 
means of lighters, to the storehouses, the absence of 



European Correspondence. 209 

docks was explained. Here you find ships from 
nearly every nation. The star-spangled banner, as it 
waved proudly over the fine American ships, sent 
an electric shock through my veins — for the first time 
in my wanderings I felt home sick. To a citizen of 
the United States there is something grand in the 
Stars and Stripes. It is a flag that commands the 
respect of all nations. The gigantic war through 
which we have just passed has proved to the world 
that the States, when united, form an irresistible 
power, and are not to be trifled with, either on land 
or sea. May our great republic for all time to come 
cultivate peace, friendship and amity. 

G. W. W. 
Hamburg, Germany, 1866. 



27 



LETTER SIXTEENTH 



Hamburg — Fine Port — Destructive Fire in 1842 — Cap- 
tured by the French in 18 13 — Merchants' Exchange. 

The famous old town of Hamburg, which it is said 
was founded by Charlemagne in the eighth century, 
has the finest commercial port on the continent of 
Europe, and in many respects is the most interesting 
of all its cities. It is situated on the River Elbe, sixty 
miles from its entrance into the North Sea, and is 
connected by means of its canals with the Baltic. 
Hamburg has a population of two hundred and fifty 
thousand. It is eminently a commercial city. The 
imports amount to one hundred and fifty million 
dollars per annum, and the exports are about the 
same. The average number of vessels arriving annu- 
ally is about five thousand. Nearly all the imports 
and exports of Northern Germany pass through Ham- 
burg. In 1842 the city was visited by a terrible fire, 
which raged for four days, laying waste twenty 
thousand houses, rendering homeless more than 
thirty thousand people. Large sums of money and 
provisions were sent from all quarters of the globe 
to relieve the sufferers. After the great fire the 
narrow streets were both widened and straightened, 
and magnificent storehouses and dwellings erected 
which would do credit to Paris. The established 
religion is Lutheran, but all denominations are tol- 



European Correspondence, 211 

erated. Twenty thousand Jews reside here. The city 
was formerly encircled by a wall four miles in circum- 
ference, which has been torn down, and beautiful 
ornamental walks have been laid on the site of the 
old useless fortifications. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Ham- 
burg was one of the most prosperous cities in the 
world. Merchants flocked here from all parts of 
Europe, bringing with them immense treasures, 
which they vainly hoped would be secure from the 
warlike commotions at that time agitating the country. 
As Hamburg was a free city, and neutral in religion 
and politics, they thought it would not be molested. 
But when Napoleon captured Berlin, and was master 
of Prussia, he regarded the rich town of Hamburg as 
a rightful spoil of war. Heavy contributions were 
laid on the inhabitants, and the city was annexed to 
the French Empire. 

After Napoleon's unfortunate march to Moscow 
the French were compelled to evacuate Hamburg, and 
the city was occupied by Russian soldiers. In 1813 
the French again besieged the city, which they cap- 
tured after a month's resistance. The French com- 
mander, Davoust, is said to have exercised the 
most cruel atrocities upon the people. In the depth 
of winter he drove every person from the city who 
could not furnish six months' supply of provisions. 
The consequence was that all the poor had to leave, 
and some twelve hundred men, women and children 
perished from cold and hunger. A monument has 
been erected to their memory. Napoleon was, no 



212 * European Correspondence. 

doubt, one of the greatest generals the world ever 
produced, but I would not, for all his glory and fame, 
have the blood of the myriads of human beings who 
perished under his ambitious tread staining my skirts. 
He deluged Europe in tears and blood. 

I have visited the Stock and Gold Exchange of 
Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Boston ; the 
celebrated Bourse of Paris, and those of Vienna and 
Berlin ; but none of them interested me so much as 
the Merchants' Exchange of Hamburg. The mag- 
nificent building, which was completed just before the 
fire in 1842, although enveloped in flames, fortunately 
escaped destruction. I went with my guide an hour 
before 'Change, to have time enough for looking 
through the whole establishment. One of the direc- 
tors explained to me how a merchant in a crowd of 
five thousand could be found without difficulty. The 
immense hall, which is capable of accommodating six 
thousand persons when standing, is laid out on the 
principle of the radii of a circle. At I o'clock we 
took our stand in the gallery, among numerous 
spectators, both ladies and gentlemen, where we 
could look down upon the vast assemblage of mer- 
chants. The hum of five thousand human voices 
sounded like the roaring of a waterfall. In this 
daily gathering of merchants you find the cautious, 
frugal German ; the bold, dashing Russian ; the 
lively, clever Frenchman ; the confident English- 
man; the sharp, shrewd Yankee; and last, though 
not least, the cautious, lively, bold, confident, cun- 
ning Jew. 



European Correspondence. 213 

I was introduced into the extensive reading room, 
which is supplied with newspapers and journals from 
all parts of the country. The Exchange is the centre 
of intelligence, commercial and political, foreign and 
domestic. A telegraphic office is kept in the building 
for its use. Scarcely any one is engaged in business 
who is not a member of the Bourse of Hamburg. 
The old city, fortunately, was an ally of Prussia in the 
recent war. She has, consequently, been permitted 
nominally to maintain her independence. 

Having spent two pleasant days in Hamburg, I 
left for the City of Hanover by railway. The country 
through which we passed was quite level, and gener- 
ally unproductive. It is a portion of the immense 
plain of sand which extends through Hanover, Prus- 
sia, and as far east as St. Petersburg, in Russia. The 
most of the land is extremely poor, consisting of little 
else than barren heath and scrubby fir. Near the 
railway station in Hanover I found a good hotel, with 
comfortable accommodations. This is the new town. 
Here are broad streets and handsome buildings. But 
Old Hanover interested me most. This- portion of 
the city is a fine specimen of an antique continental 
town. Many of the streets are narrow and crooked, 
and the houses, which are often four to five stories, 
project with each story some two feet, forming almost 
an arch over the streets. A very novel sight to me 
were the houses with gables toward the streets. 
From the monument in Waterloo Platz I had a fine 
view of the city and surrounding country. The pal- 
ace and other public buildings were occupied by the 



214 European Correspondence. 

Prussians. Hanover is now practically a Prussian 
town, with a large garrison of blue coats. I saw 
several thousand troops reviewed by the Crown 
Prince. It is expected he will remove here with his 
family, and make Hanover his future home. His 
court will doubtless be as splendid as that of the 
ex-king. I feel sorry for King George, who is old, 
blind, and quite helpless. The inhabitants have made 
up their mind that nothing that they can do will 
avert the new state of things ; they will be found 
as readily dancing attendance on the new as the old 
king. The inhabitants, however, generally regret the 
loss of their independence. 

The compulsory military service will prove a hard- 
ship to the annexed kingdoms and free cities, but 
such is the fate of war. The barrack accommodations 
in Hanover are large, yet not sufficient to accommodate 
the troops that garrison the town; several thousand 
men and officers are billeted on the citizens ; those 
who are able, provide quarters at about fifty cents 
per day for the soldiers assigned to them. This 
billeting system is particularly hard on the poor ; 
many of the citizens have scarcely made enough 
during the past year to support their own household. 
They have been boarding (?) the Prussians for more 
than three months, and are quite tired of the business, 
especially as they do not receive any compensation. 
The year 1866 has been fatal to the Germanic thrones 
and free cities ; Prussia will quite absorb Northern 
Germany, and Austria the Southern States. Prussia 
will be the strong Protestant power and Austria the 



European Correspondence. 215 

Roman Catholic. Between these two great empires, 
differing so widely in religion and politics, there will 
necessarily be strifes and heart-burning. The Aus- 
trian Empire cannot exist as an independent nation 
until it has in some way wiped out the disgraceful 
defeat so recently experienced. Austria is marshal- 
ling her armies. When she has perfected her needle- 
gun it will be German meet German, and then will 
come the tug of war. 

G. W. W. 
Hanover, Germany, 1866. 



LETTER SEVENTEENTH. 



Manners, Habits and Customs of the Germans — Birth- 
place of Rothschild — Billeting of Soldiers — Germany, 
from the days of Julius Ccesar — -Cholera — Crimean 
War. 

I have travelled through Germany from the extreme 
South to the Baltic or North Sea, from Berlin to the 
Rhine, and have also visited all of her principal cities. 
In this long journey I have endeavored to see as much 
of the country as I could. But to record the thou- 
sand and one objects that present themselves in such 
a tour is not an easy matter. I note down the princi- 
pal objects of interest to be digested and written out 
when I have more leisure. 



216 European Correspondence. 

I like the honest, open-hearted German people, and 
have studied carefully their manners, habits, customs, 
and examined their system of education, commerce, 
agriculture, manufacturing and railroads. I have 
reviewed two of the most powerful armies in Europe, 
standing in battle array. I am now in the far-famed 
City of Frankfort, just in time to witness its last free 
days. The terrible scenes and trials through which 
this old free city has recently passed, and its historical 
associations, having been for more than seven hundred 
years a free town, and during a long period the capi- 
tal of the great German Confederation — all these cir- 
cumstances render the city, at this time, peculiarly 
interesting. Here the election and crowning of the 
Emperors of Germany have taken place for centuries. 
Frankfort has been the seat of the largest banking 
houses in the worjd. 

It was in a narrow alley of Frankfort that the 
founder of the great banking house of Rothschild 
was born. Young Rothschild began life without 
money or family influence ; but he possessed industry, 
energy, economy and honesty-^qualifications which 
ensure success. It is estimated that the different gov- 
ernments in Europe owe the Rothschilds a thousand 
millions of dollars ! In the immense business trans- 
actions of this house, they look more carefully into 
the security of the negotiation than the large profits. 

The treatment of Frankfort by the Prussian Gene- 
rals has excited universal indignation in Europe. 
Gen. Reeder demanded from the mayor thirty mil- 
lion florins, with a threat that if the money was not 



European Correspondence. 217 

forthcoming in twenty-four hours, the postoffice and 
telegraph would be closed, and the city guarded to 
prevent any articles of food from entering. These 
demands were made as the right of war, which, after 
all, is but the right of the strong over the weak, and 
should be left wholly to the practice of barbarous 
countries. But war, in its most modified usages, is 
nothing less than a species of barbarism. No Chris- 
tian nation should engage in it. Mayor Feller paid 
six million florins to Reeder, to relieve the city, and 
liquidated the balance of the unjustifiable demand by 
hanging himself to the bedpost. The excitement 
was so great in the city that the coffin was removed 
to the cemetery at night, and the funeral took place 
at 4 o'clock, A. M., instead of nine, as advertised. 
Notwithstanding this precaution the concourse of 
people was immense. 

Nearly every one here has Prussian soldiers billeted 
upon his premises ; one family was required to pro- 
vide for two hundred, because the ladies threw flowers 
from their windows upon the Austrian troops and 
brickbats upon the Prussians. The history of all wars 
proves that the women are more spirited, not to say 
vindictive, than the men. Prompted by patriotic 
sentiment, they ignore consequences, though alas ! 
for them, war often makes anything but beds of roses, 
and deprives many a one of a lifetime companion. 

Germany, from the days of Julius Caesar, has occu- 
pied a prominent position in the history of Europe. 
The Romans extended their conquests over Spain, 
France and England, but never over the Fatherland. 
28 



218 European Correspondence-. 

It is situated in the centre of Europe, and in length, 
from the Adriatic to the North Sea, seven hundred 
and fifty miles ; in breadth, from Belgium to Russia, 
six hundred and fifty miles, and contains fifty thou- 
sand square miles, with a population of seventy mil- 
lions — in the new organization, being pretty equally 
divided between Prussia and Austria, and their allies. 
In nearly every quarter of Germany extensive chains 
of mountains are to be found ; but none of them will 
compare in height or beauty of scenery to those of 
Switzerland. The most elevated mountains I saw 
were in Bavaria, their summits being white with snow 
even in August. I was surprised to find in this old 
country immense forests of timber, which are a source 
of great wealth. More than a fourth of Germany is 
covered with forests. The climate varies with the 
elevation of the different localities, but neither the 
heat nor cold is extreme. During my journey thus 
far through the Continent of Europe, the thermometer 
was not above sixty-five degrees. Germany is well 
watered ; I found it particularly so, as it rained fifty- 
seven days out of sixty. 

The system of agriculture is better in Southern 
than in Northern Germany. At the South the 
Napoleonic code is introduced, the large estates being 
generally divided into small farms, which are owned 
by those who cultivate them. Food and living is, 
consequently, much cheaper in Austria than Prussia. 
The country is not in as high a state of cultivation as 
I expected to find it, though I saw it under very 
unfavorable circumstances, as nearly the whole of the 



European Correspondence. 219 

male population has been, for several months, with- 
drawn from agricultural pursuits. If the people of 
Germany would cultivate peace, instead of engaging 
in wars of thirty years' duration, the condition of 
their women would be greatly changed for the better. 
Upon them the most of the drudgeries of the farm 
devolve — such as ploughing, hoeing, raking, reaping 
and threshing. They are even made beasts of burden. 
It is not an uncommon sight to see a delicate female 
harnessed beside a dog, trudging along the public 
roads through rain and mud, pulling a heavily loaded 
cart. They also carry heavy baskets strapped on 
their backs, filled with market vegetables. The women 
in this old country have a very hard time ; they 
greatly outnumber the men, who emigrate or are 
killed in battle. As a consequence, Mormonism is 
practiced on a large scale. There are, however, many 
finely educated ladies here. It is the frequent wars 
that render the situation of the women in Germany so 
hard. In the Crimean, the Anglo-Indian, and the 
Italian wars, all of which occurred between 1853 an d 
i860, more than a million of their men perished. 

In the Crimean war alone, which lasted only two 
and a half years, Europe lost six hundred thousand 
men. The amount of money swallowed up in the 
almost perpetual European wars is past computation. 
In the recent short struggle between Prussia and 
Austria, more than two hundred thousand men were 
killed in battle or died from disease. The cholera has 
made sad havoc among the soldiers. More persons 
die from diseases contracted in camp than are killed 



220 European Correspondence. 

in battle. But one need not come to Europe to 
witness the horrors of war. Our own sunny South, 
which was, six years ago, the most prosperous country 
in the world, has been deluged in blood, and her peo- 
ple reduced to poverty. This cruel war has made a 
nation of widows and orphans, with no government to 
protect or care for them. It was permitted of God 
that these calamities should come upon our people, 
and we should deplore our evils with a due feeling of 
resignation. Let us do our whole duty and trust in 
Divine Providence. I am not without hope that our 
land will again blossom as the rose. We must, how- 
ever, all work. 

G. W. W. 
Frankfort-on-the- Maine, September, 1 866. 



LETTER EIGHTEENTH 



Frankfort — Old German Emperors — Statue of Charle- 
magne — Goetlie, the favorite German Poet — Printing 
Press — War in Germany — Count Bismark. 

Frankfort is in the valley of the Main, and is in the 
centre of a fertile country. It has nearly one hundred 
thousand inhabitants. The new portion of the city 
contains the finest private residences in Germany. 
One of the chief objects of interest to the traveller is 
the old hall of the Senate — not so much for its splen- 
dor as for its historical associations. As I walked 
through the Elector's room, fifty-two old German 
Emperors, from Conrad I to Francis II looked down 
upon me from the walls on which they were hanging. 
I could not but think where are these great men now? 
To their praise it is recorded, that in this long line of 
emperors there were found very few tyrants. In 
addition to the fifty-two portraits, there are many 
splendid paintings in the hall. " The Judgment of 
Solomon," by Steinle, is a striking picture. It was a 
wise thought of Solomon in proposing to " divide the 
child in two ; give one-half to the one, and half to 
the other." The greatest horror is depicted on the 
countenance of the natural mother, at the prospect 
of having her child slain. Immediately above the 
bridge, on the Main, is the statue of the famous 
Charlemaene, who was, for a lone time, resident of 



222 European Correspondence. 

the Imperial Free City. Charlemagne, in his day, 
was equal to Napoleon in the nineteenth century. 
The favorite German poet, Goethe, was born here, 
and a handsome marble statue of him stands in the 
Public Library. There is also a monumental statue 
of Goethe near the theatre. In the gallery is a fine 
portrait of the great Reformer, Martin Luther, who, 
at one time, resided in Frankfort, though he was a 
native of Saxony. The old fortifications that encircled 
the town have been torn down and handsome gardens 
laid out on the site. The Jews, until recently, were 
treated with great illiberality in Frankfort. They 
were restricted to a particular quarter of the city, and 
the gates were closed at an eaniy hour every night, 
after which ingress and egress were denied them. 
The law restricting their marriages in the city to 
thirteen annually, was not repealed until 1834. The 
Exchange here is a fine building, and contains two 
imposing figures, representing Hope and Prudence. 
Hope inspires confidence and courage, while Prudence 
makes us cautious, careful and discreet. Mercantile 
success is largely due to the united influence of these 
principles. 

I was introduced into two extensive reading-rooms. 
Each of them contained more than a hundred news- 
papers and journals. American politics are studied 
as closely here as on Wall street. The bankers said 
to me : " You will have civil war again in the United 
States in less than twelve months." I replied, never — 
never. They said, " If we could feel assured of that 
fact, your bonds, which are now selling at thirty per 



European Correspondence. 223 

cent, discount, would command a premium." A re- 
stored Union, no doubt, would inspire confidence and 
create such a foreign demand for American securities 
as to bring back our currency to a specie basis — a 
result greatly to be desired by all sections of the 
country. Until our political affairs are more settled, 
however, capitalists will be very cautious in making 
investments in American securities — especially at any- 
thing like their value. The Germans hold a large 
amount of Confederate bonds, and wished to know 
the prospect of their being paid. I told them the 
bonds would be good "six months after the ratifica- 
tion of a treaty of peace between the United States 
and the Confederate States " — but it was quite uncer- 
tain when such an event would happen. 

An hour by railway from Frankfort, in the valley 
of the Main, through an extremely fertile and finely 
cultivated country, and we arrive at Mayence, the 
chief city of the Grand Duchy of Hesse Darmstadt. 
Mayence is at the mouth of the River Main, on 
the Rhine — population forty-five thousand. It is a 
strongly fortified city, having, for a long period, been 
the strongest fortress of the German Confederation, 
with a garrison of five thousand Prussian and five 
thousand Austrian troops, commanded alternately for 
five years by an Austrian and a Prussian Governor. 
The lofty old houses and narrow crooked streets, 
gives the city an antique appearance. The mammoth 
cathedral, built of red sandstone, is nearly a thousand 
years old. The interior is richly painted, and con- 
tains numerous old statues. During the frequent 



224 European Correspondence. 

bombardments of the city, the old cathedral was much 
damaged. The Jacobins converted it into a powder 
magazine. A bridge of boats, seventeen hundred feet 
long, connects Mayence with Cassel on the opposite 
side of the Rhine. 

The printing press, which has had such a powerful 
influence in advancing human knowledge, was in- 
vented here by John Gutenberg, in 1444. A bronze 
statue has been erected to his memory. Steamers, 
during the summer months, leave Mayence three or 
four times daily for Cologne; also, three railway trains. 
Mayence carries on a brisk trade in grain and lum-„ 
ber brought down the Rhine, and from the interior 
by rail. The growth of the finest Rhenish wine is 
limited to a circle of about ten miles around Mayence. 

Prussia has absorbed Hanover, Hesse Cassel, Nas- 
sau and Frankfort. She will not be satisfied with the 
humiliation of Austria, but will dictate terms of her 
own for all the German States. Holland, Belgium, 
and Old Hamburg may for the present maintain their 
nationality, but they will all sooner or later be Prus- 
sianized. 

The recent war in Germany was not for liberty, but 
for territorial aggrandizement. Prussia wished to 
extend her northern boundary over the Duchy of Hol- 
stein, which was at one time a province of Denmark. 
It was against the interest of Austria for Prussia to 
increase her territory, and, in consequence, the power 
of her rival for position and supremacy. The Ger- 
man Diet at Frankfort adhered to Austria by a vote 
of nine to six, and armed against Prussia. Austria 



European Correspondence. 225 

found herself between two fires. King Emanuel 
wanted Venetia, and now was the time to strike the 
blow for its recovery to Italy. It was the expecta- 
tion of Napoleon that the two great powers, before 
the conflict ended, would become so exhausted that? 
when he got ready to mediate, France would be able 
to secure the Rhine as the boundary of her empire. 
The unexpected and disastrous defeat of the Aus- 
trians occurred just as the Prussian army was fairly 
organized. Napoleon consequently found himself 
unprepared to enforce successfully any demands he 
might make on German territory. Bismark knew 
the strength of his kingdom, hence his laconic reply 
to the French. 

Bismark has been for the past six years the master 
spirit in Germany, and recently he has almost eclipsed 
the distinguished Emperor of the French. In 1859, 
Bismark was the Prussian Ambassador at the Court 
of the Tuileries. While in Paris it is thought he took 
some diplomatic lessons from Napoleon. I should 
not wonder if he did, for his eyes are large, and he 
keeps them pretty wide open. In 1862, Bismark was 
ordered by King William to Berlin to form a new 
ministry, over which he was appointed chief. His 
first act was to augment and reorganize the army, 
and to extend the military service in the army to 
three years. This was quite an unpopular measure, 
and was rejected by a vote of two hundred and 
seventy-two against sixty-eight. Bismark coolly dis- 
solved the ministry, giving them to understand that 
the king would dispense with their approval of the 
29 



226 -- European Correspondence. 

budget, and would put in. execution whatever meas- 
ures he deemed best for the public good. Bismark 
had some queer notions on political economy ; he 
was in favor of passing a law regulating the prices of 
all commodities ; he was also in favor of prescribing 
the number of apprentices who should be admitted to 
each trade. 

Count Bismark is fifty-three years old, and is of a 
stout, robust constitution; but the heavy duties which 
devolved upon him during the past year, and more 
especially during the reorganization of the Northern 
Germanic Confederacy, have affected his brain. His 
illness is regarded as of serious character. It will be 
difficult to get a suitable man to occupy the office 
which has been so illustriously filled by Bismark. 
The brilliant success of his measures has made him 
one of the most popular statesmen in Germany, and 
it is said he is disposed to introduce liberal reforms 
and make the change as light as possible for the new 
Prussian subjects. His object is to make a strong and 
united government. 

G. W. W. 

Mayence, Germany, September, 1866. 



LETTER NINETEENTH. 



The Rivers in Germany — Swamps and Sea Islands of 
the Palmetto State — " Bingcn on the Rhine" — The 
Horrors of War. 

The rivers in Germany, when compared with those 
in America, are small, and their navigation is rendered 
dangerous by numerous falls, while the ice obstructs 
many of them six months in the year. The Elbe is 
an important river, as it furnishes the splendid port of 
Hamburg. The Danube is one of the finest rivers in 
Europe. It rises in the mountains of Prussia, and 
flows south through Saxony, Bohemia, Austria and 
Bavaria, and empties into the Black Sea. The scenery 
on some portions of the Danube is picturesque and 
grand, especially between Vienna and Linz. But of 
all the rivers on the Continent, the Rhine interests 
one most. I saw it in the Alps of Switzerland, with 
scarcely water enough to float a duck ; and I have 
seen it dashing over steep precipices and cliffs, fed by 
thousands of glaciers and mountain rivulets, until it has 
grown into a great navigable river, forming boundaries 
and barriers between mighty nations. A violent 
storm on the ocean threw up an immense bank of 
sand, which closed the mouth of the Rhine for more 
than a thousand years — its great volume of water was 
lost in the vast beds of sand, spreading over Holland, 
converting many portions of it into morasses and 



228 European Correspondence. 

miasmatic swamps. When Napoleon was stretching 
his ambitious wing over land and sea, he made his 
brother, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland. Under 
the administration of King Louis, the Rhine was 
made, by means of canals and dykes, to discharge 
itself through immense sluice-gates into the ocean. 
When the tide flows the gates are shut to prevent 
the entrance of the sea. During ebb tide they are 
opened by means of machinery, to allow the accumu- 
lated streams to pass out. This artificial drainage, 
produced by gigantic hydraulic works, has proved to 
be of incalculable advantage to Holland, transforming 
lagoons into beautiful garden farms. 

I wish a Napoleon had possession of the swamps 
and sea islands of the Palmetto State ; they are capa- 
ble of being made a second Eden. In i860, the 
sea islands of South Carolina were El Dorados of 
the South, but four years of desolating war have 
almost converted them into howling wildernesses. 
The elegant homes of the planters, which were spared 
by the English and " savages " in the days of the first 
American revolution, were burned during the late 
civil war, and orange groves, and the grand old oaks 
which the woodman had spared for centuries, were 
levelled to the ground. This is the result of relent- 
less war, with its myriad of malignant hates and mer- 
cenary appetites. May our people never again find it 
necessary or wise to convert the ploughshare into the 
sword ! 

But to return to the Rhine. An hour from May- 
ence — or Menz, as the Germans call it — in a fine 



European Correspondence. 229 

steamer, through the richest scenery, and I find 
myself at Bingen — dear "Bingen on the Rhine." I 
was forcibly reminded of the following beautiful poem 
of Mrs. Norton, which a friend in the " Queen City " 
has so often sung and read for me : 



A soldier of the legion lay dying in Algiers ; 

There was lack of woman's nursing — there was dearth of woman's tears ; 

But a comrade stood beside him, while his life-blood ebb'd away, 

And bent, with pitying glances, to hear what he might say. 

The dying soldier faltered, as he took that comrade's hand, 

And he said, " I never more shall see my own, my native land ; 

Take a message, and a token, to some distant friends of mine, 

For I was born at Bingen — at Bingen on the Rhine. 

II. 

" Tell my brothers and companions, when they meet and crowd around 
To hear my mournful story in the pleasant vineyard ground, 
That we fought the battle bravely 5 and when the day was done, 
Full many a corpse lay ghastly pale, beneath the setting sun : 
And midst the dead and dying were some grown old in wars, 
The death-wound on their gallant breasts — the last of many scars ; 
And some were young — and suddenly beheld life's morn decline ; 
And some had come from Bingen — fair Bingen on the Rhine! 

III. 

" Tell my mother that her other sons shall comfort her old age, 

And I was aye a truant bird that thought his home a cage : 

For my father was a soldier, and even as a child, 

My heart leaped forth to hear him tell of struggles fierce and wild ; 

And when he died, and left us to divide his scanty hoard, 

I let them take whate'er they would, but kept my father's sword ; 

And with boyish love I hung it where the bright light used to shine, 

On the cottage wall at Bingen — calm Bingen on the Rhine ! 



230 European Correspondence. 

IV. 

'' Tell my sister not to weep for me, and sob with drooping head, 

When the troops are marching home again, with glad and gallant tread; 

But to look upon them proudly, with a calm and steadfast eye, 

For her brother was a soldier, too, and not afraid to die. 

And if a comrade seeks her love, I ask her in my name, 

To listen to him kindly, without regret or shame, 

And to hang the old sword in its place (my father's sword and mine,) 

For the honor of old Bingen — dear Bingen on the Rhine ! 



" There's another — not a sister ; in the happy days gone by, 

You'd have known her by the merriment that sparkled in her eye ; 

Too innocent for coquetry — too fond for idle scorning — 

Oh ! friend, I fear the lightest hearts make sometimes heaviest mourning ; 

Tell her the last night of my life (for ere the moon be risen 

My body will be out of pain — my soul be out of prison,) 

I dream'd I stood with her and saw the yellow sunlight shine 

On the vine-clad hills of Bingen — fair Bingen on the Rhine ! 

VI. 

" I saw the blue Rhine sweep along — I heard or seem'd to hear, 

The German song we used to sing, in chorus sweet and clear, 

And down the pleasant river, and up the slanting hill, 

The echoing chorus sounded, through the evening calm and still ; 

And her glad blue eyes were on me as we passed with friendly talk, 

Down many a path beloved of yore, and well remembered walk, 

And her hand lay lightly, softly, confidingly in mine : 

But we'll meet no more at Bingen — loved Bingen on the Rhine !" 

One night a loved one was reading the above pa- 
thetic poem — her little six-year old boy melted in 
tears, and said : " Please, mother, don't read about 
the poor soldier — it makes me feel so sad !" Oh, the 
horrors of war — thou bane of life and happiness — 
how many mothers hast thou robbed of their darling 



European Correspondence. 231 

sons, wives of their husbands, and children of their 
parents ! Every human being that perishes in battle 
is a violation of the sixth commandment. A friend 
of mine in Charleston had three sons, boys of whom 
any mother might well be proud, for they were young 
men of uncommon brightness and promise. The 
fond mother had deprived herself of many a comfort 
that they might receive a liberal education. The first 
time I saw the eldest, he brought a letter of introduc- 
tion from the lamented James L. Petigru, who was a 
steadfast friend of the family. Mr. Petigru discovered 
mind and genius in " Charlie Wildwood, " and his 
kind and benevolent heart was interested in the youth. 
The truth is, Mr. P.'s heart was always larger than his 
purse. He was kept poor in helping others. The 
three boys wereamong the first to enter the Con- 
federate army. In the memorable battles around 
Richmond, Captain H., while at the head of his com- 
pany, fell mortally wounded. His brother ran to his 
assistance, and was instantly killed. The third son 
fell in the army of Tennessee. Thus perished LeRoy, 
Frederick, and Abner Hammond — worthy descend- 
ants of the Hammonds of Revolutionary memory, 
who fought so bravely to establish American Inde- 
pendence. I shall never forget the pale, sorrowful 
countenance of the heart-broken mother when she 
informed me of her irreparable loss. Mrs. H.'s great- 
est desire was to recover the bodies of her sons. At 
that time ladies were not permitted to visit Rich- 
mond, as the railroads were employed to their utmost 
capacity in transporting troops, commissary stores, 



232 European Correspondence. 

etc. The feeble, delicate mother persevered until she 
got a permit to visit Richmond in the capacity of a 
nurse. She saw the graves of thousands of poor sol- 
diers, but returned without her lost treasures. The 
recollection of these sad histories, which were the 
result of an unnecessary and unfortunate war, makes 
me feel as my little boy did when his mother read to 
him about the soldier of Bingen — "dear Bingen on 
the Rhine." 

G. W. W. 
Bingen on the Rhine, September, 1866. 



LETTER TWENTIETH 



Ancient Castles — Statues — Bishop Hutto — Floating Isl- 
ands of Timber — Scenery of the Rhine — Old Cologne 
— Banishment of the yews — World-renowned Cathe- 
dral — Church of Saint Ursula. 

The steep, vine-clad mountains around Bingen, 
almost shut in the Rhine. It is not surprising that 
the Germans have a superstitious reverence for this 
grand old river, for on its picturesque banks there is 
a blending of beauties and relics not to be found on 
any other river in Europe. I cannot but feel an 
interest in the ruins of the ancient castles which crown 
nearly every hill. They are tottering monuments of 
a defunct feudal aristocracy of the middle ages. With 



European Correspondence. 233 

each castle is a legend. They were the abodes of 
many daring chiefs, but their memories have perished 
with them. One feels, as he travels through this old 
country, the spirit of the past, and its touching recol- 
lections come back upon the mind with irresistible 
power. 

Bingen was a favorite retreat of the famous Charle- 
magne. He built, in this neighborhood, a magnificent 
palace, ornamented with one hundred marble col- 
umns. Only a few pillars remain to mark the site of 
this once grand edifice. Our guide pointed out a 
marble statue of one of Charlemagne's four queens. 
A thousand years ago, queens were scarcely as grand, 
by comparison, as milkmaids nowadays. On an 
island in the middle of the stream is a tower, where 
tradition tells us that Bishop Hutto was eaten up by 
the rats for his misdeeds. That army of sharp- 
toothed quadrupeds might find active employment in 
some other countries that I have read of, in doing the 
work equally of divine and human justice. 

The Rhine is distinguished for its beauty of scenery 
and for the rich fields, valleys and vineyards which 
line its banks. Populous cities, towns and valleys 
ornament its borders. The Rhine furnishes seven 
hundred miles of .navigation from Basle, in Switzer- 
land, to the sea, thus enabling the inhabitants of its 
fertile valleys to exchange their products at a small 
expense for transportation. I was much interested 
in the immense floating islands of timber as they 
drifted slowly down the Rhine. These huge rafts are 
made up of logs as they are hurled down the steep 
30 



234 European Correspondence. 

mountains, one at a time, until enough are collected 
to make the foundation of a respectable village. I 
counted eight rude cottages built on one raft. In 
addition to the large colony of pigs, cows, sheep and 
poultry, there are often as many as four hundred per- 
sons acting in the capacity of rowers, pilots, cooks, 
workmen, and so on. This motley group of men, 
women and children seemed quite at home in the 
immense ark. The lively and enchanting music, 
which is as essential to the German as his pipe, is to 
be heard early and late. The captain occupies an 
elevated position, from which he can command a 
view of the raft, from end to end, and directs its move- 
ments by signals. You can judge of the magnitude 
and cost of a Rhine raft when you learn that the 
workmen are months in constructing it, and consume 
from its commencement until it is sold, sixty thou- 
sand pounds of bread and potatoes, forty thousand 
pounds of butter and cheese, thirty-five thousand 
pounds of meat, five hundred tons beer, besides wine, 
vegetables, etc. A good sized raft sells in Holland 
for one hundred thousand to one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. The usual voyage from Bingen to 
Holland is twenty days. 

As a commercial channel, the Rhine is one of the 
most important rivers on the Continent. The travel 
up and down the river from Mayence to Cologne is 
immense. As a swift railway is on each bank of this 
noble river, the travel by steamer is rapidly diminish- 
ing. From the deck of a steamer alone, however, you 
are able to obtain a full view of the Rhine scenery. 



European Correspondence. 235 

My passage from Bingen to Cologne was delightful; 
the scenery varied every moment, with the vine-ter- 
raced hills often bordering the very water's edge. 
The great beauties of the Rhine, after leaving Switzer- 
land, lie between Mayence and Bonn. 

But here is old Cologne, which is one of the finest 
cities on the Rhine, filled with churches, cathedrals, 
museums and palaces, and rich in historic associa- 
tions. In the thirteenth century, Cologne was one of 
the most populous cities in Germany. With one 
hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants, Cologne flour- 
ished not only in the possession of three hundred 
church steeples, but in commerce, science and the 
fine arts. This interesting and antique city was first 
settled by the Romans under Marcus Agrippa. 
Agrippina, mother of the monster of crime and ca- 
price, Nero, who fiddled while Rome was burning, 
was born here. The ancient walls which surround a 
portion of the town, with their immense towers and 
broad gates, are fine specimens of the fortifications of 
the middle ages, but with the modern improvements 
in artillery they are of little use. 

The old city became the theatre of religious perse- 
cution. Fifty thousand Jews were banished in one 
year ; then followed the expatriation of the Protes- 
tants. Thousands of the best houses became tenant- 
less, trade declined, the fine arts were neglected. The 
proud city which, at one time, could send forth thirty 
thousand fighting men, was reduced, by religious in- 
tolerance, to less than that number of men, women 
and children. Since the French revolution the city 



236 * European Correspondence. 

has greatly advanced in wealth and population. 
Cologne has now one hundred and twenty-five thou- 
sand inhabitants, and carries on a large trade. Under 
the Prussian Government, the city is throwing off its 
former dirty and gloomy appearance. Many of the 
streets and houses would do credit to Berlin. Its fine 
water communications are of great advantage. The 
city is now the centre of railways running to Berlin, 
Frankfort, Antwerp and Paris. Near the splendid 
new iron bridge over the Rhine, is the world-re- 
nowned cathedral. I wandered through this stupen- 
dous Gothic building, which was intended by the 
ambitious architect to be the largest and most mag- 
nificent church on the globe, eclipsing even the great 
Saint Peter's at Rome. Many millions of dollars have 
been expended on it. Although six long centuries 
have passed away since its foundations were laid, the 
busy mechanics are still at work on the huge fabric, 
and it will require another generation — perhaps cen- 
tury — to complete the edifice. The old iron crane, 
which has been standing for several centuries on the 
unfinished tower, has recently been put in motion by 
the King of Prussia. That ambitious monarch may 
hasten the work to its final completion. 

The body of this magnificent structure is in the 
shape of a cross. There are four broad aisles with 
rows of pillars, each row having more than a hundred 
columns, of which the centre ones are thirty feet- in 
circumference. One of the most remarkable sights 
in the cathedral is the shrine of the three kings, who 
came from the East to Bethlehem to bring presents 



/ 



European Correspondence. 237 

to the infant Saviour. Their bones, as the legend 
says, were brought from Milan in 1 170, and deposited 
in a case of silver, and placed in a small marble chapel 
behind the high altar. The skulls of the kings were 
crowned with golden diadems, enriched with jewels 
and precious stones. During the French revolution, 
Cologne fell into the hands of the Jacobins. They 
had as little reverence for priest as for king. Many 
of the precious relics in the shrine disappeared. The 
treasures in the silver box are said to be worth sev- 
eral millions of dollars. I have a shrewd suspicion that 
there is more paste than diamonds on these crowned 
heads. Amongst the other objects of interest is the 
silver coffin of Saint Engebert, the projector of the 
cathedral. There are other fine monuments, numer- 
ous painted windows, and curious tapestry. For fifty 
cents you can see the bones of Saint Matthew ! I 
presume, for an additional fifty cents, the bones of 
each of the apostles could be exhibited, and pieces of 
the "original cross," on which our Saviour was cruci- 
fied. 

Portions of many of the finest churches in Europe 
are converted into museums. As many ridiculous 
relics are exhibited here as are to be found at Bar- 
num's in New York. These, however, have their prof- 
itable uses, and bring into the church many people 
who are not in the habit of frequenting such places ; 
thus yielding a large revenue. Apart from the spires, 
paintings and statues, the churches on the Continent 
have interested me very much, and there are few days 
in the week or month that I have not visited one or 



238 European Correspondence. 

more. I have visited the churches early and late, in 
storm and in sunshine, but I did not enter a church 
without finding pious worshippers. Occasionally I 
would be almost stifled with the smoke arising from 
the incense. I cannot even now understand the vir- 
tue of these burnt offerings. I presume, however, 
many who present themselves at the altar need fumi- 
gating. Among the Protestants, there are those who 
do not see the necessity of immersion ; others cry out 
against baptism, and there are still others who are 
so uncharitable as to pronounce " class meetings " a 
popish invention. I have a notion that there are good 
and bad people to be found in all denominations. A 
great deal of the world's religion, after all, is educa- 
tional ; hence the necessity of making judicious selec- 
tions of the teachers for our children. 

I next visited the Church of Saint Ursula, to see the 
bones of eleven thousand virgins who were slain by 
the naughty Huns because they refused to become 
mothers. As you enter the church, these hideous 
relics meet the eye on every side ; even the glass 
pavement under your feet is laid on bones. The 
masonry of bones is built several feet thick on the 
walls. This ghastly sight was nearly as hideous to 
my eyes as the Strasburg mummies. Just as I entered 
the church a marriage ceremony was taking place, 
which was certainly a more agreeable sight than the 
relics of the unfortunate virgins. It was the first wed- 
ding I had attended in Germany. My patience was 
quite exhausted before the priest pronounced the 
happy couple man and wife. The ceremony was 



European Correspondence. 239 

tedious and unnecessarily prolonged. My guide pro- 
posed to visit another church which contained the 
bones of six thousand martyrs, but I begged to be 
excused, as I had seen enough in that line. I pre- 
ferred visiting Farina's famous Eau de Cologne manu- 
factory. There are thirty manufacturers of Cologne 
water in this city. Notwithstanding I bathed freely 
in this sweet water, I dreamed nearly all night of 

skulls and bones. 

G. W. W. 

Cologne, September, 1866. 



LETTER TWENTY-FIRST 



Aix-la- Chape ile — The Great Charlemagne — Napoleon's 
March to Moscoiv — Leaving Germany — Summer attd 
Autumn in France, Switzerland and Germany — 
Wages paid Women. 

An hour from Cologne by the swift express train, 
through a beautiful and fertile country, and I find 
myself at Aix-la-Chapelle, a flourishing city of Prus- 
sia, with seventy-five thousand inhabitants. I stopped 
here to see a New Orleans friend, who was spending 
a few weeks at this celebrated watering place for the 
benefit of his health. 

The great Charlemagne, who established the Ger- 
man Empire a thousand years ago, was born and 
died in this city. The Hotel de Ville is an im- 



240 European Correspondence. 

posing building, erected on the site of the palace in 
which Charlemagne was born. It contains some fine 
paintings and numerous portraits — among the oldest 
known — of Charlemagne, Napoleon, Josephine, and 
Maria Theresa — the latter was the mother of the 
unfortunate Marie Antoinette. The Notre Dame here 
is one of the oldest churches in Germany. It was 
erected by Charlemagne in 796. He designed it to 
be a burial place for himself, causing it to be con- 
structed in the form of the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem. The tomb in which once 
reposed the mortal remains of the great warrior, is 
marked by a large marble slab, inscribed with the 
words " Carlo Magno." When the tomb was opened 
in the twelfth century, the body of Charlemagne was 
found seated on his throne as one alive, clothed in 
the imperial robes, bearing the sceptre in his hand, 
and on his knees a copy of the gospels ; on his flesh- 
less brow was the crown, which has ever since been 
used in the coronation ceremonies of succeeding Em- 
perors of Germany. 

Charlemagne conquered the barbarous natives, and 
extended his empire over the whole of France, Ger- 
many, Italy, and the north of Spain. It is said he could 
not read and write his name, but " signed the treaties 
with the hilt of his sword, and enforced them with 
its point." After he became a conqueror he learned 
to read, and founded the University of Paris, the first 
in Europe. This great captain had a mind and a will 
that commanded the respect and admiration of the 
world. Charlemagne was more fortunate than the 



Europe an Correspondence. 241 

ambitious Napoleon, for he retained the kingdoms he 
conquered to the day of his death, and established 
his son, Louis, over his mighty empire; but this youth 
did not possess the mind and energy of his illustrious 
father. He was ill-qualified to govern in the stern 
age in which he lived. The empire, which had cost 
the lives of so many thousands to establish, was soon 
divided and sub-divided, and became the scene of war, 
desolation and anarchy. The bones of this famous 
warrior, it is said,, were recently discovered in a chest, 
hid in a dark closet ! and for the paltry sum of fifty 
cents, these relics are to be seen, with the addition of 
a lock of the Virgin's hair, a piece of the true Cross, 
the leather girdle of Christ, a nail of the Cross, the 
sponge which was filled with vinegar, the arm of 
Simeon on which he bore the infant Saviour, the bones 
of Stephen, Manna from the wilderness, and Aaron's 
rod ! All of these, and many more wonderful relics, 
are to be seen for two francs. 

I was told if I could remain here until July, 1867, 
I should then have an opportunity of seeing relics 
presented to Charlemagne by the Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem. They are deposited in a rich shrine of silver, 
and are said to consist of the robe worn by the Vir- 
gin, and numerous other articles of clothing, crosses, 
gems, jewelry and plate. These " Grandes Reliques" 
are shown only once in seven years. It is said, in 
i860 more than five hundred thousand persons, chiefly 
peasants, resorted to the exhibition. Barnum's Mu- 
seum is eclipsed by some of the museums to be found 
in the churches of this Old World, and many of the 
31 



242 European Correspondence. 

relics are about as genuine as the gutta-percha mer- 
maid that Barnum tried to make the Charlestonians 
believe was a true feminine of the briny deep. But 
it was there that the humbug was first exposed, and 
denounced by savants Bachman antl Geddings. Bar- 
num actually consulted a Charleston lawyer, with the 
view to an action of damages against them ; but he 
thought better of it in season. 

Aix-la-Chapelle has been the scene of many a hard 
fought battle. In 1792 it was taken by the French, 
retaken by the Austrians in 1793, and again captured 
by the French in 1794, and held until Napoleon's 
unfortunate march to Moscow in the winter of 18 12. 
The allied powers took possession of the city in 18 14, 
and it was here they held a great convention to adjust 
the indemnities to be paid by France for the aggres- 
sions of the Emperor Napoleon the First. France 
was compelled to pay to foreign powers the sum of 
seven hundred and fifty millions of francs, divided 
among the nations as follows : 

Francs. ' Francs. 

Prussia 210,000,000 | Baden 7,000,000 

England 125,000,000 | Saxony 7,000,000 

Austria 113,000,000 | Hesse Cassel 5,000,000 

Russia 100,000,000 I Hanover 5,000,000 

Holland 60,000,000 | Hesse Darmstadt 4,000,000 

Bavaria 41,000,000 I Denmark 2,500,000 

Spain 12,500,000 I Portugal 2,000,000 

Sardinia 10,000,000 I Mecklenburg 1,700,000 

Wurtemberg 8,600,000 | 

The rest of the requisition money was distributed 
among twenty other small kingdoms that had been 
overrun by the French. It will be seen that Prussia 
got the lion's share. It was not a difficult matter for 



European Correspondence. 243 

the allied powers to compel the French to pay 
750,000,000 francs ; but no human power on earth 
could restore the millions of immortal beings who 
perished under the iron tread of the man who proved 
to be the great disturber of peace and the scourge of 
Europe. Napoleon's equal as a military chieftain is 
yet to be born ; but he won his glory by deluging 
Europe in blood and tears. Nearly all the great 
men — so-called — of ancient and modern times were 
military heroes. So long as military genius is wor- 
shipped, the land will be cursed with wars. 

In education, and in the science of war, the Germans 
are doubtless ahead of any nation in Europe. In 
Prussia the system of.education is said to be the most 
perfect in existence. Munich patronizes the fine arts, 
Berlin learning. A large number of distinguished 
literary men receive salaries from the Government of 
Prussia, and are pensioned when age or infirmity 
compels them to withdraw from active labor. In 
Prussia every man is compelled to enter the army at 
twenty-one, and remain a soldier for three years. 
This system makes a nation of trained soldiers ; but 
this military life must have a baneful effect upon the 
youth of the country, and especially upon all domestic 
culture. 

In a few hours I shall leave Germany — dear old 
Germany. I have seen just enough of its beautiful 
cities and towns ; its lofty mountains ; its fertile and 
finely cultivated valleys ; its vine-clad hills and pic- 
turesque rivers ; its palaces, museums, statues and 
galleries of paintings ; its splendidly trained armies of 



244 European Correspondence. 

a million and a half of men ; its fine system of educa- 
tion, agriculture and railways — I say I have seen just 
enough to sharpen my appetite for further travel, 
study and investigation of this grand old country, so 
full of thrilling historical associations. My time, 
however, is limited, and I have yet to look upon some 
of the hundred wonders of the world before I return 
to America. 

The summer and autumn have been unusually wet 
in France, Switzerland and Germany, materially injur- 
ing the crops of grain and grapes. In many places I 
saw wheat, oats, barley and rye rotting in the fields. 
The swollen mountain torrents came rushing down, 
overflowing the banks and washing away the produce 
of the valleys. The meadows, however, are green, 
and yield fine crops of grass for the numerous flocks 
of sheep and herds of cattle. The harvests of grain 
on the Continent must necessarily be deficient, in 
consequence of the extremely wet summer and the 
large number of men who were engaged in the war 
between Austria and Prussia. Until the nations in 
Europe "beat their swords into ploughshares and 
their spears into reap-hooks," the laborious cultivation 
of the soil will necessarily devolve upon the women 
and children. The great masses of the people through 
the country which I have travelled are in moderate 
circumstances, many of them very poor, and have no 
means of gaining a comfortable subsistence but by 
their daily toil. The youth are taught habits of indus- 
try and frugality. They grow up to be strong, athletic 
men and women, with well developed muscles, fully 



European Correspondence. 245 

prepared for the hardships of life. The manual labor 
and out-door exposure, of course, takes off some of 
the polish of Mother Eve's daughters. They, how- 
ever, make excellent housewives. 

The wages paid the women for a hard year's work 
on the farm are about twenty dollars. I tell them 
they can do better by emigrating to the Cotton States 
of the South. They, however, prefer the West, which 
is on their part a great mistake. It is true they have 
rich land in the West, and they can make a bountiful 
supply of provision, but the day is not far distant 
when a year's labor in the Western States will not 
net thirty dollars. There will be too much competi- 
tion in the production of food, while the portions of 
the globe adapted to the culture of cotton and rice 
are limited — too limited for the increasing popula- 
tion of the world. Now that the system of labor is 
changed in the late slave States, the people should 
adapt themselves to the new state of things. The 
large estates should be divided into small farms, and 
immigration from all quarters encouraged. I am 
satisfied from what I have seen, that, in the strictly 
cotton, sugar, and rice sections of the South, there is 
no labor equal to that of the descendants of Ham. 
The negroes should be encouraged to remain with us; 
it is for their interest and for our interest that they 
should do so. There is not half the trouble in utiliz- 
ing the colored as the white labor. Kind treatment, 
with proper care and oversight, is what they require 
and should have. I was never so thoroughly con- 
vinced as I am now, that we have the best country in 



246 European Correspondence. 

the world. Let our people awake universally from 
that Rip Van Winkle sleep, which has fettered but 
too many of them from youth to age ; be true to 
themselves, and the beautiful and fruitful empire which 
the bounty of God has given into their hands. Let 
them substitute labor for political agitation, and find 
their better pleasure and profit in making potatoes 
than Presidents. This done, and the South will once 
more become a free, prosperous, and happy nation. 

G. W. W. 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Germany, September, 1866. 



LETTER TWENTY-SECOND. 



Brussels — Infidelity of Napoleon — City of Moscow — 
Immense Sacrifice of Life. 

Brussels is the capital of Belgium, and is in the 
centre of the most highly cultivated country in Eu- 
rope. It has a thriving population of one hundred 
and eighty thousand. Brussels is one of the finest 
cities on the Continent; the houses are substantially 
built of stone ; the broad, clean streets in the upper 
part of the city are magnificent. The grand Park is 
the admiration of every traveller — it is laid out into 
a kind of public garden, intersected by beautiful walks, 
bordered with trees, and ornamented with handsome 
statues of white marble, and filled with numerous foun- 
tains, which are quite refreshing of a hot summer day. 



European Correspondence. 247 

Brussels is celebrated for its world-renowned car- 
pets, and its manufactures of tapestry and lace. Sev- 
eral thousand female operatives are employed in the 
manufacture of lace — the most of this delicate work 
being done by the needle, which is very trying to 
the eyes. In a public square are the old Spanish 
palaces, with gorgeous tropical adornments and 
Gobelin tapestry. These palaces were occupied by 
the Spanish Governors, when Belgium was under 
Spanish rule. The museum in the halls of the 
palace contains some fine pictures, statues, etc. The 
Museum of Natural History is quite interesting and 
very complete. 

An hour's ride in an open carriage from Brussels, 
and I find myself at Waterloo, celebrated as the scene 
of the great battle of 18th June, 181 5, which com- 
pleted the downfall of Napoleon. An uncontrollable 
ambition took possession of Napoleon in his youthful 
military career. It would seem he had won for him- 
self and his empire a name and reputation that would 
have satisfied an Alexander or a Caesar; but not so. 
Josephine — who had ever been his guardian angel, 
and to whom it is said he was devotedly attached — 
failed to furnish him with an heir for his mighty 
empire. In an evil hour Napoleon permitted ambi- 
tion to override love, humanity and justice. The 
true and faithful Josephine was abandoned, and 
Napoleon demanded in marriage the hand of Maria 
Louisa, a young Austrian girl, not out of her teens, 
who was the daughter of Emperor Francis, of 
Austria. 



248 European Correspondence. 

This unwarrantable infidelity of Napoleon found no 
favor, not even in the eyes of the French nation ; they 
felt that the warm-hearted Josephine was cruelly 
wronged by one who had sworn to be her protector, 
and that the French had gained nothing by the 
alliance with the proud race of Hapsburg. From the 
date of Napoleon's desertion of Josephine, fate turned 
against him, and finally revenged Josephine. Now 
that he was allied by marriage with the strong power 
of Austria, his ambition knew no bounds. He de- 
cided to make war upon the powerful Empire of 
Russia. 

In the summer of 18 12, Napoleon placed himself at 
the head of the finest army ever raised in France. 
Nearly half a million of men marched out from among 
the sunny vine-clad hills of France, destined for the 
City of Moscow. Many of his wisest military coun- 
sellors warned him against an attempt to invade 
the ancient capital of Russia in the winter months. 
" Peace," he exclaimed, " awaits us beneath the walls 
of Moscow." Fatal delusion ! This immense army 
was to be marched twenty-five hundred miles, one 
thousand of which was through the barren plains of 
Russia. This sandy desert furnishes food for neither 
man nor beast. In the month of September a terrible 
battle was fought. The French gained a partial vic- 
tory at the cost of thirty-two thousand men. The 
Russians lost fifty thousand. The Russians retired 
in good order, pursued by the victorious and confi- 
dent French. The Russian commander decided not 
to hazard his army in the defence of Moscow. He 



European Correspondence. 249 

well knew that the French were advancing to their 
own destruction, as the rigors of a Russian winter 
were near at hand, when it would be impossible to 
subsist such an army in the heart of a hostile country. 
Moscow was at that time one of the richest and 
largest cities in Europe, being twenty miles in circum- 
ference. 

It was in the autumn of 18 12 that Napoleon entered 
the ancient city of the Czars. " Moscow ! Moscow!" 
shouted the excited and exultant soldiers. They 
vainly thought their sufferings at an end, as they 
quartered themselves in the gorgeous palaces, splen- 
didly furnished with everything requisite to make a 
weary soldier comfortable. Napoleon and staff estab- 
lished themselves in the palace of the Kremlin, which 
was the imperial seat of the ancient Russian mon- 
archs. When the emperor discovered that the inhab- 
itants had deserted their homes, he had forebodings of 
evil. Soldiers were stationed in all portions of the 
city to guard against fire or sudden surprise. The 
Emperor Alexander had turned loose fifteen thousand 
desperadoes from the prisons, who were stealthily 
preparing to convert the splendid metropolis into an 
infernal machine, for the destruction of the invading 
army. Immense magazines of powder, shells, and 
other destructive engines of war, were placed under 
the palace occupied by Napoleon, and scattered 
beneath the houses which were crowded with the 
French soldiers. The water pipes were cut, fountains 
and fire engines destroyed ; nothing was left undone 
to render the destruction of the citv complete ; even 
32 



250 European Correspondence. 

the elements came to the aid of the demons in their 
work of desolation, for about night an equinoctial 
gale swept over the city. A protracted drouth had 
prepared the wooden houses for the torch. At mid- 
night Napoleon threw himself exhausted on his bed, 
but he was ill at ease ; his anxieties were enforced 
and made active by ominous signs, which, as a soldier 
and statesman, he could not mistake. His conscience 
was torturing him ; he had deeply wronged -the bosom 
companion of his youth. The cry of " fire " resound- 
ed through the streets ; the heavens were illuminated 
by the volumes of flames as they burst forth simul- 
taneously in various sections of the city. 

Tremendous explosions of shells and magazines of 
powder shook the doomed city like an earthquake. 
The Imperial Guard of twenty thousand men were 
ordered out. These brave soldiers who were never 
known to falter, could not stand before the terrible fiery 
foe. The French soldiers shot, bayoneted, and threw 
the incendiaries into the burning lake of fire, but it did 
not stop them in their work of destruction. Thou- 
sands of men, women and children were buried be- 
neath the falling houses and timbers that had been 
hurled into the air. Napoleon found the palace in 
which he was quartered surrounded by flames, and 
came near being swallowed in the roaring sea of fire. 
Such an event would have saved him years of pain 
and anguish. Perhaps his life was spared that he 
might have time to repent in sorrow of his cruel treat- 
ment of Josephine. The fire kindled by the fiends in 
all portions of the city, was swept for three days by 



European Coirespondence. 25 1 

a terrible gale, until Moscow, twenty miles in circum- 
ference, was reduced to a heap of ruins. The burning 
of Moscow saved the Russian Empire, and banished 
Napoleon to the Island of Elba. 

During the Russian campaign the French lost three 
hundred and fifty thousand brave soldiers. Nearly 
one-half perished from cold, hunger and fatigue, in 
their disastrous retreat after the destruction of Mos- 
cow. The loss of the Russians, including those who 
perished for the want of food and shelter, was greater 
than that of the French. Seven hundred thousand 
lives sacrificed in a six months' campaign ! and this 
to gratify the ambition of one miserable mortal man. 
Such is war ! It involves in its mad career every 
conceivable crime, poisoning the minds and morals of 
a nation, and reducing the people to want, sorrow 
and misery. And yet there are ministers of the 
Gospel who defend the shedding of a brother's blood, 
and appeal to the Bible to sustain them in their argu- 
ments. 

In my humble opinion, war is the work of the 
devil; God may permit it, but he does not justify 
it. When Cain made war upon Abel, God said unto 
him : " And now art thou cursed from the earth which 
hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood 
from thy hand. When thou tillest the ground it shall 
not henceforth yield unto thee her strength ; a fugitive 
and a vagabond shall thou be on earth." God showed 
his displeasure by cursing the ground Cain was to 
till, and making him a fugitive and a vagabond. So 
mote it be with all the Cains, who, in their insane 



252 European Correspondence. 

lusts and rages, deface the earth, defile humanity, and 
strew the fields with the carcasses of their fellow- 
men. 

G. W. W. 
Brussels ; Belgium, 1866. 



LETTER TWENTY-THIRD. 



Disastrous Campaign — Abdication of Napoleon — His 
Escape from Elba — Marshal Ney — General Carom- 
bonne — Humiliation and Suffering of Napoleon. 

After Napoleon's disastrous Russian campaign, in 
which he sacrificed the finest army ever raised in 
France, a sixth and grand coalition was formed, with 
the determination of crushing the man who had made 
himself a terror and disturber of the peace of Europe. 
The allies of France, whose friendship had been 
obtained by conquest, and held at the point of the 
bayonet, were glad of an opportunity of throwing off 
the French yoke, and readily united with the allies in 
making war upon Napoleon. Even the great Empe- 
ror of Austria, on whom Napoleon relied as his 
strongest and surest ally, in consequence of his mar- 
riage to Maria Louisa, joined the coalition. In a 
short time the allies had in the field more than a mil- 
lion of men, and were marching on the French 
metropolis from all quarters. Napoleon exerted 



European Correspondence. 253 

almost superhuman power in the defence of his cher- 
ished capital, but he was finally crushed by over- 
whelming numbers. On the 31st March, 18 14, the 
Emperor Alexander of Russia and the King of Prus- 
sia entered Paris in triumph. Two hundred and fifty 
thousand men — infantry, cavalry and artillery — 
marched thirty abreast through the most frequented 
thoroughfares of the city. The crowd of impulsive 
Frenchmen, who so recently shouted " Vive l'Empe- 
reur Napoleon," now shouted for Emperor Alexander 
and King of Prussia, and " Vive Louis XVIII." 

On the nth April, 1814, Napoleon very reluctantly 
signed the Act of Abdication, renouncing for himself 
and his family the thrones of France and Italy. Louis 
XVIII, who had been residing in England, was recalled 
and declared king. Thus were the old Bourbons 
again restored to power, and Napoleon banished to 
Elba, a small island in the Mediterranean Sea. 

What a spectacle ! Behold this man of a giant 
intellect, who so recently ruled the powerful nations 
of Europe with an iron rod, now consigned, in dis- 
grace, to a barren island not ten miles square. Napo- 
leon deserved this severe punishment for his wrongs 
to Josephine alone. How much more he merited of 
punishment for his thousand other crimes need not be 
estimated here. 

The allied sovereigns who had dethroned Napoleon 
were assembled at Vienna, arranging for a glorious 
peace, and to settle the affairs of Europe. Vienna 
became the scene of gaiety and brilliant fetes. It 
was at one of these splendid entertainments that the 



254. European Correspondence. 

astounding intelligence was received that Napoleon 
had escaped from Elba, and effected a landing in 
France. 

The announcement led almost instantly to a seventh 
coalition of the great powers to destroy the man they 
regarded as the enemy of mankind. He was thought 
a fit subject for public vengeance. Napoleon marched 
from the south of France to Paris in twenty days, 
without opposition. Marshal Ney, who was sent to 
intercept him, promised to " bring back to Paris the 
dangerous Corsican in an iron cage." The sight of 
his old companion in arms was too much for old Ney; 
he no longer remembered his oaths and promises to 
Louis XVIII, but joined Napoleon, and marched 
with him in triumph to the Tuileries, where they 
arrived on the 20th of March, 1815, ten months from 
the date of his banishment. 

On the night of the 16th of June, Wellington was 
attending a brilliant ball, given by the Duchess of 
Richmond at Brussels; a courier entered and informed 
the British General that Napoleon, with his army, was 
within ten miles of Brussels ! It is said that the Iron 
Duke turned pale, and instantly left, accompanied by 
his officers, to prepare for the great conflict. The 
bells were rang, war trumpets sounded, drums beat to 
arms. In an hour the immense English army was on 
its march. Wellington halted on the spacious field of 
Waterloo. In this strong position he carefully select- 
ed his ground, stationed his troops, and dispatched 
a messenger for Blucher, who had under his command 
sixty-five thousand splendid Prussian soldiers. 



European Correspondence. 255 

No spot in Europe has interested me more than the 
world-renowned battle-field of Waterloo. It was here, 
then, half a century ago, that the most important bat- 
tle recorded in history was fought. My guide pointed 
out the position selected by the great English chief- 
tain, which he so heroically defended against the des- 
perate assaults of the French ; also, the old oak tree 
under which Napoleon assembled his officers to give 
them his final orders. " The army of the enemy," 
said he, " outnumbers us one-fourth ; there are, how- 
ever, ninety chances in our favor to ten against us." 

It was a bright sunny morning in June, the day 
appointed for rest ; silence reigned on the field, but 
every one knew that in a few hours the fierce battle 
would be raging. The surgeons had established their 
hospitals in the rear, and stood with bandages, splin- 
ters, knives and saws, ready to perform their work of 
equal pain and mercy. At 10 o'clock the dreadful 
struggle commenced. Wellington felt that the honor 
of old England was resting on his broad shoulders, 
and Napoleon knew that his fate, and that of his 
empire, depended on the result of this day's battle. 
The brave French soldiers made charge after charge, 
shouting, " Vive I ' Emperenr /" They were pressing 
heavily upon the English lines. Wellington stood 
anxiously looking for the Prussians under Blucher. 
He exclaimed, "Would to Heaven Blucher or night 
would come ! " One whole day of slaughter had 
passed, and the battle hung, as it were, in the 
balance. Napoleon felt that victory was near at 
hand, and was about making a final charge with the 



256.. European Correspondence. 

Old Guard, which, it was said, never charged in vain. 
At this critical moment heavy cannonading was heard, 
and an army was seen in the distance advancing 
rapidly to the scene of action. Napoleon thought it 
was Marshal Grouchy, and was giving orders for a 
simultaneous attack by his whole force. Alas, for 
him ! it was not Grouchy, but Bulow and Blucher 
with sixty thousand fresh troops. 

A shout of exultation ran through the allied lines. 
Napoleon saw that all was lost unless he could break 
the English lines before the union of the allied armies, 
which had stood like a stone wall against the dread- 
ful assaults of the French. He now ordered up his 
reserve guard, which had never failed him, into battle. 
As these world-renowned old soldiers, under Marshal 
Ney, defiant of death, pressed on, piercing the British 
lines, it is said both armies gazed with awe upon the 
scene. Marshal Ney, in a few moments, had six horses 
shot from under him. With sabre in hand, he marched 
on foot, leading his men into the very jaws of death. 
Blucher, with his legions of infantry, cavalry and artil- 
lery, like an avalanche, swept over this little band of 
brave men, until, almost to a man, they were welter- 
ing in blood. General Cambronne, who was bleeding 
from a dozen wounds, was surrounded by a small 
remnant of his men. A flag of truce was sent de- 
manding a capitulation; Cambronne replied: "The 
Guard dies, but never surrenders !" Thus heroically 
perished the Imperial Guard, and Napoleon's star set 
to rise no more. Napoleon escaped to Paris, carrying 
the tidings of the terrible catastrophe at Waterloo, 



European Correspondence. 257 

which threw the city into confusion and despair. See- 
ing that all was lost, Napoleon abdicated in favor of 
his son, and attempted to escape to America ; but 
this was impossible, as the French coast was block- 
aded from Brest to Bayonne. He finally determined 
to throw himself upon the hospitality of the British 
nation, claiming the protection of their court. The 
English, having the French lion in their possession, 
determined to place him where he could do no more 
mischief. The Government sent him a prisoner, for 
life, to St. Helena, a small island in the Atlantic 
Ocean, between the Continents of Africa and South 
America. 

Six years of humiliation, suffering and anguish, 
broke the heart of the greatest military chieftain that 
ever lived. Napoleon was not only a great military 
hero, but he was also a brilliant statesman. 

Let us but cast our eyes over the pages of history, 
and we find that Ambition is the rock on which most 
of the great military heroes perish. Alexander, after 
having climbed the Alpine heights of ambition, looked 
down upon the conquered nations, and wept because 
there was not another world to conquer. He died 
among strangers in a miserable debauch. Hannibal 
crossed the ice-clad Alps and put to flight the armies 
of the mistress of the world. After having stained 
his hands in the blood of his fellow-creatures, he put 
an end to his miserable existence by committing 
suicide. Caesar, after conquering a thousand cities, 
and murdering a million of his foes, was assassinated 
by his friends. Bonaparte, who had filled the earth 
33 



258 European Correspondence. 

with the terror of his name, became a lonely exile. 
Such was the wretched fate of four of the greatest 
military men in ancient or modern times. These 
men lived only to make earth a vale of tears. They 
were great men in the world's acceptation, but their 
greatness consisted only in their great capacity for 
evil, and the unscrupulous readiness with which they 
did the work of Moloch. 

G. W. W. 
Waterloo, Belgium, 1866. 



LETTER TWENTY-FOURTH. 



Return to Paris — Picture Galleries of the Louvre — 
Place de la Concorde — Arc he Trioniphe — Garden of 
Plants — Hotel de Cluny — Government Porcelain 
Establishment. 

In Paris again ! Yes, gentle reader, this maelstrom 
of Europe has once more drawn me into its vortex. 
After a tour of many thousand miles over the Conti- 
nent, I have come to the conclusion that there is but 
one Paris. I must not forget, however, in the excite- 
ment and attractions of this grand city, that I have 
anxious friends awaiting my return to the New World. 
I know they will excuse me for once more reviewing 
with renewed interest, and more understandingly, the 
thousand and one objects of interest to be found here. 



European Correspondence. 259 

One of the seven wonders of the world is the 
museum of the Louvre of Paris. I have already- 
spent many days in wandering through gallery after 
gallery, my eyes feasting on the exquisite works of 
celebrated artists of all ages and nations. The huge 
collection comprising the museum would require 
almost a lifetime of study. The " Grand Gallery " 
unites the Louvre with the Palace of the Tuileries by 
a succession of galleries two thousand feet in length . 
The long walls are covered with rare paintings, and 
the arched ceilings are beautifully painted in fresco e. 
Among the great masters, next to Raphael, Rubens 
is my favorite. The " Conception," by Murillo, is one 
of the gems of the gallery. The Virgin is repre- 
sented ascending with clasped hands to heaven ; the 
crescent moon is at her feet, while the air around is 
filled with angel-children. Quite a number of large 
rooms are devoted entirely to the works of French 
masters. Artists are here from all sections taking 
copies of the best pictures. In looking through the 
long rooms of sculpture, representing as they do arts 
in the ancient, middle and modern ages, one is led to 
believe that the ancients were quite as skilled in arts 
and science as are the people of the present day. 

The Louvre was originally a kingly residence, but 
is now devoted to the royal museum of paintings, 
sculpture, and the like, forming, as it does, the most 
extensive collection of fine arts in the world. These 
galleries were enriched by the conquests of Napoleon. 
Twenty large rooms on the ground floor are filled 
with sculpture — many of the best pieces once embel- 



260 European Correspondence. 

lished ancient Rome, but were transferred to Paris by 
the conquering armies of France. A stranger wanders 
through the galleries so profusely filled with gems of 
art. At first, his mind becomes bewildered, and it 
is only after repeated visits that he is fully able to 
comprehend and appreciate the rich treasures so boun- 
tifully spread around him. I do not believe there is 
another city on the globe where the people are so 
joyous and gay as are the inhabitants of Paris. There 
is so much here to contribute to the happiness of 
childhood, youth, and old age. Oh ! what treasures 
are these beautiful gardens ; they are truly the lungs 
of this great metropolis. It is surprising to see how 
the rich and poor flock to them from early morning 
till late at night. Here you sip your cafe and listen 
to the most enchanting music ; the gentle sparrows 
skip around your feet, and pick crumbs from the chil- 
dren's tiny fingers. The birds of the forest are also 
attracted to these beautiful groves, adding their sweet 
notes to the music ; here they build nests, and rear 
their young in the branches of the beautiful shade 
trees. Again I wander to ''Place de la Concorde" 
where the Queen, Marie Antoinette, fell under the 
Jacobin guillotine, and where Louis XVI and many 
other nobles of France shared the same fate. These 
grounds were made red with the best blood of France. 
What a change ! Here you now find the most enchant- 
ing spot in Paris. In the centre of " Place de la Con- 
corde " stands a column one hundred feet high ; its 
sides are covered with Egyptian hieroglyphics, ex- 
ecuted more than three thousand years ago. This 



European Correspondence. 261 

old relic of Egyptian antiquity stood before the Tem- 
ple at Thebes fifteen hundred years before the birth 
of Christ. From this point you cast your eyes to the 
east, and you see the garden of the Tuileries and the 
palace of Napoleon III ; to the north is the magnificent 
Church of the Madeleine. Its noble proportions, its 
splendid architecture, its gorgeously rich exterior 
and interior, its decorations and fine paintings, with 
which its walls are adorned, all these render it the 
most beautiful and interesting work of art that I have 
seen in Europe. The lover of the beautiful will not 
tire in looking upon this unsurpassed and wonderful 
church edifice. To the south, is the Chamber of 
Deputies, which you reach by crossing a massive 
stone bridge over the River Seine ; to the west are the 
Elysian Fields, the fairy land of Paris. This Eden is 
a quarter of a mile wide, and one and a half in length. 
In the centre of these grounds is the grand avenue of 
Champs Elysces, which leads to the Arclie Triomphe. 
This monument, like ■ everything that is grand and 
imposing, improves on a second visit. The drive up 
the Champs Elysces is thronged with brilliant equi- 
pages and splendid equestrians. It is unsurpassed for 
its beauty and grandeur. Here you see Paris in her 
gayest and most brilliant uniform. In this mass of 
human beings mingle royalty and democracy, king 
and peasant — all seem to be in quiet pursuit of com- 
fort, pleasure, and pure air. Art and nature have 
conspired to give the Arclie Triomphe a happy loca- 
tion, and it is the most stupendous structure of the 
kind ever erected. Its cost exceeds ten millions of 



262 European Correspojidence. 

francs. This monument is the work of Napoleon ; 
built to celebrate his victories and butcheries ! 

Again I wander in the Garden of Plants, which inter- 
ested me so much during my first visit to Paris. In 
all my travels on the Continent I found nothing of 
the kind that surpassed this enchanting spot. This is 
an institution which combines science and pleasure. 
Here is the magnificent cedar of Lebanon — a tree that 
not even the Jacobin destructionists dared molest. 
It is difficult to decide, while in the Garden of Plants 
and the Museum of Natural History, which depart- 
ment you most admire. When in the division devoted 
to botany, looking at the myriads of luxuriant plants 
and trees from every part of the habitable globe, you 
think this the sweetest spot, and so it is ; but when 
you enter the zoological department, filled with ani- 
mals and fowls from the four quarters of the globe, 
together with a vast collection of objects intended to 
illustrate different branches of natural history, from 
the mammoth whale to the infant not a span long, 
one cannot but be deeply interested. Connected with 
the " yardin des Plantes" is a college with twenty 
professors, who give lectures on natural history, anat- 
omy, chemistry, mineralogy, geology and physic 
applied to natural history ; besides there are masters 
who give lessons in drawing and painting flowers. 

Hotel de Cluny, one of the ancient mansions of 
Paris, interested me on account of its antiquity, and 
the rare collection of antique curiosities it contains. 
The ancient appearance of the building attracted my 
attention, and my curiosity was further excited on 



European Correspondence. 263 

learning that some two thousand years ago it was the 
residence of Roman Governors of Gaul, and it was 
here Julian resided when he was proclaimed Governor 
of Rome. The modern portion of the edifice has been 
successively a nunnery, a palace, a prison, a revolu- 
tionary hall, and now a museum. It is certainly one 
of the most curious places I have seen in the Old 
World. The collection of historical antiquities is a 
huge treasure of wonders. 

Knowing Mrs. W.'s proclivities for fine porcelain 
and exquisite cut glass, I visited the Government 
works a few miles out of Paris, and made some selec- 
tions that I think will please the good folks at home. 
The rich and costly vases here exceed anything 
beyond American conception. The establishment, 
like all Government works in France, is on a grand 
scale, and present a rare museum of every variety of 
earthenware ; here you find costly porcelain from 
China, Japan, India, and from almost every kingdom 
in Europe. The French surpass all nations in cut 
glass and perfect mirrors. 

G. W. W. 

Paris, September, 1866. 



LETTER TWENTY-FIFTH 



Visit to St. Cloud — Napoleon III — Versailles — Leaving 
Paris — Rouen — Cathedral — Joan of Arc — Her In- 
human Murder. 

As I did not see Napoleon III, when last 
in Paris, and not wishing to return to America 
without looking upon so great and distinguished 
a personage, I went to St. Cloud for that pur- 
pose. The emperor and empress were spending a 
few weeks at St. Cloud, which is their summer 
retreat. At 5 P. M., he and his family drove in 
an open carriage through the park, to the delight 
of those who, like myself, came here to gaze upon 
royalty. 

The emperor is looking care-worn, and the em- 
press does not appear as young and fresh as her 
pictures indicate. 

St. Cloud is quite a village, on the left bank of the 
Seine, six miles from Paris, and on the railway to 
Versailles. The fine chateau of St. Cloud, originally 
the property of the Duke of Orleans, was long the 
favorite abode of the kings of France. It has an 
extensive park and fine fountains. Henry IV was 
assassinated here, by Jacques Clement, in 1589. It 
was at St. Cloud the first Napoleon broke up the 



European Correspondence. 265 

assembly of " Five hundred." Their proceedings 
displeased young Bonaparte, and he determined 
to bring matters to a decisive issue. He placed 
himself at the door of the assembly amid the 
shouts, "Down with the dictator!" "Down with 
the bayonets!" "Outlaw the bayonet!" It is said 
Napoleon grew pale, and resolutely determined to 
employ armed force for the purpose of expelling 
the refractory council from its place of meeting. 

The word of command was given, and the grena- 
diers, led by Murat, (afterwards the brother-in-law 
of Napoleon,) entered the hall with fixed bayonets. 
The representatives fled in all directions. Napoleon 
caused himself to be proclaimed First Consul. This 
was in November, 1799. Thus perished the short- 
lived republic, which to establish deluged France 
in blood. Napoleon was now supreme governor 
of all he surveyed, and he ruled the refractory 
people of France with an iron rod. Nothing but 
a master mind and a master will could deal 
with the Jacobin spirit which spread not only 
throughout France, but throughout the Continent 
of Europe. 

Who has not heard of Versailles, and read of its 
grand palace and splendid paintings? I do not know 
when I have spent a day with more intense interest 
than the one devoted to an excursion to Versailles. 
It is said that the folly and extravagance of Louis 
XVI, in building this city, was the baleful seed sown 
which afterwards produced the French Revolution. 
These old hunting grounds were converted into mag- 
34 



266 European Correspondence. 

nificent palaces and fountains, on a scale grand and 
costly almost beyond conception. Nowhere in Eu- 
rope have I seen fountains equal to those of Ver- 
sailles. The palaces of Vienna and Berlin will not 
compare, in cost or magnificence, with those to be 
found in this Parisian suburb ; and the Museum of 
Fine Arts here is almost equal to those of Paris or 
any other city. The length of the palace is fourteen 
hundred feet, and the central front, projecting on the 
west, is two hundred and seventy-five feet beyond 
the wings. These large halls and galleries are filled 
with historical collections. It required many hours 
to walk through the various departments, merely 
having time to make a cursory inspection of their 
contents. One of the wonders of the palace is 
the gallery of magnificent mirrors, two hundred 
and fifty feet long, forty wide, and forty-two high, 
reflecting, as they do, the beautiful grounds and 
gardens. 

The fountains play only on Sunday. The finest 
basins are those of Neptune, Latona and Apollo. 
From the basin of Neptune a broad and beautiful 
avenue leads to the lake, with a miniature Swiss vil- 
lage built on its banks by Marie Antoinette. Ver- 
sailles at one time had a population of one hundred 
thousand; it is now reduced to thirty thousand. The 
streets are wide and clean, and are lined with many 
elegant houses. The pure air, refreshing fountains, 
and fine promenades, and close proximity to Paris, 
make it a most delightful summer retreat. I find if I 
linger in and around Paris until I visit all the objects 



European Correspondence. 267 

of interest, and satisfy my curiosity, I shall never 
again see "sweet home." I must, then, bid a long 
adieu to these French luxuries and pleasures. 

I would advise any one who possesses taste and 
the means for enjoying any refinement which wealth 
can command, to go to France. What nature lacks 
has been supplied with a liberal hand by art and 
science. 

Three hours' travel by the lightning train, through 
a beautiful and highly cultivated country, and we find 
ourselves in the quaint old City of Rouen, so full of 
antique history. 

In passing through the land of the daring and 
chivalrous Normans, the mind is crowded with his- 
torical associations which lend a thrilling interest to 
this old domain, once the battle-ground of Julius 
Caesar, by whom it was conquered before the Chris- 
tian era. 

At one time a prey to the Roman powers, then 
overrun by the Germanic nations, who poured down 
from their Scandinavian caves with the relentless 
fierceness of hungry wolves, leaving their bloody 
tracks through the hills and valleys of Normandy. 

England, the grand old monarch of Europe, as 
usual, took her part in the struggles, and came in 
for the lion's share of the spoils. 

Normandy was long the fruit coveted by England 
and France, and was successively governed by those 
nations until England committed the great crime 
of inhumanly burning alive an innocent French 
girl. From the time of this cruel act, fate turned 



268 European Correspondence. 

against the English, and her kings and queens 
never again tyrannized over the brave and .resolute 
Normans. 

In Rouen there are many antiquities of deep and 
thrilling interest. The most striking of these is the 
celebrated Cathedral of Notre Dame. It is regarded 
as one of the noblest structures of the kind in Europe. 
The cathedral is one hundred and ten feet wide, and 
in length four hundred and fifty. As you gaze upon 
its huge proportions, the mind is overwhelmed with 
its vastness and curious workmanship. Its gorgeously 
ornamented front has three splendid portals, over 
which is a central tower, surrounded by an iron spire, 
mounting to the dizzy height of four hundred and 
sixty feet. 

On entering this immense Gothic structure, you 
look upon the splendid architecture, monuments, 
statues, and pictures almost without number. Here 
the light is pouring in from one hundred and forty 
windows, through stained glass of almost every shape 
and color. The sensation produced is overpowering, 
partaking, perhaps, more of the feeling of awe than of 
religious sentiment. 

A visit of a day will not admit of taking in the 
vast proportions of this wonderful church edifice, 
and its marvellous and interesting decorations. Near 
the old market is a monument which stands to 
perpetuate the shame of England and the ingrati- 
tude of France for the great crime of consigning, 
in 143 1, to the flames, Joan of Arc, the heroine of 
Orleans. 



European Correspondence, 269 

For the benefit of your young readers I will give a 
brief sketch of this remarkable French girl. 

While en route from Paris to Switzerland, I passed 
through the small town of Domrenny, and was 
informed that the celebrated Joan of Arc was born 
there. Her parents were poor but respectable. She 
spent the early portion of her life in a menial capac- 
ity ; but, possessing genius of high order, she was 
not long satisfied with playing the part of her father's 
shepherd girl. Joan was noted, when a child, for her 
sweetness of temper, industrious habits, and purity of 
character. During that period in France when the 
power had fallen from the hands of an imbecile king, 
two leading houses of Orleans and Burgundy claimed 
the throne. The latter called to their aid the English. 
These foreigners made the unfortunate French feel 
the horrors of war. 

Political and party interest was forced upon the 
mind of Joan. A prophesy being current that a virgin 
should rid France of its enemies, this prediction fast- 
ened itself on the mind of the maid that she was to 
be the deliverer. Joan's determination to start, on 
what she conceived to be a holy mission, was hast- 
ened by the fact that a band of Burgundians plun- 
dered the country, and compelled the young girl, with 
her parents, to quit their homes and fly for safety. 
When they returned they found their humble cottage, 
and the Church of Domrenny, laid in ashes. Such 
conduct, by the brutal soldiery, was well calculated 
to fire the indignation of Joan. The fortunes of the 
Dauphin Charles, at this time, were almost desperate. 



270 European Correspondence. 

From childhood her attachment to the throne amount- 
ed almost to idolatry. Her loyal and patriotic spirit 
revolted at witnessing the misery and degradation of 
her country under the oppression of the English, who 
had united with the Burgundists against the Orleans 
family. The City of Orleans was closely besieged, and 
its deliverance became the cherished dream of Joan's 
life. 

The young girl religiously believed that she was 
destined, under Providence, to be the deliverer of her 
oppressed people. The enthusiastic Jeanne sought 
an interview with the governor, and told him of her 
supernatural " visions " and communications from St. 
Michael and St. Catherine, by whom she was commis- 
sioned to rescue her distressed monarch from his ene- 
mies. At first she was treated as an impostor, but 
her unusual intelligence and prepossessing manners 
and appearance, inspired confidence in the governor, 
and he yielded so far to her importunities as to 
furnish her with an armed escort to the court- of 
Charles. Enduring heroically the hardships of a 
long, fatiguing march, she reached the court early in 
1429, and was soon thereafter admitted to the pres- 
ence of Charles. It is said she gave him satisfactory 
proof of her inspiration by relating to him facts 
which he believed to be known to none but God and 
himself. 

The king no longer doubted ; but, to remove all 
suspicion from the public mind, subjected her char- 
acter in all respects to be critcally scrutinized. She 
proved to be pure and unimpeachable. At her earnest 



European Correspondence. 271 

request she was dispatched to the relief of Orleans, 
which had been for six months closely besieged by 
the English and Burgundians. 

She was furnished with a war-horse, and a complete 
suit of armor, such as was worn by the warriors of 
that day. A page bore her banner, with the motto 
" Jesus Maria." Thus equipped she headed the French 
army, and made a bold attack on the strongest point 
of the English position. In the hottest of the fight 
she received a severe wound in her bosom; quickly 
recovering from the shock, she drew out the weapon 
with her own hand, and rushed again to the front. 
The French soldiers partook of her enthusiasm, and 
borne along, as if by superhuman impulse, charged 
the enemy with relentless fury, who, panic-stricken, 
gave way after a brief struggle. The English 
retreated hastily, and in great confusion, leaving 
their baggage and artillery. The victorious deliverer 
of Orleans urged Charles to march without delay 
upon Reims. Step by step the Maid of Orleans 
fought her way to Reims, and did not rest until her 
prophesy was . fulfilled that " the Dauphin Charles 
should be proclaimed king at Reims." The Maid of 
Orleans was subsequently wounded at the siege of 
Paris, and taken prisoner. Instead of treating her 
honorably as a captive, the English gave her up to 
pass through a mock trial. She was, by a bribed 
jury, found guilty of "sorcery," and inhumanly con- 
demned to be burnt alive ! A pile of wood was raised 
near the market-house, and Joan, the heroic Maid of 
Orleans, and deliverer of France, was placed upon it. 



272 European Correspondence. 

When the flames curled around her she begged that 
the image of Christ might be placed before her. 
The last utterance of her lips was in fervent prayer 
to her Saviour. All that was mortal of the beautiful 
Maid of Orleans was reduced to ashes, and swept 
into the Seine ; while her gentle spirit took its flight 
to the better land. 

It is difficult to know on whom to fix the ignominy 
of this barbarous murder. The sad fate of Joan of 
Arc is alike disgraceful to friend and foe ; at least 
this is the opinion of 

G. W. W. 

Reims, September, 1866. 



LETTER TWENTY-SIXTH 



London — The English Channel — Hills of Dover — Poor 
of London — Commercial and Financial Crisis — Sight- 
seeing — The Home of my Forefathers — Invitation 
from a Charleston Friend. 

A few days since our party were busily engaged at 
the Hotel de Louvre, preparing to leave for England. 
A little girl said, beseechingly, " Please don't go to 
London, mamma, London is not a new place." No, 
this city of cities is certainly not a new place, but it 
is a metropolis in which every lover of antique his- 
tory, of art, education, science and commerce, must 



European Correspondence. 273 

visit with thrilling interest. To your young readers 
who have been for so many long years shut up in 
the closely besieged Confederacy, there is much to 
them that is new, even within the dingy old walls 
of London. 

I left Rouen with four lady passengers, two of 
whom were Americans, and two were Germans — the 
latter were experienced travellers. I was glad of 
an opportunity of availing myself of their previous 
knowledge of the sights to be seen here. It is a 
great advantage to travel with those who know what 
is worth seeing, and where to find it. It was espe- 
cially important to one whose time was as precious as 
mine. A stranger is often terribly imposed upon by 
guides and couriers, whose chief aim is to get your 
money for the least possible labor. 

At Dieppe we took passage on a fine steamer for 
Dover, and bade a long farewell to the green hills of 
La Belle Fra7ice. A shrill whistle, and the deck of 
our steamer was soon crowded with passengers. 

A moment more, and we were fairly launched 
on the angry billows of the English Channel. As 
usual in these waters, the sea was rough, and many of 
the passengers were sick almost unto death. A gen- 
tleman administered brandy to his distressed wife 
pretty freely. Between the rolling of the ship and the 
effects of the liquor, she became frantic, kicked up a 
general row, and threatened to murder the captain 
if he did not put on more steam and land her 
quickly at Dover. 
35 



274 Europe mi Correspondence. 

The captain quietly remarked that he thought we 
already had most too much steam on the ship for the 
comfort of the passengers. She threw a glass tumbler 
at his head, to the great mortification of her gentle- 
manly looking husband, and the discomfort of the 
captain. An officer took charge of our -belligerent 
passenger, and the last I heard of her she was scream- 
ing "more steam" and "more brandy!" I have 
heard travellers say they had rather cross the Atlantic 
than the English Channel. The day was bright and 
lovely. I have been tossed about so much on land 
and sea, I have grown hardy, and am seldom sick. 
I was as comfortable as if sailing on a smooth 
lake ; but I must confess that I felt sad when I saw 
the old Continent gradually fading from my natural 
vision. Its treasures of cities, mountains, valleys 
and lakes, are carefully locked up in memory's 
recesses. These reminiscences of the Old World 
will furnish me and the loved ones at home many a 
pleasant hour in living them over again. As one glory 
fadeth away another appeareth, at least such has been 
my good fortune. I leave the accumulated glories of 
the Continent, and I enter upon the enchanting scenes 
of Great Britain. Before me stand the bold and 
chalk-like cliffs of old Dover, and now I am safely 
landed on English soil ! How my heart beats as the 
histories of this little island crowd upon me, and 
as I hear the sweet and familiar tone of my mother 
tongue, I can scarcely refrain from embracing my 
cousins, who speak a language never before so sweet 
to my ear ; and, at this point, let me urge upon every 



European Correspondence. 275 

man and woman who has any idea of visiting the 
Continent, to learn at least the French language ; 
and a little German would aid in directing your hack- 
man to drive you to a hotel, and not to the king's 
palace. As I stood upon the soil of Old England, 
somehow -a feeling of home, dear home, came over 
me ! Oh, how my heart flew to the loved ones over 
the vast Atlantic ! But enough — here are the hills of 
Dover, covered with the strongest fortifications, keep- 
ing a watchful eye upon the restless enemy of Eng- 
land. I learned that one of the old cannons, which 
pointed over the channel, had written on it — 

" Keep me dry, and keep me clean, 

And I will carry a ball to Calais green." 

It was here that the ambitious Caesar first planted 
his foot, his terror, and his power upon English soil. 
What a narrow space separates two powerful nations, 
as unlike in tastes, manners and habits, as in language. 
And here, again, I will take the liberty of giving my 
American friends a little advice : before making a tour 
of the Continent, if possible, visit Great Britain. It 
has been my fortune, however, to take the plum pud- 
ding first, and then the roast beef. English beef is 
not to be despised, even after having been feasted on 
the dainties of Paris, Vienna and Berlin, and on the 
pates de foie gras of Strasburg. 

At Dover, our baggage was taken charge of and 
transferred to the customhouse to undergo a strict 
search. An Israelite — I cannot say " in whom there 
was no guile " — was overhauled by the eagle-eyed 



276 European Correspondence. 

government officers, and his goods confiscated for an 
attempt to smuggle. As I had four lady passengers 
under my wing, the Brussels lace that I selected for 
my American queen was not considered contraband. 

The railway to London lies through a beautiful and 
highly cultivated country. On our left, we had a 
view of the wide-renown Crystal Palace. 

We are now in London, the world's great Babel, 
the heart of the British Empire, and the financial cir- 
cle of the Universe. We stopped in the West End, 
at the Langham Hotel, where we found comfortable 
quarters. I was up bright and early, and requested 
the clerk to show me on the map what part of the 
City of London we were in, and was quite surprised 
to learn, notwithstanding we had driven for miles 
through streets lined with elegant mansions, we were 
still two miles out of London proper. 

Since my arrival I have been learning the geogra- 
phy of this mammoth metropolis. One of the best 
means of seeing a city is to take a box seat with the 
driver — a small pecuniary recognition will make him 
very accommodating and communicative; he will 
take pleasure in pointing out every place of interest 
on his entire route. 

These public conveyances run from and to the 
most noted places, passing through the best and most 
frequented streets. You can ride in these convey- 
ances, until you are bewildered at sight-seeing, for 
six cents. 

To one unaccustomed to large cities, it is difficult 
to realize the extent and vastness of London. 



European Correspondence. 277 

This wonder of the world lies on both sides of the 
River Thames, and is twelve miles long and six wide. 
Its population is four times that of the State of South 
Carolina. Here you find wealth and plenty, aristoc- 
racy and beggary ; Fifth-avenue palaces and Five- 
point rookeries ; two thousand churches and ten 
thousand gambling saloons ; a few thousand men and 
women of leisure and culture ; and two millions 
ground down by overwork and underpay. 

The poor have a hard, hard time of it in London. 
On all sides you see evidences of pinching want and 
wretchedness. 

With these poor creatures it is not how much they 
can lay up from their toil, but the fight from morn- 
ing till night is to get bread for the tattered and 
hungry children. You will find yourself asking the 
question, " Why do these destitute people remain in 
London ? " The answer is, " They have not the means 
of getting away." And, further, thousands have no 
knowledge of any country beyond the precincts of 
their own dark damp cellars and crowded attics. 
Talk to them about America, and they don't know 
whether it is in China or Africa ; and this great me- 
tropolis, with the concentrated wealth of the world at 
its command, with its Bank of England, its Barings, 
Rothchilds and Peabodies, send into the streets daily 
hordes of beggars, many of them the mere skeletons 
of men and women, in rags, with withered children 
in their arms, begging for bread. The lame, the 
blind, and the deformed crawl into the streets, im- 
ploring alms ; and all these revolting and sickening 



278 European Correspondence. 

sights are to be seen in the city that groaned over 
the wretched condition of the American slave ; and 
made a goddess of Madame Stowe for printing her 
" Uncle Tom " misrepresentations. This is the city 
that sends its missionaries to " Greenland's Icy Moun- 
tains," and to " India's Burning Plains," to look after 
the heathen, when the heathen are to be found by the 
million at their very doors. It is said that " distance 
lends enchantment to the view." I doubt not if these 
wretched creatures, bone of their bone, and flesh of 
their flesh, were in China or America, millions of 
money could be raised in London to relieve their 
miserable condition. In all cities you find extreme 
poverty and great wealth ; the most abject destitu- 
tion, and the most profuse and prodigal luxury. I 
would not have you think the people of London were 
not charitable. They not only devise but carry out 
noble deeds. London has a thousand charitable in- 
stitutions, and vast sums of public and private contri- 
butions are expended in relieving the distresses of 
the poor. It is said some six millions of dollars are 
raised annually for these purposes ; but why do not 
the public authorities, as in Paris, put a stop to the 
annoying street begging? In the chief cities on the 
Continent, beggars are only permitted to ask alms 
on holyday occasions. 

Perhaps I have presented the dark side of the pic- 
ture of London, and it may be that I am here at a 
very unfavorable time. The British Empire is now 
passing through a terrible commercial and financial 
crisis. For six consecutive months money has aver- 



European Correspondence. 279 

aged ten per cent. Such a high rate of interest, for 
so long a time, is almost without a precedent, in 
England especially, when the country is free from 
war. A year ago money was one and a half to two 
and a half per cent. The failure of some large bankers 
and commercial houses, have thrown distrust and 
discredit upon the whole trading community. The 
"bubbles of finance" have exploded, and have brought 
ruin and bankruptcy upon many who counted their 
wealth by the millions. These failures have been 
brought about mainly by overtrading, speculation, 
and a too free use of credit. " Promoters " of joint 
stock companies, and of life insurance companies, 
are a curse in all communities. These worthies 
weave webs by day and by night, into which innocent 
flies from the country and from the city, of both 
sexes, become entangled; and the more they struggle 
the closer the web is wrapped around them. These 
land sharks are as dangerous as the counterfeiters, 
for they " promote companies," knowing the con- 
cern to be rotten to the core. These legalized 
swindlers will rob a man of his lifetime earnings, 
and go scot-free, while the man who passes a ten 
pound counterfeit note pays the extreme penalty of 
the law. 

I hope you will not think, gentle reader, that 
London is a poorhouse filled with beggars, or 
that the capital of the banks and insurance com- 
panies is made up of the " bubbles of finance ?" 
Far from it. There is more wealth in a mile 
square, taking the Bank of England as the centre, 



280 European Correspondence. 

than there is in the same space in any other city 
on the globe. Well, I have spent ten days in this 
great, rich capital, scarcely taking time to eat or 
sleep. 

I have availed myself of the best possible means 
of sight-seeing, regardless of cost, and I doubt whether 
two eyes ever looked upon more grand sights in ten 
days than mine have. But London cannot be com- 
prehended in a week, a month, nor even in a year. 
One must see it, walk and ride through its thorough- 
fares, mingle with its vast population, travel under its 
rivers, and on its rivers, through its underground rail- 
ways, traverse its numerous parks, and then mount 
the lofty dome of St. Paul's, and take a panoramic 
view of the great metropolis, such as no other city 
presents. The teeming millions of human beings 
at our feet look like a great hive of busy bees 
moving to and fro, some of them laying up food 
for the winter of life ; but, alas ! there are among 
them too many dronss, living upon the industry 
and toil of their neighbors. In these ten days we 
have seen all of the most remarkable objects in 
London. My head is too dizzy, and my brain 
too much crowded to attempt at this time a de- 
scription of these grand sights. Before this is 
attempted, body and mind must both have rest 
and repose. With this conviction, I have decided 
to leave London to-morrow, for the country, pass- 
ing through England, Scotland, and return to Lon- 
don again through Wales, once the home of my 
forefathers. 




M 

"■'« 



European Correspondence. 281 

I have an invitation from my good Charleston 
friend, Mrs. H. P. W., to make her a visit near 
Colchester, which I gladly accept, as it will give me 
an opportunity of seeing how English country gentry 
live. 

G. W. W. 

London, September, 1866. 



LETTER TWENTY-SEVENTH. 



Rose Cottage — Bury St. Edmunds — St. Mary's Church — 
Edinburgh — Sir Walter Scott's Monument — Royal 
Museum — National Gallery — Jolin Knox's House — 
Holyrood Palace — Mary Queen of Scotts — Murder of 
Rizzio — Linlithgow. 

Having received a polite note from my esteemed 
friend Mrs. H. P. W., the Queen of Her Majesty's 
popular Consul at Charleston, inviting me to make 
her a visit, I left London on the lightning train, which 
carried me so swiftly through the beautifully culti- 
vated fields and forests of rural England, that I did 
not have a satisfactory view of the lovely scenery 
which lay spread out on both sides of the railway. 

The pure air and a sight of the blue sky, after being 
shut up for ten days, surrounded with brick walls and 
the dense fogs of London, were indeed refreshing. 
36 



282 European Correspondence. 

At the Colchester Depot I was met by my Charles- 
ton friends. A short drive through winding roads, 
bordered with green hedges, and I find myself at 
Rose Cottage. In this quiet English home, was grace, 
ease, and beauty. The welcome of new and the 
familiar faces of old friends, was to me an oasis in a 
foreign land. 

I had, while on the Continent, looked upon so many 
millions of strange people, and heard such a Babel of 
foreign languages, it made me happy to gaze once 
more upon a face that I had seen at my own home, 
and to hear one speak my native tongue. Mrs. W. 
and I talked over home, sweet home, until I almost 
felt like taking passage to the loved ones there by 
the cable line, instead of by the steamship China. As 
I have much yet to see before crossing the Atlantic, 
I must not linger in this little earthly paradise. In 
this Eden there is forbidden fruit, but no serpent to 
tempt, nor Adams to be tempted. 

My friend, Mr. Walker, gave such a glowing ac- 
count of the ancient town of Bury St. Edmunds, once 
his home, and the city in which he began his profes- 
sional career, I decided to spend a day there, and 
wander among the ruins of the Old Abbey. 

Bury St. Edmunds, a municipal and parliamentary 
borough, is in the County of Suffolk, some seventy- 
five miles from London. About one thousand years 
ago, King St. Edmund lived and died here ; an Abbey 
was founded in honor of the king, which became 
one of the most magnificent in the Empire. Its 
walls encircled, beside the monastery proper, a large 



European Correspondence. 283 

churchyard, the abbot's palace, infirmaries, towers, a 
garden, several chapels, and a splendid abbey church. 
The abbot under whom were numerous monks, chap- 
lains, and servants, enjoyed the broadest privileges, 
even to the coining of money, and inflicting capital 
punishment. 

The most permanent relic left of these grand old 
ruins, is one of the splendid arched ornamented gates. 
Portions of the church have been converted into shops 
and private residences. 

The beautiful garden is still kept in good order. 
Bury St. Edmunds has a population of fourteen thou- 
sand. Its principal buildings are the town hall, which, 
by the way, was originally a church. 

The Church of St. Mary's, an ancient structure, 
contains the tomb of Mary, Queen of France, daugh- 
ter of Henry VII. 

Bishop Gardiner, Bishop Bloomfield, of London, 
and numerous other prominent men, were natives of 
this town. 

At 5 P. M. I left for Edinburgh. In a railway ride 
from London to Edinburgh is presented to the travel- 
ler rich and varied panoramic views. 

On each side are luxuriant fields of grain and 
meadows, dotted here and there with beautiful rural 
homes almost hid with flowers and vines ; and now 
you pass magnificient parks filled with grand old 
oaks and other forest trees, the growth of centuries. 
At last I am in dear old Scotland ; the land of the 
heroic Wallace and Bruce; of the unfortunate Queen 
Mary ; of John Knox, the Reformer ; of Burns, the 



284 European Correspondence. 

poet ; of David Hume and Adam Smith ; and last, 
though not least, of Sir Walter Scott, the greatest 
author of ancient and modern times. 

In many respects, Scotland, although the smallest, 
is the most interesting division of Great Britain, being 
divided into Highlands and Lowlands. These divis- 
ions are filled with rugged mountains, fertile valleys, 
and beautiful lakes, and abounds in ancient castellated 
remains. 

The soils are exceedingly diversified. Of the 
twenty millions of acres of land not one-third of it is 
suitable for cultivation ; but the highest hills produce 
good pasturage for sheep, goats, and the like. 

In extent of territory Scotland is about equal to 
the State of South Carolina. Its population is three 
million one hundred thousand. 

We are now in Edinburgh. It is one of the hand- 
somest located cities in Europe. As you approach it 
one of the first objects that meet the eye is the old 
castle perched on a high and almost precipitous rock. 
I shall not forget my first impressions of this ancient 
structure, which is so full of thrilling associations and 
historical interest. The castle consists of a series of 
irregular fortifications, and has an elevation of nearly 
four hundred feet above the level of the sea. Here 
you have a magnificent view of Edinburgh, the ocean, 
and of the surrounding country. 

There are accommodations in the barracks for two 
thousand soldiers, and fifty thousand stand of arms. 
Improvements in modern warfare have rendered 
these fortifications almost useless. . 



European Correspondence. 285 

The insignia of Scottish royalty consists of a 
crown, a sceptre, and a sword of state, which are pre- 
served and exhibited in the Crown Room. 

On the ground floor is a small apartment where 
Queen Mary gave birth to James VI, of Scotland, 
afterwards James I, of England ; thus uniting the 
crowns of the two kingdoms and putting a stop to 
the frequent wars between the two rival powers. 

The pride of Edinburgh is Princess street. This 
broad, straight avenue, is a mile in length, and is 
separated from the old town by pleasant grounds, 
called Princess-street Gardens. In these gardens, 
nearly opposite the Royal Hotel, stands the handsome 
spiral monument erected to the memory of Sir Wal- 
ter Scott. This seems to be a waste of money, as 
the memory of the celebrated novelist is stamped on 
every hill, nook and corner of his native land. The 
height of the monument is two hundred feet, and it 
cost nearly one hundred thousand dollars. 

Below the canopy of the monument is a marble 
statue of the great author in a sitting posture, attended 
by his favorite dog, Bevis. 

The Royal Museum stands about the centre of 
Princess street. It contains a valuable collection of 
Celtic and Roman antiquities. The National Gallery 
of paintings is worthy of a visit. It was established 
in 1850, by the late Prince Albert. The collection 
includes some fine specimens of Vandyke, Titian, 
Veronese, Rembrandt, and others. Among the few 
works of sculpture in these rooms is the statue of 
Burns. The national monument, near by, is intended 



286 European Correspondence. 

to commemorate the heroes who fell at Waterloo. 
The work, so far as completed, exhibits the skill of 
the Edinburgh masonry ; but, like the Washington 
Monument, in our Capital, it stands unfinished for 
the want of pecuniary means. 

My guide pointed out the house of John Knox, the 
great Presbyterian Reformer. It is a granite building, 
more than three centuries old. 

The Parliament House, and the Chambers or Town 
Hall, are both objects of interest to the traveller. 

I viewed with more than ordinary interest Holy- 
rood Palace, the ancient residence of Scottish royalty. 
The picture gallery, the largest hall in the palace, is 
filled with a hundred of DeWitts' daubs of Scottish 
kings. In this hall, however, there is a fine portrait 
of Queen Mary. At the end of the gallery are four 
historical paintings, recently sent from the royal 
collection at Hampton Court, representing James 
III and his Queen, Margaret of Denmark, at devotion. 
Queen Mary's apartments are the most interesting 
in the palace, and remain pretty much in the same 
condition as when last occupied by the unfortunate 
princess. 

Passing through the Audience Chamber, you enter 
Queen Mary's bedroom, with its ancient bed and other 
furniture. 

On one side of the room is the door of the secret 
passage by which the conspirators, headed by Lord 
Darnley, entered. Adjoining is the closet where 
they found their victim, Rizzio. This favorite of the 
queen was murdered in her presence, receiving from 



European Correspondence. 287 

the hands of the assassins fifty odd stabs. The spot 
where the unfortunate victim lay is identified by marks 
of blood still visible. 

The old Abbey of Holyrood House is interesting 
'for its ancient architecture and great antiquities, hav- 
ing been built in 1 128. In the Royal Vault of this 
old church were deposited the remains of many of 
the kings and queens of Scotland. 

The unfortunate Rizzio's grave is in the passage 
leading from the quadrangle. The queen was sus- 
pected of being too intimate with the Italian musician. 
Poor Mary was, doubtless, charged with many crimes 
and intrigues of which she was innocent. 

History does not furnish a character of the gentler 
sex of whom so much has been written for and 
against, as of Mary Queen of Scots; one class of 
writers paint her as a saint, while another describes 
her as a demon. Her guilt or innocence will not be 
settled until the Great Book is opened and the Judge 
of the good and bad shall pass sentence. Among 
her most notorious female enemies were Queen Eliza- 
beth and Catherine de Medicis. 

Mary's father, James V, died before his successor 
was permitted to look upon the blue skies of her 
native hills. 

The intrigues, jealousies and bickerings of her rela- 
tions and supposed friends, made it necessary that 
Mary Stuart should be sent abroad. 

The education of the young and beautiful girl, in 
the gay and fashionable schools of France, did not 
improve her morals, however much they polished her 
manners. 



288 European Correspondence. 

The jealousy of Elizabeth, and the opposition of 
the Knoxites to Mary's religion, had much to do in 
hastening her career to an early and untimely issue. 

For nineteen long years the young Queen of Scot- 
land was incarcerated in dismal English prisons. On 
the 7th of February, 1588, Mary was commanded to 
prepare for death. 

At 8 o'clock, next morning, Mary repaired to the 
spot appointed for her execution, placed her head on 
the fatal block, and at the second stroke of the execu- 
tioner it was severed from her body. Such was the 
tragical death of the beautiful Mary, in the forty-fifth 
year of her age. This inhuman murder was the dark- 
est of the many dark deeds of Queen Elizabeth. No 
person can visit Scotland without feeling an interest 
in Queen Mary. 

A few hours drive from Edinburgh, and I find my- 
self at Linlithgow, the birthplace of the celebrated 
Queen of Scotland. 

The old palace is a massive edifice, situated on an 
eminence, which advances a little way into the lake. 
Although in ruins it is visited by nearly every travel- 
ler, and will be remembered as one of the most noted 
relics in Scotland. 

The internal architecture is fine, but the exterior is 
massive and unsightly, as it is not relieved by win- 
dows. Royalty in those days did not enjoy the 
luxury of windows. Palaces were more like strong 
fortifications than the residences of kings and ,queens. 

Edinburgh is celebrated for its literary and educa- 
tional institutions. Of these the University deserves 
the first notice. 



European Correspondence. 289 

Its library contains more than one hundred thou- 
sand volumes. 

Literature and the professions are not only the 
glory of Edinburgh but affords the chief source of 
employment to her population. 

A stranger is struck with the well-polished brass 
plates which surmount nearly every door of the neat 
and well kept private residences. 

The custom or fashion of deserting these comfort- 
able homes during the summer months, prevails here 
to the same extent as in London, Paris, and other 
large European cities. 

But change is the fashion, and I must not linger 
longer in this literary city. 

Ever yours, 

G. W. W. 

Edinburgh, October, 1866. 



37 



LETTER TWENTY-EIGHTH 



City of Aberdeen — Home of William Birnie — Inver- 
ness — Caledonian Canal — Falls of Foyers — Urquhart 
Castle — Language of the Highlanders — Oban — 
Fort William — Dunolly Castle — FingaVs Cave — Iona 
Island — Beautiful Lakes — A Fla?ik Movement. 

A swift railway ride of one hundred and thirty-five 
miles from Edinburgh, through a picturesque coun- 
try, and I arrive safely at Aberdeen, a city doubly 
dear to me, as it was once the home of my late friend 
Wm. Birnie, of South Carolina, and is now the home 
of his brother, Mr. George Birnie, who some half a 
century ago was a merchant of Charleston, S. C. I 
spent a pleasant day with Mr. Birnie at Johnston, 
near Aberdeen. He is a gentleman of the old Scotch 
school. Although it has been many years since he 
was in Charleston, yet he felt a deep interest and 
sympathy for her people during the trials and perils 
of the Confederacy. 

The charter of this substantial town dates back to 
William the Lion, in 1178. Union street, which is a 
mile in length, would do credit to London. It pre- 
sents a vista of white granite, which gives this street 
a grand and substantial appearance. 

A few days since a handsome bronze monumental 
statue of the late Prince Albert was uncovered here, 
in the presence of a large concourse of people. 



European Correspondence. 291 

The Roman Catholics are building, near Union 
street, one of the finest granite cathedrals to be found 
in Scotland. The harbor, which opens into the Ger- 
man Ocean, with its quays and piers, stretches into 
the sea two thousand three hundred feet ; some four 
millions of dollars have been expended on the im- 
provement of the harbor and the formation of the 
docks, which covers an area of thirty-four acres. The 
tonnage of vessels registered as belonging to the port 
is upwards of eighty thousand tons. There are in 
Aberdeen and its vicinity extensive factories of wool, 
cotton, flax, paper, combs and iron, which employ 
fifteen thousand hands. The dressed granite stones, 
such as are used on Union street, form a staple 
export. Steamers ply regularly between Aberdeen, 
London, Leith, and Hull. 

A pleasant ride of one hundred miles from Aber- 
deen, through a fine country, and I arrive safely at 
Inverness. This town, of twelve thousand five hun- 
dred inhabitants, is considered headquarters for the 
hardy Highlanders ; here I find large stores filled 
with the handiwork of these industrious, frugal people. 

Inverness is situated at the mouth of the River 
Ness, at the spot where the basins of the Moray and 
Bennly Firths, and the great Glen of Scotland, meet 
one another. 

I am now on the celebrated Caledonian Canal, 
which, in its day, was the mammoth work of the 
Highlanders of Scotland. It required fifty hard 
years' labor to complete it, at a cost of many mil- 
lions of dollars. 



292 European Correspondence. 

By reference to a map of Scotland, it will be seen 
the natural channels formed by the lakes, beginning 
near Inverness and running nearly due south, consti- 
tute a large link in this important public highway, 
which connects the waters of the German and Atlan- 
tic Oceans. To one accustomed to the lightning rail- 
way trains, speeding you a mile a minute, it is 
poco-a-poco business to mope along on a canal boat. 
But the varied and beautiful scenery, which is spread 
out on every side, compensates for this slow and tedi- 
ous mode of travelling. When passengers are tired 
of the steamer they amuse themselves by walking, 
and have no fears of being left. 

Fourteen miles from Inverness are the falls of Foyers. 

" Among the healthy hills and rugged woods, 
The roaring Foyers pours his mossy floods, 
Till full he dashes on the rocky mounds, 
Where through a shapeless breach his stream resounds." 

To one who has looked upon Niagara, with its ocean 
of water plunging over a precipitous precipice of 
nearly two hundred feet, these European falls, which 
are so much admired, appear, when compared to the 
great American cataract, mere Tom Thumb affairs. 
But a waterfall is to me a pleasant sight, if the 
stream tumbles only over a few feet of cliffs and rug- 
ged rocks. 

Professor Wilson describes Foyers as "the most 
magnificent cataract in Britain." In point of magni- 
tude and volume of water it will not compare even with 
Tallulah. There are in the vicinity of Nacoochee Val- 
ley, Georgia, three falls equal to this Scotch cascade. 



European Correspondence. 293 

The high and naked mountain, Mealfournoinie, is 
seen from this point, rising almost perpendicularly- 
some three thousand one hundred feet ; and near by- 
are the ruins of Urquhart Castle. This ancient fort 
looks down upon the lake, which at this point is 
said to be one hundred and thirty fathoms deep. 
Near by is Loch Mickly, a small but very pretty lake. 
Loch Ness is nearly twenty-four miles in length, and 
one and a fourth miles in breadth ; the depth is so 
great it never freezes. 

We next enter Loch Oich ; this lake forms the 
summit level of the Caledonian Canal. Loch Lochy 
is ten miles in length by one in breadth. Here you 
have a fine view of Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in 
Scotland, being nearly five thousand feet above the 
level of the sea, and the circumference at its base is 
twenty-five miles. It has the appearance of a huge 
pile of granitic masses. On its rugged brow vegeta- 
ble life does not exist. Some of our party stopped 
for the purpose of climbing to its dizzy, snow-capped 
summit. If I could spare a day, should be pleased 
to make the adventure. 

We reached Fort William Saturday night, and 
spent a quiet Sabbath there, and heard a sermon, but 
it was all Dutch to me. I did not understand the 
discourse, as it was in the Gaelic tongue. 

The language of the Highlanders is the Erse or 
Gaelic — a Celtic dialect bearing no analogy to Eng- 
lish or French. The Highlanders comprising the 
Gaelic family are supposed to have been refugees 
from Ireland ; their alphabet consists of eighteen let- 
ters — k, q, x, y and z are wanting. Their dress is 



294 European Correspondence. 

as peculiar as their language. I have seen nothing 
like it at home or abroad. They wear a short coat, 
a plaid vest, and a kind of petticoat reaching scarcely 
to the knees, which are left entirely uncovered ; and 
as these limbs have been exercised pretty freely in 
the open air, you may well imagine that, however 
useful, they are not particularly ornamental. 

The lower part of the legs are covered with short 
hose. The garments are made of a checkered stuff 
of various flashy colors. On the head is worn a 
bonnet somewhat resembling a hat without a rim. 
When in full dress a broad piece of tartan is worn 
around the body, after the fashion of the Roman 
toga. 

The women wear high white caps without bonnets. 
Their costumes are so arranged as to display a sub- 
stantial pair of ankles. 

These Highlands, or I may say the greater portion 
of Scotland, was originally inhabited by savage tribes 
of shepherd's and hunters, who were polygamists 
and idolaters. They were brave, hardy, and lived in 
miserable huts, disdaining the use of clothes. 

The Romans vainly strove to conquer them. They 
made treaties which would last only so long as the 
Roman soldiers remained in arms amongst them. 
The descendants of this almost barbarous race, are a 
hardy and admirably framed people, full of bone and 
muscle. They are generally void of beauty or humor, 
but are remarkably shrewd. In religion they are as 
stubborn as was the iron John Knox. Scotchmen do 
not like to make promises, but when made you can 
rely upon them. 



European Correspondence. 295 

Just before arriving at Fort William, a mountaineer 
drove to the boat a flock of sheep, and as I was 
anxious to know something about the mode of raising 
these useful animals, I began to question him on the 
subject. The poor fellow shook his head. I regretted 
his misfortune in being both deaf and dumb. He was 
shortly after joined by one of his comrades, and I was 
soon convinced that he could hear and speak as well 
as any one — he spoke, however, in the Gaelic tongue, 
but did not understand English. Fort William has 
a population of three thousand, is one of the keys of 
the Highlands, and is provided with a bomb-proof 
magazine, barracks and the like. It is surrounded by 
the wildest mountain scenery. We enter Loch Eil, 
one of the prettiest lakes in the chain. Loch Linnhe, 
is the last of the lakes through which we pass from 
Inverness to Oban. It is a beautiful scene when the 
sunlight guilds the mountain points, and casts streaks 
of light on the placid water inverting the mountains, 
trees and houses on the borders of the lake, producing 
a lovely and almost indescribable lake picture. 

And now we are at Oban, the great rendezvous for 
tourists to the Highlands, the lakes and mountains. 
The town is handsomely situated on the margin of 
a semi-circular bay, which boasts of a harborage for 
vessels of the largest class. There is a brisk trade 
carried on here with Glasgow and Ireland. 

About half a mile from Oban, are the ruins of the 
old castle of Dunolly, which are situated on a bold 
and precipitous promontory overhanging the bay of 
Oban. 



296 European Correspondence. 

It was my intention to visit the Giant's Causeway 
in Ireland, but a party that we met here gave us such 
a glowing account of Fingal's Cave, which could be 
visited from Oban in a day, we decided to look upon 
this world's wonder and forego the trip to Belfast, at 
which point we were to sail for the great Irish Cause- 
way. 

Leaving the busy pier of Oban in a fine steamer, 
we sailed south, feeling our way cautiously as we 
wound through narrow channels, filled with numerous 
small islands. 

A few hours and we are in the Sound of Mull, 
which divides that island from the Continent of 
Scotland. This small island is filled with lakes, and 
has running through the centre a range of lofty 
mountains. Here and there are old castles, giving it 
an interesting and picturesque appearance. 

About eight miles from the western coast of Mull, 
is the small island of Staffa. 

We are now conveyed from the steamer in row- 
boats, into the mouth of Fingal's Cave. 

The sailors are provided with hooks and short 
poles, which they use with dexterity in guarding the 
boat from being driven against the rocks, by the 
" mighty surge that ebbs and swells." 

We now penetrate a cave, one side of which ap- 
pears bent like the ribs of a ship. The opposite side 
is made up of horizontal columns, resembling the 
surface of a honey-comb. This cave is thirty feet in 
height, and eighteen in breadth, its length being one 
hundred and thirty feet. 



European Correspondence. 297 

Next occurs the Rock or Buachaille, a huge pile of 
columns thirty feet high. These form a colonnade 
along the whole face of the cliff to the entrance of 
Fingal's Cave. This cave has an archway seventy- 
five feet in height, supporting a massive entablature, 
and receding about two hundred and thirty feet. 

The entire front is made up of numerous ranges of 
gigantic columns, beautifully pointed. The roof ex- 
hibits a rich grouping of overhanging pillars, many 
of them looking like white marble. 

Nine miles south of Staffa is the celebrated Island 
of Iona. In this lone island Saint Columbia, an Irish 
Christian preacher, made his abode as early as the 
sixth century. 

The monks subsequently resided here. The remains 
of an ancient church, nunnery and chapel, are still 
standing. The cathedral is in the form of a cross. 
Whatever may be its age, it now possesses enough of 
" hoar antiquity " to throw a solemn grandeur over 
the scene. 

A massive square tower, rising seventy feet, marks 
the graves of the early inhabitants of this island. 

Staffa and Iona, with their surroundings, are the 
wonders of Scotland. Every traveller who makes a 
tour of the Highlands should visit them ; my word 
for it they will be well repaid for their trouble. Fin- 
gal's Cave is the gem of the islands, and a great nat- 
ural curiosity. 

Outside of Switzerland I have looked upon no 
scenery more beautiful than is seen in the Highlands. 
38 



298 European Correspondence. 

Here you find the wildest of the wilds of Scotland ; 
huge mountains, precipitous cliffs, beautiful lakes and 
waterfalls. 

A tour of Scotland is not made without visiting the 
lakes and passing through the Caledonian Canal. 

Among the numerous beautiful lakes, Loch Lom- 
ond is queen of them all. Here I could linger a 
month; but I am crazy to see the loved ones at home, 
and must hasten westward. And now we are wind- 
ing our way slowly and cautiously up the narrow, 
crowded river, Clyde. We were due at Glasgow at 
6 P. M. ; but our numerous cargo of men and sheep 
detained us until the sun had set and the stars had 
risen many hours. 

Being informed that we were in a "few miles of Glas- 
gow," I told my travelling companion that I was de- 
termined to be one of the first to touch land, and 
made preparations accordingly. About 9 o'clock our 
steamer drew up to a broad landing, and I heard some 
of the passengers say " Glasgow." A minute more 
and I was on terra firma. Starting in haste for a car- 
riage, I was stopped at a gate by a man who demanded 
" dockage." I said : 

" Do you charge for entering Glasgow ?" 

" Glasgow ? indeed, maun, yere five miles from 
Glasgow !" was the stunning reply of the gate-keeper. 

I returned hastily to the boat and arrived just in 
time to see her steam up the Clyde. I inquired of 
a hackman what his charge would be to carry me to 
Glasgow. 

" Four shillings," he replied. 



European Correspondence. 299 

" Beat that boat to Glasgow and I will give you 
eight." 

" It shall be done." 

And away we steamed as fast as horse-power could 
carry us. In quick time I was safely landed at the 
Queen's Hotel, a quarter of an hour in advance of 
the passengers by the steamer. 

By this flank movement I transferred the laugh 
from myself to my fellow-travellers. 
As ever, 

G. W. W. 

Glasgow, October, 1866. 



LETTER TWENTY-NINTH. 



Glasgow — The Royal Exchange — Statue of the Duke of 
Wellington — The Cathedral of Glasgow — Argyle 
Street — Stirling — Assassination of the Earl of Doug- 
lass — The Wallace Monument — Adieu to Scotland. 

Here I am, in the splendid City of Glasgow, the 
commercial metropolis of Scotland, and one of the 
finest cities in Great Britain, being the third in point 
of wealth, population, manufacturing and commercial 
importance. 

It is one of the oldest cities in Scotland, having 
been founded by St. Mungo as early as the sixth cen- 
tury. Its commercial enterprise was first devoted to 
the tobacco trade. Large fortunes were said to have 



300 European Correspondence. 

been made by traffic in this nauseous weed. Many 
of the finest dwellings in the city were built by the 
" tobacco lords." 

The little dispute between England and her trans- 
Atlantic Colony, known as the American " Rebellion," 
turned the attention of the citizens to the manufactory 
of cotton goods. Since that period, Glasgow has not 
only greatly increased in the manufacture of cotton, 
but in silk, linen, iron, ship building, and chemicals. 

The extent of the manufacturing interests of Glas- 
gow is not generally known abroad. It is estimated 
that forty thousand hand-loom weavers are employed 
by Glasgow manufactories. The total number of 
spindles in motion in Glasgow is believed to be two 
millions! The consumption of cotton, in 1861, was 
one hundred and seventy thousand bales. 

Another source of great wealth and employment is 
the iron trade. There are five malleable iron works 
in and near the city, producing annually eighty thou- 
sand tons. 

Glasgow abounds in public buildings. The Royal 
Exchange is a magnificent edifice, in the Corinthian 
style. Its cost was a quarter of a million of dollars. 
This grand structure is a credit to the merchant 
princes of Glasgow. 

In front of the Exchange a costly equestrian statue 
in bronze, of the Duke of Wellington, has been erect- 
ed. On this monument are recorded the principal 
battles of the great English warrior. So long as the 
names of the military heroes are perpetuated by 
monuments and statues, and their memories cherished 



European Correspondence. 301 

and worshipped, just so long will men be found to 
stain their hands in the blood of their fellow-creatures. 

It will require ages to recover from the butcheries 
in the late civil war in our own land ; and but look at 
the wholesale murders of the past few months, engaged 
in by the brothers of a common Fatherland. 

War seems necessary to make Presidents and great 
men. Were I a preacher, the burthen of my dis- 
courses would be against wars and intemperance. 
These two great evils have been for ages the curse of 
the human race, and I fear ever will be. 

Among the relics of ancient architecture, is the 
Cathedral of Glasgow. This old minster was erected 
in 1 133, in the reign of David I. The Government 
has recently renewed certain parts of the building, 
which had fallen into decay. 

Some ten years since a committee of citizens 
attempted to enhance the beauty of this ancient 
edifice, by a series of very expensive stained glass 
windows, which work was executed in Munich, on a 
concerted scheme of illustration. It was one of those 
fashionable moves patronized by the gentry and rich 
men of Glasgow and Scotland. Eighty-one windows 
have been gorgeously decorated with Scriptural illus- 
trations. 

We are told by the Good Book that it is not well 
to put new wine into old bottles, or mend old gar- 
ments with new cloth. 

The freshly painted windows, representing the 
expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise, is not in 
harmony with the subdued tone which surrounds the 



302 European Correspondence. 

old edifice, and which has on its every feature the 
wrinkles of many centuries. You might with the 
same propriety paint an innocent child's head on the 
shoulders of a decrepit old man, and call it a perfect 
picture. The newly painted face might be executed in 
the best style of a Michael Angelo, and yet it would 
not be in harmony with the other parts of the picture. 

The names of the artists and donors are, however, 
published, which will doubtless be full compensation 
to some of these rich men who have been so lavish 
of their money. 

The old building, notwithstanding its modern dis- 
figuration, is well worthy of a visit, and is considered 
one of the eight wonders of Glasgow. 

On the Continent of Europe the architecture of 
antique buildings is seldom interfered with, beyond 
preserving them from decay. 

Glasgow is situated on the Clyde, which river has, 
at an expense of ten millions of dollars, been made 
navigable to the Atlantic Ocean. 

The harbor is a mammoth basin, covering an area 
of some fifty acres. It is four hundred feet wide, and 
more than a mile in length, with large wharves 
thronged with vessels, bearing the flags of many 
nations. Among these I recognized the stars and 
stripes of my own native land. 

This gigantic work speaks volumes for the enter- 
prise of the Glasgow merchants. Here was a narrow, 
shallow stream, with a depth of water of only a few 
feet, which, by widening and dredging, now admits 
first-class merchant vessels. 



European Correspondence. 303 

This wise outlay of money, for the improvement of 
the navigation of the Clyde, has almost doubled the 
wealth and population of Glasgow. On this river 
was the first successful application of steam to ships 
as a motive power. 

The Glasgow Bridge is a noble structure, faced with 
Aberdeen granite, and consists of seven arches, ex- 
tending, altogether, five hundred feet in length, and is 
sixty feet wide, being ten feet wider than the famous 
London Bridge. 

Argyle street is the Broadway of Glasgow. For 
nearly three miles it is bordered with splendid estab- 
lishments, filled with stocks of merchandise, superior 
to anything I saw even in London. 

At mid-day the stream of active commercial life 
flowing through this street, is refreshing to look upon. 
This prosperous manufacturing and commercial city 
is not unmindful of the fine arts and horticulture. 
Its gallery of paintings is not, however, what you 
would expect to find in a rich city of nearly half a 
million of inhabitants. 

The Botanical Garden, which is on the banks 
of the Kelim, has a fine collection of indiginous 
and exotic plants. The grounds are tastefully laid 
out. 

The corporation of Glasgow have recently pur- 
chased one hundred acres of land, for a public park, 
on the south side of the city. 

It is approached by one of the handsomest thor- 
oughfares in Glasgow, extending, as it does, in nearly 
a straight line from Argyle street. 



304 European Correspo?idence. 

Glasgow is bountifully supplied with water brought 
in pipes, at great expense, forty-eight miles, from 
Loch Katrine. 

Twenty-one million gallons of pure water flows 
daily into the city. In proportion to the population, 
not even the great Croton of New York exceeds the 
Katrine stream. 

Thirty miles from Glasgow is Stirling. This city is 
beautifully situated on the River Forth ; population 
thirteen thousand. Its chief attraction is the old castle, 
which stands on the brow of a precipitous rock, over- 
looking Stirling and the surrounding country, afford- 
ing a beautiful and extensive view. This castle is 
associated with Scotland from an early period ; Alex- 
ander the First having died in it in 1124. 

About the time of the accession of the house of 
Stewart, Stirling Castle first became a royal residence. 
It was the birthplace of James II and James V. 

The palace was built by James V. Its walls are of 
polished stone. 

In the northwest corner is the Douglass room, in 
which William, Earl of Douglass, was assassinated 
by James II. 

The king invited Douglass to meet him in Stirling 
Castle under the protection of a safe conduct, and 
endeavored to persuade him to abandon his confed- 
eracy with Crawford and Ross ; Douglass refusing, 
James drew his dagger and stabbed the earl, exclaim- 
ing, " If thou wilt not break the bond this shall !" 

The Wallace monument here is two hundred and 
twenty feet high — or will be when completed. 



,-3&- 




European Correspondence. • 305 

It is built on a mound of rocks, which rises some 
five hundred feet above the town. From this point 
is a varied and extensive prospect. 

To-morrow I must bid adieu to dear old Scotland ! 
One of the most interesting weeks of my life has been 
spent in looking upon its fine cities and towns, in 
examining carefully its mineral and agricultural dis- 
tricts, sailing upon its beautiful lakes, traversing the 
highlands, threading its canals and rivers, and admir- 
ing its lofty mountains. 

I was surprised at the extent and perfection agricul- 
ture is carried on in Scotland, and still more surprised 
to find that the most of the large farms were not 
owned by the occupants, but under lease for a term of 
years. Many of the tenants pay a rent of five to ten 
thousand dollars per annum, and yet they grow rich, 
because they get their labor cheap, and are thorough 
masters of their profession. They know when work 
is well done, which is one of the secrets of their suc- 
cess. They make agriculture as much a study as the 
professional man or the merchant does his business. 
I pity the poor and laboring classes in Scotland. The 
question with them is not how much of their hard 
earnings they can lay up for old age, but whether 
they can procure the simplest food for their numerous 
household. The lower classes live on oat meal por- 
ridge and skim milk for breakfast ; potatoes and oat 
bread for dinner, with beer and porridge again at 
night. The poor classes, both in the cities and rural 
districts of Scotland, live meanly. 
39 



306 European Correspondence. 

I was surprised to find in their hovels such a want 
of cleanliness and comfort. It is a pleasant thing to 
be a British subject, if you have money ; but a poor 
man with a large family, in the Old World, has before 
him a life of toil and struggle. 

Where extreme poverty exists, vice is to be found; 
and misery and vice are twin spirits. Things are not 
in the Old and New World as I would have them, 
but there is much good in both hemispheres. 

There is here a vast amount of knowledge, skill, 
energy, and enterprise, and much to make one happy. 
But happiness comes of useful employment. Idleness 
is the bane of life. Satan marshals his armies from 
the overflowing camp of do-nothings. But enough. 
I have not time to moralize. 

G. W. W. 

Glasgow, Scotland, October, 1866. 



LETTER THIRTIETH 



London, its Principal Places of Interest — Visit to Man- 
chester — Mr. Bright — Home of my Forefathers — 
Wales, its Iron Manufactories. 

In London again ! Yes, I am once more in this 
great throbbing heart of the British Lion. London 
is a little world in itself, and is the centre of finance 
for all nations. 

A merchant of New York buys a cargo of coffee 
in South America, and pays for it by a bill of exchange 
on London ; and so of most other articles of mer- 
chandise. 

This mammoth city, like a valued friend, improves 
on acquaintance. 

After leaving Glasgow, I visited the great manufac- 
turing town of Manchester, and there heard the Hon. 
John Bright deliver one of his great harangues, to a 
mixed multitude of fifty thousand people. 

Mr. Bright is a fine specimen of a John Bull, and 
looks as if he enjoyed good beef and plum puddings. 
He is what we should call in the States a political 
demagogue. I, however, like his republican and tem- 
perance principles. 

Manchester is one of the busiest places on the 
globe. The immense quantity of coal used here fills 
the atmosphere with smoke, which is much more dis- 



308 European Correspondence. 

agreeable than the London fogs. The cotton lords 
in Manchester are for free trade — that is, they wish to 
have their goods enter free of duty into all foreign 
markets, but would like a tax upon imports, except 
breadstuffs. 

From Manchester, I made a hasty run through 
Wales. I wanted to find the home of my forefathers ; 
it was, however, like looking for diamonds in a coal- 
pit 

I find little else beside mountains and iron manu- 
factories. The iron products of the small district of 
Wales is greater than the whole of the United States, 
and about one-fourth of that made in Great Britain. 

In the cities, English is taught and spoken, but in 
the rural districts they adhere to the Welsh. The 
inhabitants are a hardy, honest-looking people. 

Before making a tour of England, Scotland, and 
Wales, I spent ten days in London. It was my inten- 
tion to describe the principal places of interest visited 
by me here, but my correspondence is already too 
voluminous. I shall, therefore, only attempt a passing 
notice of the most striking objects in this world's 
renowned metropolis. One of the grandest sights in 
London is St. Paul's, the Cathedral Church of the See 
of London. Its lofty spire, which has been standing 
two centuries, is hid in the foggy, smoky atmosphere 
that surrounds it. The interior of this magnificent 
building fills one with awe and wonder as he gazes 
upon the grand arches which encircles the dome. 
From the immense walls and pillars, look down upon 
you the marble forms of the dead. Nearly every 



European Correspondence. 309 

niche and corner in the vast hall is filled with statues 
and paintings of departed heroes. It struck me as 
rather a strange place to perpetuate the memories of 
military characters — in a house consecrated to the 
worship of God. This architectural wonder of Europe 
stands on the summit of Ludgate Hill, towering above 
the surrounding buildings. 

As it is built of massive stone, it stands a substan- 
tial monument to the renowned architect, Sir Chris- 
topher Wren. From St. Paul's we proceeded to 
Westminister Abbey, and spent a few hours in con- 
templating this gem of ancient architecture. 

Within the consecrated walls of the vast mauso- 
leum " England garners up her great." In the " Poet's 
Corner" you find yourself surrounded by the tombs 
of the mighty dead. On one of these is inscribed, 
" Oh Rare Ben Johnson !" 

Near by are the monuments of Milton, Spencer, 
Thompson, Dryden, Gray, Addison ; and there, also, 
is the immortal Shakespeare, in graceful majesty, 
holding a scroll in his hand ; here, too, is Gay, with 
these odd lines engraved below his bust — 

' " Life is a jest, and all things show it ; 
I thought so once, and now I know it." 

Gay is not the only one who has realized the full 
import of these lines. 

The side chapels are filled with tombs of kingly 
families. The most interesting of these is that of 
the unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots, which was 
erected by her son, James I. I did not take much 



3 i.o European Correspondence. 

pleasure in looking upon the magnificent tomb of 
Queen Elizabeth. She was a woman of rare endow- 
ments, but full of jealousies and intrigues. We could 
not, however, expect anything better of the daughter 
of Henry VIII. 

Near the Abbey are the Houses of Parliament. 
The new palace is one of the most magnificent build- 
ings in Europe ; said to be the largest Gothic edifice 
in the world. We next visited the Old Tower of 
London, built by Julius Caesar, and which is so full 
of historical associations. It is surrounded by high 
walls, which you enter through gates strongly 
guarded. We were shown through the rooms by a 
man who mechanically described the various sights. 
We saw the block upon which Lady Jane Grey laid 
her head ; also the axe which severed it from her 
body. Just before this occurred she exclaimed, 
" Lord, into thy hands I commit my spirit !" In 
those days, royalty was no security for life or prop- 
erty. 

We were next shown the cell where the illustrious 
Sir Walter Raleigh was incarcerated fourteen long 
years. The walls of the dark, damp prison, are seven- 
teen feet thick. Within this Raleigh wrote the history 
of the world. 

This ancient fortress was used for five centuries as 
a palace. It has been converted into a State prison. 
Here are deposited the jewels and ornaments of the 
Crown. 

As a merchant I was deeply interested in the ship- 
ping of London, and looked with eyes wide open 



European Correspondence. 3 1 1 

upon the spacious wet and dry docks. The West 
India docks alone covers three hundred acres of 
ground. 

The East India docks are smaller, but very sub- 
stantial. The merchant princes of New York would 
do well to imitate their London cousins in the 
improvement of their docks and ship accommoda- 
tions. The wharves of New York are a disgrace to 
that great and prosperous city. 

Beyond the docks is the entrance to the Thames 
Tunnel. We descended nearly a hundred steps and 
found ourselves in a long archway, brilliantly lighted 
with gas ; and, would you believe it, trade and traffic 
was carried on in this subterraneous passage on a 
brisk scale. In addition to the shops were eating- 
houses; also numerous exhibitions. Throngs of peo- 
ple were passing through the long archway. The 
tunnel is a stupendous work, but has not answered 
the purpose for which it was designed. The bridges 
over the Thames are far preferable in every respect 
to the tunnel, and are among the curiosities of the 
metropolis. While in the tunnel I felt a choking 
sensation, and imagined that I was not far removed 
from a watery grave. I visited frequently the Royal 
Exchange, which is a splendid building, worthy of 
the merchant princes who frequent it. One of the 
Rothschilds was pointed out to me as he stood, during 
'Change, at his pillar, a position which has been occu- 
pied for many years by a member of his great banking 
house. There is nothing in the appearance of Roths- 
child that denotes more than ordinary financial abilities. 



312 European Correspondence. 

Near the Exchange is the Bank of England, a 
moneyed giant. The banking buildings covers eight 
acres of ground. Its affairs are managed by a gov- 
ernor, deputy-governor, and twenty-four directors, 
elected annually. 

The immense business of the bank requires a 
thousand clerks. The stocks or securities, upon 
which the public dividends are payable, amount to 
.£774,000,000, and the annual dividends payable 
thereupon, to £"25,000,000. The management of the 
entire public debt of Great Britain is placed in 
the hands of the Bank of England. I stood on 
the broad steps of the bank and looked upon the 
ever-moving waves of human life pressing and jost- 
ling one another, as if they were all an hour behind 
time. 

How sad and lonely it made me feel as I gazed 
upon millions of human beings, not one of their vast 
multitude knowing or caring a fig for me. 

When a boy I read of the great City of London, of 
its merchant princes and rich bankers. I felt that I 
would like to live there. To-day's experience satis- 
fied my ambition in that direction. I was convinced 
that Charleston, the " Old City by the Sea," was quite 
large enough for me. I had a letter of introduc- 
tion to the great banking house of Brown, Shipley 
& Co. 

Learning that their office was near the Bank of 
England, I stepped into a store and asked a gentle- 
man if he could direct me to the house of Brown, 
Shipley & Co. 



European Correspondence. 313 

He looked up quite thoughtfully, muttering 
" Brown, Shipley & Co.," " Brown, Shipley & Co. — I 
never heard of that firm." I thought, if an old bank- 
ing house of the world-renowned reputation of Brown, 
Shipley & Co., was not known by its next door neigh- 
bor, that my chance for making a name in London 
would be very remote. 

The vastness of London can only be realized by 
comparison. It has four times the population of New 
York, nearly two-thirds more people in it than Paris. 
It contains as many inhabitants as Scotland with all 
of its great cities. Here you find a hundred thou- 
sand abandoned women and twenty thousand profes- 
sional gamblers. A vast number of people here work 
on Sundays, and there are drunkards enough in Lon- 
don to make a city. Good and evil here is on a large 
scale. 

In this grand old city you find palaces, parks, 
sculptures, castles, fortresses, princely mansions and 
miserable huts. The whole eastern part of London 
is teeming with every variety of life and activity, 
from the highest sphere of commerce and finance, in 
the offices of Rothchilds in New Court, and the Bar- 
ings in Bishopgate street, down to the fish stalls in 
Billinsgate, and the old cloth dealers in Houndsditch. 
What would the vast multitude of people do without 
the " lungs of London ?" These great air vessels are 
as accessible to the peasant as to the Queen. Hyde 
Park is, perhaps, the Champs Elysees of London; it 
contains three hundred and eighty-eight acres, and 
40 



314 European Correspondence. 

extends from White Hall to Kensington Gardens. 
Here you see wealth, fashion and show, unsurpassed 
in Europe. 

Regent Park contains four hundred and fifty acres. 
The Zoological Garden, found here in great perfec- 
tion, is the most interesting feature of this park. 
Green Park is entered from Piccadilly by an Arch 
Triumph — a diminutive representation of the Paris 
monument. A statue of the Iron Duke embellishes 
Green Park. 

St. James is the Park or Garden of Buckingham 
Palace, and, of course, is well kept. 

I made an effort to see Queen Victoria. Her 
Majesty, I was informed, had gone to Scotland with 
Mr. Brown. Failing to see the Queen, for four shil- 
lings I was permitted to inspect her royal stables, and 
look with admiration upon the forty elegant carriages. 
Here, also, is kept the state carriage, which was pur- 
chased more than a century ago, at a cost of £7,000. 
Buckingham Palace has not been occupied much by 
the Queen since the death of Prince Albert. To my 
eye it is an unsightly building. I think the Queen 
shows her good sense in preferring Windsor Castle 
to Buckingham Palace. We visited Windsor, and 
there had a most charming day. The state apart- 
ments contain some of the finest pictures I have 
seen, painted by Rubens, Van Dyke, Rembrandt, 
Poussin and others. 

Never shall I forget the loveliness of the view from 
the Round Tower. There you see the long avenue 
of grand old trees, miles in length ; beyond is the 



European Correspondence. 315 

Thames, winding gracefully among elegant farm 
houses and villages. Our party was delighted with 
the New Garden, which is adorned with marble and 
bronze statues. 

The last day I spent in London was devoted to 
the sights in the British Museum. Here is a store- 
house of antique treasures worth crossing the Atlan- 
tic to see. 

Just think of rushing in one day through those large 
rooms and galleries, filled as they are with rare speci- 
mens of mineralogy, geology, statues and historical 
paintings, and five hundred thousand volumes — the 
history of earth, man and seas. 

But enough, my eyes are dizzy and brain weary 
in looking upon London sights. There is a picture 
in the New World, dearer to me than London with 
all its sights and treasures. That picture is home, 
sweet home — and the loved ones in it. 

G. W. W. 

London, October, 1866. 



LETTER THIRTY-FIRST 



Liverpool, her Dockage and Shipping Facilities — Ameri- 
can Cotton — Adieu to the Old World — Steamship 
China — Stormy Passage — Arrival at Boston — Home 
Again. 

A swift railway travel of five hours, through a beau- 
tiful country, and we are transferred from England's 
great metropolis to her principal sea-port city. Liv- 
erpool is substantially built on the River Mersey, 
four miles above the mouth, in the Irish Sea. Popu- 
lation seven hundred thousand. 

The shipping of Liverpool is immense ; more than 
three thousand sailing and steam vessels are regis- 
tered here. The dockage and shipping facilities are 
very superior. The imports of American cotton, in 
1785, were one hundred bales; in 1800, one hundred 
thousand bales; and, in i860, it had increased to two 
millions of bales. 

The proximity of Liverpool to the ocean, and to 
the manufacturing districts of Great Britain, gives to 
her unsurpassed commercial advantages. One half 
the products of England are exported from Liverpool. 
Few cities, during the past twenty years, in the Old 
or New World, have made such rapid progress in 
wealth and population. 



European Cotrespondetice. 317 

Well, the day for departure is near at hand, to- 
morrow I shall leave for home ! The very thought 
of it makes my heart throb and beat with joy. 
My tour on the Continent and in Great Britain 
has been one of intense interest, pleasure and infor- 
mation. 

In my rambles I have looked carefully at the peo- 
ple in all the walks of life. I was not prepared to 
see so much abject poverty and destitution ; but the 
poor we find in all ages and in all countries. So it 
will be to the end of time. 

I have looked on La Belle France with her vine- 
clad hills, her palaces and her Paris. At Switzerland, 
with its charming lakes and snow-capped mountains. 
At Italy's blue sky, placid lakes and sweet vales. 
At Germany, with her Berlin, Vienna, Hamburg, 
Dresden and Munich. At Scotland, with her moun- 
tains, lakes, and well cultivated fields. At Wales, 
with her mountains of iron ; and last, though not 
least, at England, the dearest spot of all. 

The scenery of England when compared to Swit- 
zerland, or many portions of our own country, is 
tame. Nature's defects have been made up with a 
liberal hand in the embellishments and triumphs of 
art, science and learning. Here you find palaces, 
castles, parks, pictures, sculptures, fields clothed with 
almost perpetual verdure, and gardens with ever- 
blooming flowers. In fact, you find everything in 
England that can contribute to the improvement and 
happiness of man. As a nation, the men and women 
surpass all others in personal beauty. 



3 1 8 European Correspondence. 

The time has arrived when I must bid adieu to the 
Old World. I am soon to exchange the sights of the 
Eastern Hemisphere for the Western Continent. I 
dread crossing the Atlantic, and if the loved ones at 
home were with me, I should be inclined to linger 
longer, and further survey the classic grounds of our 
forefathers. At 5 P. M., we left our hotel for the 
noble steamship China. Soon after our arrival on 
board, the captain took his stand at the wheel-house, 
and ordered all save passengers ashore. A tap of the 
bell, then a shrill whistle, and the great wheels of the 
steamer were put in motion, and we bade a long and 
last farewell to dear old England. 

I am fortunate in having as fellow-passengers some 
Charleston friends ; and here I find Madame Murat, 
now a resident of Florida, and also some Georgia 
friends. We have the prospect of a pleasant voyage. 
Our steamer has a smooth sail to Queenstown ; here 
she touches for the mail, which comes through by 
rail. The most of the passengers land and stroll 
through this pretty Irish town, and some of us make 
extensive purchases of Irish linen made of cotton, 
and here we find a score of beggars annoying us 
almost beyond endurance. We are again on the 
China, and are moving westward as fast as steam and 
sail can drive us. For a day or so the weather is mild 

We now find ourselves in a more northern latitude. 
The wind begins to blow from the west, and now from 
the northwest, which pours upon us a succession of 
furious gales, so boisterous and tempestuous as to 
threaten to engulf us in the briny deep. Our ship 



European Corrcspo?idencc. 319 

behaved nobly, although she trembled in every tim- 
ber, and dipped water first on the right and then on 
the left ; here we stood, or tried to stand, looking on 
the angry billows, as they heaped up mountains high 
around us, with but a slender plank between us and a 
watery grave. As the winds and waves thundered 
against our ship, she would reel and stagger. The 
force of the storm seemed more than even her strong 
frame could bear. It was in this crisis that I thought 
of home and the loved ones, and had great apprehen- 
sions that I should see them no more. This terrific 
storm lasted for several days, with but slight inter- 
mission. The black darkness of the horizon finally 
dispersed, and the sunlight gladdened our hearts and 
allayed our fears. I never before rejoiced so much at 
sunlight. Here is Halifax, and we all land, rejoiced 
once more to stand on terra firma. I send by the 
wires, to the dear ones at home, the news of our safe 
arrival in the New World. Again we embark on the 
China. Amid fogs as thick as midnight darkness, 
we felt our way cautiously in the direction of Boston, 
ringing the bell and firing cannon, to warn innocent 
crafts of the danger they are in. We go far out 
of our way, but finally reach Boston safely. With 
grateful hearts to a merciful Providence, we quit the 
steamer, quite satisfied with our adventures as sailors. 
But here I am in Charleston, in our cheerful home, 
and surrounded by those I love so well. 

Thus ends the European Correspondence of 

G. W. W. 

Charleston, S, C, November, 1866. 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



Under this head, I propose to class a variety of 
fugitive pieces, written at different periods of life, 
under different circumstances, and illustrative in a 
slight degree of the public as well as the private life 
of the author. Some of the pieces have a purely- 
domestic character ; but as this is a family book, 
designed wholly for my children, and for the 
familiar friends who take an interest in its details, 
no apology is deemed necessary. There is not 
to be a copy of the book sold. Its circulation 
will be wholly private. 



41 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



MEMOIR OF MAJOR EDWARD WILLIAMS. 



Major Edward Williams was born at Easton, Mass., 
June 30th, 1780, and died March 4th, 1856, at his 
residence in Nacoochee, Ga. 

At the age of twenty years, he left his native place 
for Charleston, South Carolina, where he remained 
only two years, when he removed to Burke County, 
North Carolina. Here he married a daughter of Mr. 
Daniel Brown, a man of sterling worth, who was 
extensively engaged in agriculture and merchandise. 
The rumor of rich lands in Georgia, induced Major 
Williams to visit that State in 1822 ; and though, 
at that time, the Cherokee Indians were the princi- 
pal inhabitants of the upper counties, he purchased 
a large portion of Nacoochee Valley, one of the 
most romantic and beautiful vales in the South. 
He settled near the centre of this fertile valley, 
where he and his excellent wife brought up a family 
of worthy sons and daughters. No parents could 
be more blest in their children, and this remark 
is true without an exception among them — no slight 
proof of proper training and noble example. Major 



4r 



324 Miscellaneous Papers. 

Williams possessed remarkable energy and perse- 
verance of character, and these traits were fully ex- 
emplified in his long and busy life. He was strictly 
temperate in times when drinking, not to say intem- 
perance, was regarded by very many with great 
though unwarrantable leniency. His house was the 
abode of hospitality, and over its doors might have 
been inscribed the Irish salutation to each comer — 
"A hundred thousand welcomes!" His chief delight 
was in the bosom of his family, where he was be- 
loved and honored ; while his known love of virtue, 
justice, and truth, and his unswerving integrity of 
character, commanded the esteem and confidence of 
all who knew him. For a long time he had been 
regarded as the model farmer of upper Georgia, and 
in this capacity did much to promote the agricultural 
interests of his adopted State. He established also 
in the Alleghany Mountains, a dozen miles from his 
residence, the first cheese dairy at the South ; and 
conducted it successfully till his advanced years for- 
bade his longer attending to it. He was present at 
nearly all the annual fairs of the State Agricultural 
Society from the time of its formation, and obtained 
prizes at each — among them, for corn, wheat and 
cheese. He had read extensively, was a close 
observer of men and things, and seldom erred in his 
estimate of human character. He never allowed him- 
self to speak evil of men. It is believed that he lived 
and died without an enemy ; while he made friends 
wherever he was known. A good name, which he 
nobly won, and the importance of which he pressed 



Miscellaneous Papers. 325 

steadily on his children, he prized infinitely above 
riches. One might have supposed that a man of such 
sterling worth among his fellows could need no other 
passport even to the abodes on high ; not so thought 
Major Williams. Through the whole course of his 
life he was a regular attendant on the services of the 
house of God, and a ready contributor to all the 
benevolent enterprises of the church, delighting 
always in the society of the good, so that even those 
who knew him most intimately, regarded him as defi- 
cient in but one point, and that was the neglect of 
formal union with the church. This step, however, 
he took very deliberately and solemnly in the latter 
part of his life, thus perfecting his character as a speci- 
men of the " noblest work of God " — " an honest 
man ;" and without which step his claim to that char- 
acter in the highest sense must ever have remained 
defective. Nor was this union a mere form. His 
reliance was in the atonement of Jesus Christ alone, 
and his spirit was happy and resigned, trusting in his 
Saviour. He joined the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
into which all his children had previously entered, 
and in whose communion his wife had lived and died. 
But the close of all was drawing on, and the good old 
man, supposing that he might not see the dawn of 
the 19th day of February, (a few days before his 
death,) at 1 1 o'clock the preceding night had his 
friends gathered into his chamber, and a tried friend, 
the Rev. Mr. Littlejohn, administered the communion 
of the Lord's Supper to a weeping, yet rejoicing little 
band of Christians. The venerable and beloved suf- 



326 Miscellaneous Papers. 

ferer was in sight of the fair fields beyond the river of 
death, and his spirit exulted in God his Saviour, and 
in anticipation of a peaceful and triumphant departure 
from earth. He praised God aloud, bade his children 
and friends join him in heaven, said he had no fear of 
death, but was ready and willing to depart at any 
moment it might please God to call him ; and in this 
blissful state continued till the call came. The lan- 
guage of his son, Mr. Charles L. Williams, to another 
of his sons in Charleston, may well be used by each 
one of the survivors : " O, George, such consolation 
we have never met with before. Grief and joy both 
in the same moment — grieved to give him up, but 
rejoiced to believe he was going to be happy." Thus 
lived and died this patriarchal man — loved through 
his lengthened and useful life, lamented in his death, 
though those who weep cannot but rejoice in his 
blissful release and his joyful state on high. " The 
memory of the just is blessed." 

H. A. C. Walker. 



OBITUARY. 



Died, at his residence in Nacoochee Valley, 
Georgia, Major Edward Williams, aged seventy-six. 

LINES, SUGGESTED BY THE DEATH OF MAJOR EDWARD WILLIAMS. 

Another victim ! O insatiate grave, 
Shall thy voice never cry, " It is enough ? " 
Sweet infancy descends to thy cold vaults, 
And man in middle prime goes down to thee, 
And woman's loveliness, all paled, is thine, 
And age within thy dampness mouldering lies. 
O grave, insatiate ! wilt thou ne'er be gorged ? 
From our fond, circling arms are reft away 
The loved, now lost, and gathered all to thee, 
And yet no surfeit-sound returns, but still 
Thou gapest, open grave ! and with desire 
Enlarged and sharpened by the very heaps 
Of men thy gloomy caverns have received, 
Thou waitest still for more ! 

Another victim ! — midnight's hour is near, 
And round the couch of pain are anxious friends. 
But he who suffers there hath cast his eye 
To Him who suffered once on Calvary ; 
And high and far beyond the gloomy grave 
A light divine appears, and thrilling joy 
Plays through the sufferer's heart. 

A man of God 
Is with the little band assembled there ; 
And by the taper's ray, where all are sad, 
Save him, whom, sealed of death, the grave has claimed. 
The Paschal ceremonial is prepared, 



328 Miscellaneous Papers. 

All bow and penitently own their sins, 
Deprecative, imploring prayer they urge, 
And hearts which trust in Christ acceptance find ; 
And God that room of death a Bethel makes. 

"My children," said the aged man, " draw nigh '*- 
(From prime to hoary years his course he'd held, 
No enemy had made, but many friends, 
Friends who admired the patriarchal man) — 
" My loved ones, gather round, and e'er I pass, 
Receive my love, my fondest, last farewell. 
For in the land to which I go, and where 
We'll meet again, no parting sound is heard. 
I've reached a ripe old age ; I'm ready now; 
In Christ alone I trust ; into his hands 
I cast my soul, with no misgiving fear. 
He loves me and will love me to the end !" 
And thus, rejoicing, confident, resigned, 
The patriarch closed the scene. 

Another victim this ? — O greedy grave ! 
Of him now taken thou shalt be despoiled, 
And loved ones whom we've lost in thy defiles 
We'll find again beyond, when we in turn 
Have passed thy dark abode ! 

Thou know'st that He 
Who leads us on, entered thy drear domain, 
And rose triumphant over sin and death 
And thee. See how His banner freely floats 
Where, marshalling his gath'ring hosts beyond, 
He waves us onward through thy gloomy vale 
To join his glittering ranks ; that, all complete, 
Our glorious Captain may his ransomed lead 
Into eternal joy ! 

Eyes now that weep, 
Shall sparkle with delight ; and hearts, whose throes, 
In parting, agonized to bursting nigh, 
Shall thrill to rapture's touch, as one by one 
Earth's loved and lost are found in those bright ranks. 



Miscellaneous Papers. 329 

What exultative shouts our Leader greet ! 
And hark! triumphant sounds are swelling high — 
" Death, where is thy sting? and Grave, thy victory ? 
To God, our God, be endless glory given ! 
Through Jesus Christ the victory is ours !" 

H. A. C. Walker. 
Charleston, March, 1856. 



A TALK ABOUT THE RESOURCES OF GEORGIA- 
HERD'S GRASS, HAY, etc. 



We are truly a famous people in Georgia to talk 
and dream of independence. It cannot be doubted 
that our State possesses all the natural resources for 
true independence. Let us, then, show the patriots 
at Washington, who are discussing the difference 
between working a black mule and a white ass, that 
their decision is of but little importance to us. We 
will teach those who are ever meddling with our 
institutions, that some things can be done as well as 
others. Now, while we love the people of the North, 
yet we love our homes and institutions more; and as 
this is a day distinguished for resolves, let us resolve 
to be an independent people. This must be accom- 
plished by pursuing the home system. Let us raise 
everything we eat, whether it be of animal or vegeta- 
ble origin. If we should not make hay, cheese, but- 
ter, pork, beef and flour for export, yet it is a matter 
of no small importance to supply our home consump- 
42 



330 Miscellaneous Papers. 

tion. I hope and trust the days are numbered when 
we are to look abroad for what we eat and wear. In 
our climate, we can raise not only the necessaries, 
but luxuries of life. The orange, lemon, sugar cane 
and rice, and the famous sea island cotton, flourish in 
Southern Georgia — there, also, are to be found the 
pine forests, valuable for lumber — the manufacture of 
tar, pitch and turpentine, might be made a profitable 
business. In Middle Georgia, our lands are valuable 
for cotton and grain. Upper Georgia is the interest- 
ing portion of our State ; but little is known of its 
great advantages and resources. It is here that we 
can grow the wheat, corn, rye, potatoes and barley to 
feed the multitude. On the banks of the beautiful 
Chattahoochee and Ocmulgee, we will build our 
Lowell and Manchester. It is here that we must 
encourage the manufacturer and artizan. Thousands 
of our people might be profitably employed in manu- 
facturing the great staple of Georgia into yarns and 
cloth. It is here that we have rich and inexhaustible 
mines of gold, iron and coal. Lime, to enrich our 
lands, is also abundant. Merchant mills are multiply- 
ing in every direction, and Northern flour will soon 
be driven from the South. 

In Upper Georgia, we have the mountain range, 
producing luxuriant native grasses, to feed the " cat- 
tle on a thousand hills." I know that the erroneous 
opinion prevails with many that our climate and soils 
are not adapted to the cultivation of such grasses as 
can be made into good hay. This is quite a mistake. 
I have seen the best meadows in New England, but 



Miscellaneous Papers. 331 

no where have I seen grass grow more luxuriantly 
than in Georgia. It is to be regretted that this im- 
portant branch of Southern agriculture is so much 
neglected. The cultivation of grass is a subject of 
vast importance to our people. We have thousands 
of acres of land, too wet for grain and cotton, that 
might be sown down with grass, and yield a hand- 
some profit to the farmer. 

No grass has succeeded so well in Georgia as the 
Herd's grass. It flourishes on wet soils and re- 
claimed swamps, but will thrive on most soils ; makes 
an excellent spring and winter pasture, and can be 
mown twice in one year. This valuable grass is more 
extensively cultivated in Habersham County than 
any other section of the State. It was introduced 
into Nacoochee Valley by Major Williams more 
than twenty years since. The Major has tried the 
celebrated Bermuda, Means, Guinea, and other 
grasses, but has found none equal to the Herd's. 
The farmers of that valley understand the value of 
good hay, and have more than a hundred acres of 
fine meadow. Herd's grass is easily propagated — is 
perrenial, and when once introduced into good soil, 
will flourish with a little care, for years. The land 
intended for meadows, should be thoroughly cleaned 
of stumps and roots, then ploughed and harrowed. 
The grass seed should be sown with oats, broad- 
cast, afterward, harrowed and brushed in. March is 
a good month for sowing. The oats will protect the 
young grass from the hot sun ; cut the oats, grass 
and weeds as close to the ground as possible. You 



332 Miscellaneous Papers. 

will not get much hay the first year. Meadows are 
often injured by pasturing, especially in wet weather; 
and allowing noxious weeds, briars and bushes to 
grow up. They can be improved by irrigation. 
During the winter months, turn the small branches on 
the meadow. The surface soil should be kept free 
from standing water after the first of March. Har- 
rowing in the fall is beneficial. 

When the time for, mowing arises, remember you 
all to " make hay while the sun shines!' Let each 
mower be followed by a boy, whose duty it is to take 
up the swath and shake it out as thin as possible, 
where it grew. In the evening the hay should be 
raked into winrows, and afterwards put into cocks 
five or six feet in height. If the weather is good the 
hay will be ready for stacking or housing in two or 
three days. It is a great saving to put it under 
shelter, hence the necessity of large barns. Inti- 
mately connected with grass-growing and hay- 
making, is the dairy business. At a future time, I 
may offer a few hints upon this subject. 

Let our men of the soil awake from their Rip Van 
Winkle sleep — be true to themselves — and we can 
and will be an independent people. 

Ever yours, 

G. W. W. 

Nacoochee, 1850. 



EMORY COLLEGE, GEORGIA— CHEERING. 

A REPLY TO CENSOR. 

Brother Parks, the Agent for Emory College, sent 
the following letter for our columns. It is a telling 
" reply to Censor " — so designated by the writer ; 
and should, at once, be followed up by another. A 
few more such arguments will surely drive the Emory 
College Agent from the field. What " Georgia 
Methodist" stands ready with its like? Surely 
such a spirit of liberality will find no trouble in get- 
ting across the Savannah River. Another College is 
indebted to the munificence of the same brother for 
the same amount ; and it were no less a pity than a 
shame to have one man do so much, while so many 
do so little, and many more nothing. 

Dear Brother Parks: — Enclosed I send you five 
thousand dollars of first mortgage seven per cent, 
bonds of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Com- 
pany, which please present to the Trustees of Emory 
College. It is my wish that the income arising from 
this fund be used in paying the tuition and board of 
young men who are preparing for the ministry, but 
have not the means of procuring an education. The 
selection of the beneficiaries to be left to the annual 
Conference. 

Emory has certainly earned and therefore is entitled 
to the confidence of the Georgia Methodists. She 
has already done nobly, and when her endowments 



334 Miscellaneous Papers. 

are completed, she will become the glory of Method- 
ism. Let the friends of the South, and especially of 
the M. E. Church, South, rally around our institu- 
tions of learning, and support and sustain them with 
a liberality worthy of the noble cause. 

Methodism, which sprang from a handful of poor, 
but resolute people, has accomplished wonders for 
the world. We now number our millions, and our 
influence is seen and felt upon uncounted multitudes. 
And yet, " Censor " — who calls himself a Methodist, 
is striking at the vital energies of this infant giant. 
Save us from our friends ! 

Some of our brethren on this side of the Savannah, 
when applied to for money, hide themselves behind 
this Georgia masked battery — shame on them. If 
" Censor " should devote the remainder of his life as 
a faithful agent of Church Colleges, he could not 
atone for the great wrong he has perpetrated — such 
is the belief of 

A South Carolina Methodist. 

May, 1857. 



THE CURRENCY. 



During the panic last fall, you, Messrs. Editors of 
the Courier, urged the banks of this city to suspend 
specie payments, because you deemed it necessary, 
at that time, for the protection of the commercial 
community. Now that the storm has blown over, 
we find that we were more scared than hurt. It is 
the belief of many that the banks in this State, with 
a little sacrifice, could have maintained a specie 
basis, and at the same time have furnished the mer- 
chants with the usual facilities. Be this as it may, the 
friends of a sound currency expect you, as a leading 
commercial journal of this city and State, to speak 
out on the subject of an early resumption of specie 
payments. There is an urgent necessity for this. 
The banks throughout the country are resuming 
specie payments. Augusta and Savannah have asked 
co-operation of Charleston. Failing to secure it, they 
have resolved to resume, unconditionally, on the first 
of May next. I also learn that they have instructed 
their agents to discount no drafts payable in South 
Carolina, thereby diverting large shipments of cotton 
and other produce that would otherwise find its way 
to this market. 

In many parts of Georgia, South Carolina money 
is discredited, and efforts are being made to drive out 
every South Carolina bank agency in the State. It is 
not to be expected that they will submit to an irre- 



336 Miscellaneous Papers. 

deemable currency, to the exclusion of their own 
specie notes. 

Quite a number of our banks profess to be ready 
and anxious to resume, but make a scape-goat of the 
Bank of the State. They say it is impossible for that 
institution to redeem its large circulation in gold or 
its equivalent. In that, we think, they are mistaken. 
This bank is a State institution — South Carolina owes 
comparatively a trifling debt, her credit is good, and 
I doubt not a million of her seven per cent, bonds 
could easily be converted into coin at par. It would 
require no such sum. Were all the banks to resume, 
the demand for specie would be small. Then, will 
not South Carolina, so long distinguished for a sound 
currency, come into line, and resume that proud 
position which she once enjoyed? 

The recent panic was the greatest farce of the 
nineteenth century. Our whole country, blessed, as 
it was, with the most abundant harvest ever known, 
and yet our commercial community, like the miser, 
was perishing in the midst of plenty. 

Thanks to King Cotton he has unlocked the iron 
grasp. Our country is again prosperous, and now is 
the propitious time, while both foreign and domestic 
exchanges are in favor of the South, for our banking 
institutions to replenish their vaults with coin. If 
this be delayed until the crops have gone forward, 
and the proceeds expended, we may, next fall, when 
the banks are compelled to resume, prepare ourselves 
for a panic more disastrous in its consequences than 
that of 1857. . G. W. W. 

1858. 



TO "SOME OF THE UNCONVERTED." 



THE BLUE RIDGE RAILROAD. 



I have neither time nor inclination to enter into a 
newspaper discussion upon the merits or demerits of 
the Blue Ridge Railroad question. It was known to 
many of my friends that I was opposed to an enter- 
prise which could not be completed without involv- 
ing the city and State in an expenditure of several 
millions of dollars. I regarded the roads now in 
operation as all that were necessary to give us the 
facilities and advantages that the Blue Ridge Rail- 
road, when completed, was expected to do. With 
this conviction, I very naturally opposed so large 
an expenditure of money as the enterprise called 
for. 

I will now give a few of the many " causes which 
led to my conversion " to the Blue Ridge Road, and 
trust that "some of the unconverted" will take the 
same trouble and expense to inform themselves upon 
the whole bearings of this great enterprise that I have 
done, and then, if they too, are not convinced of their 
errors, they may be regarded as decidedly wedded to 
their opinions. 

The Chamber of Commerce last summer appointed 

a committee to confer and negotiate with the railroad 

companies for a reduction of the rates of freight to 

this city. Being a member of that committee, I made 

43 



338 Miscellaneous Papers. 

two visits to Georgia and Tennessee, and while attend- 
ing to that business, I became awakened if not con- 
verted. 

I ■ discovered that the Governor of Georgia, under 
whose control the State road is, if he did not under- 
stand "banking and book-keeping," knew that Georgia 
as well as South Carolina had a sea-port, and was 
using all his efforts to direct freight and business 
to Savannah. 

The State of Georgia has expended six millions of 
dollars in a road leading to the West. Is it not rea- 
sonable and natural that she should use that road for 
the benefit of her own people ? Is it at all surprising 
that the agent of the State road at Chattanooga should 
give preference to a merchant consigning his cotton, 
corn, flour, etc, to Savannah, over one shipping to 
Charleston ? 

In December last, H. Cobia, Esq., and myself were 
delegated by Council to represent the stock of the 
city in the Chattanooga and Nashville Road. While 
at Nashville, we were informed that some ten thou- 
sand barrels of flour were ready for shipment to 
Charleston ; but the agent of the Georgia State Road 
refused to unite with the other roads in bringing it at 
the rates agreed upon, until he could consult the 
Governor ! 

The consequence was, the flour was sent to New 
York via Cincinnati. The Memphis and Nashville 
roads in which our city has expended so much money, 
are rendered valueless so far as the trade to Charles- 
ton is concerned ; because we are at the mercy of the 
Georgia roads, over which we have no control. 



Miscellaneous Papers. 339 

Are the " unconverted " ignorant of the fact, that 
the South Carolina Railroad Company paid to the 
City of Augusta one hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars for the privilege of building a bridge across the 
Savannah River ? 

Do they know that, notwithstanding the exorbitant 
price paid for that privilege, citizens of Augusta have 
recently sued the Company, and received heavy dam- 
ages for obstructing navigation ? 

I have only named a few of the many facts which 
have come to my knowledge while making a careful 
and personal investigation of the railroad interests 
connected with our State and city. I saw enough to 
convince me that South Carolina could never com- 
mercially be an independent State until she had 
opened a new route to the vast West, under the con- 
trol of her own citizens. 

On my return from Nashville, I learned through 
the Augusta papers, that the final vote in the Senate 
was to be taken on the Blue Ridge bill that day at 
3 o'clock. I felt it was due to my friends in the 
Legislature, who knew my opposition to the bill, to 
inform them that I no longer opposed State aid. 
When I arrived at Branchville, at I o'clock, I sent a 
telegraphic dispatch to Hon. Henry Buist, stating that 
I had just returned from the West, and I was now 
thoroughly convinced that the Blue Ridge Road 
ought to be built. 

This was all the showing I had in the Legislature. 
I had no opportunity to explain or give my reasons 
for a change of opinion. No one can say that I was 



34-0 Miscellaneous Papers. 

influenced in the slightest degree by any friend of the 
road. I am, perhaps, as much wedded to my opinions 
as fine most of men, but experience has long since 
taught me that no man is infallible. I feel that it is 
the duty of every good citizen when he discovers 
that he is in error, to have the manliness to acknowl- 
edge it, especially when that error is calculated to 
lead others astray. I have become a friend of the 
Blue Ridge Road from an honest conviction that my 
opposition to it was an error of judgment. I now 
believe that every citizen of South Carolina is inter- 
ested in the success of this great enterprise. 

G. W. W. 

Jantiary 22, 1859. 



WOFFORD COLLEGE, SOUTH CAROLINA. 



As the readers of the Advocate are interested in 
the great educational interests of our church, I em- 
brace this opportunity of informing them of some 
of the doings of Wofford College, during Commence- 
ment week. On Sabbath, the Rev. Whitefoord Smith, 
D. D., preached the Commencement Sermon before 
the graduating class. The spacious College Chapel 
was crowded with strangers and visitors. It was one 
of the most powerful and practical sermons I ever heard 
from this eminent divine. For more than an hour, 
in his earnest and impressive style, he besought the 



Miscellaneous Papers. 341 

young men to " Watch ye, stand fast in the faith, quit 
you like men, be strong." It is to be regretted that 
Wofford College loses the services of Dr. Smith. He 
however, goes to a more laborious, and I trust equally 
useful field of labor. 

On Tuesday, the Hon. J. D. Treadewell, of Colum- 
bia, a distinguished layman of our church, delivered 
an oration before the Calhoun and Preston Societies 
connected with Wofford College. It was a splendid 
effort ; but the writer thought him unnecessarily 
severe on the Government of England, and there 
were other portions of his eloquent oration to which 
all his audience did not subscribe. 

On Wednesday, the annual exercises closed at 
Wofford, and it is a day that will long be remem- 
bered by those who were in attendance. The young 
gentlemen of the graduating class acquitted them- 
selves handsomely in their Commencement exercises. 
Fourteen graduated, taking the degree of bachelor in 
the liberal arts. Four of that number contemplated 
entering the Christian ministry at an early day. 
Oh that the friends of our church would awake to 
the necessity of sustaining our colleges, with a pat- 
ronage and liberality worthy of the noble efforts 
now making, to furnish within our own limits a thor- 
ough education based on the principles of Scriptural 
religion, and quickened with the energies and activi- 
ties of Methodism. 

At the close of the exercises two elegant Family 
Bibles were presented to President Wightman and 
Professor Smith, by Mr. King, in behalf of his fellow 



342 Miscelianeojis Papers. 

students. In response to these appropriate gifts, our 
worthy friends, Drs. Wightman and Smith, bade 
adieu to the students of Wofford and the friends 
with whom they had been so long and pleasantly 
associated. Hard indeed must have been the heart 
that was not moved in witnessing this leave-taking. 
Nearly all of the large audience were bathed in tears. 
Dr. Wightman thinks he obeyed a call of Providence 
in accepting the Presidency of a College in Alabama ; 
and yet, I must be permitted to express the opinion 
that he erred in resigning the Presidency of Wofford 
College. 

Dr. Wightman had grown up among us ; his influ- 
ence and usefulness were felt and appreciated : he is 
beloved by all, and it is to be regretted that he con- 
sented to dissolve his connection with the South Car- 
olina Conference and her institutions. Our new 
President elect is known to be a man of superior 
ability. The Board of Trustees were gratified in 
finding a Shipp, to take the place occupied by Dr. 
Wightman. Dr. Dogget, was unanimously elected 
to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of 
Professor Smith. Dr. D., is not only one of the 
strongest men in the Virginia Conference, but in the 
Church, South. 

The laymen of the M. E. Church, are evidencing 
their interest in our Church Institutions by the large 
attendance on Commencement occasions. None of 
them have taken greater interest or seemed to be 
more gratified with the exercises, than His Excel- 
lency, Governor Gist. I have been mortified to 



Miscellaneous Papers. 343 

observe among a certain portion of the clergy in our 
church, a growing jealousy of the laity. I should 
like to know what they have to fear from the laymen 
of the M. E. Church ? They do not ask to be bish- 
ops, presiding elders, or preachers, or even to be 
made church editors. Blot out the lay element in 
our great church organization, and you will have a 
splendid piece of machinery, without a main-spring 
to impel it. Who build your colleges and churches ? 
Clothe and feed the ministers and their families? 
Where does the missionary and Bible money come 
from ? All that the laymen of our church ask or 
wish, is the privilege of being co-workers in the 
great cause of their Master. They ask not the power 
of making bishops, or priests, they do not even desire 
the privilege of choosing their own preacher, but sup- 
port cordially and heartily the man whom the bishop 
in his wisdom may send to minister to them. They 
are willing to labor in the church as humble class 
leaders, stewards, and trustees, as Sunday-school 
teachers and superintendents, and to contribute liber- 
ally of their means to push on the old Ship of Zion, 
to build up the church of their fathers, the church 
they love and reverence. Yours truly, 

G. W. W. 
July 161/1, 1859. 



CITY COUNCIL OF CHARLESTON, 1859. 



Alderman Williams, from the Special Committee 
on the proceedings of the Chamber of Commerce, in 
relation to the Dredge Boat, made the following 
minority report, which was laid over until the majority 
report comes up for consideration : 

REPORT. 

The communication from the Chamber of Com- 
merce in reference to the Dredge Boat, was referred 
to a Special Committee of three. Two members of 
that committee having, at the last meeting of Coun- 
cil, made a report in favor of continuing the work of 
dredging, at the expense of the city, I beg leave now 
to make a minority report. 

I have investigated the whole matter carefully, and 
cannot see that the commerce of Charleston is jeop- 
arded by the withdrawal of the Dredge Boat. At 
least not enough to warrant the city in embarking in 
an enterprise in which so large an expenditure of 
money is involved. The Committee from the Cham- 
ber of Commerce estimated the expenses of the boat 
at fifty to sixty thousand dollars per annum. To pay 
this heavy sum, it would require an increase of the 
taxes of one-fourth of one per cent, on all the real 
estate in Charleston. Are we not already driving off 



Miscellaneous Papers. 345 

our citizens by high taxation, thereby lessening the 
value of real estate, and affecting the interests of the 
city generally ? 

There are many of our experienced business men 
who are unwilling to admit that the Beach Channel 
has been improved in depth from any other causes 
than those that first produced the effect of deepening 
it from almost a dry shoal to the depth of ten feet at 
low tide, and that depth was attained before the Dredge 
Boat was heard of. 

Several of the captains of the pilot boats, who have 
long been acquainted with the Charleston harbor, 
were interrogated by Aldermen Inglesby and Frost. 

They were asked : " Has the navigation of the 
channel been rendered dangerous in consequence of 
the stoppage of the Dredge Boat ?" 

Capt. B. — I think not. 

Capt. McD. — Not more so than before. 

Capt. C. — I think not. 

Capt. A.— No. 

Capt. A. — I do not think it has as yet, though I 
have not as much confidence in it as I had three 
months ago. 

" Is it likely soon to become dangerous if the chan- 
nel is not worked upon?" 

Capt. B. — Can give no opinion. 

Capt. McD. — I am not prepared to answer decidedly. 
I think it may remain as good as it is for months, un- 
less some unforeseen cause presents, which the Dredge 
Boat could not ward off. 

Capt. A. — Nothing can prove that but time. 
44 



346 Miscellaneous Papers. 

Capt. C. — I have not sounded lately, and can give 
no opinion. 

Capt. A. — Can give no opinion. 

" What is the present condition of the Ship Chan- 
nel ; is it as good as it was before the Sullivan's Island 
Channel was dredged out ?" 

Capt. C. — I see no difference for twenty years. 

Capt. A.— I think there is no difference ; there is 
more shoal water in the inside of the bar, but ves- 
sels of the same draught can be carried out that ever 
could. 

Capt. McD. — Not having sounded the Ship Chan- 
nel, I am not prepared to say, but think there is very 
little difference. 

Capt. B. — I do not think it has as much water. 

Capt. A. — I think there is very little difference, if any. 

It will be seen from the answers given by the cap- 
tains of the pilot boats, that they do not consider the 
dangers arising from the navigation to have been 
greatly increased by the stoppage of the Dredge Boat. 

But even if the Beach Channel should become a 
dry shoal, we have the Ship Channel, which has 
answered all the requirements of our commerce for 
the last hundred years, and it is as good now as it 
ever was. 

I find much greater complaint among the ship- 
owners of a scarcity of freights, than a scarcity of 
water on the bar. 

It is not probable that the receipts of cotton, rice, 
grain, and naval stores will increase at this port 
beyond the capacity of the shippers to send it away. 



Miscellaneous Papers. 347 

The commerce of Charleston has adapted itself to 
the old Ship Channel. Packets are now constructed 
capable of carrying four thousand bales of cotton, 
which enter our harbor without difficulty. For dis- 
patch and cheapness, the rates of freight to and from 
Charleston will compare favorably with any other 
port in the Southern States. 

It is not at all certain that the rates of freight 
would rule lower, even with twenty-five feet of water 
on the bar. All commercial men know that large 
ships are very slow in their movements — it requiring 
weeks to load and discharge. Steamships are fast 
driving from the ocean the large sailing packets, and 
it is the judgment of many that a line of propellers, 
to run between this port and Liverpool, would pay 
well, and prove highly beneficial to the interests of 
Charleston. To me it is clearly inexpedient and 
unwise for the city either to buy or hire the Dredge 
Boat. The Treasurer's books will show a large sum 
of money lost by the city a few years ago in advanc- 
ing on a Dredge Boat that proved worthless. It is 
the duty of the General Government, and not the 
City Corporation, to dredge the bars which obstruct 
the harbors of the commercial sea-port towns. 
Respectfully submitted. 

G. W. W. 



THE BEACH CHANNEL AND DREDGE BOAT 



[for the mercury.] 

I have neither the time nor inclination to enter into 
a Beach Channel and Dredge Boat controversy. I 
beg leave, however, to notice a gratuitous charge 
made by " Deep Water," in Monday's Mercury. He 
says my object in defeating the whole enterprise, and 
all such undertakings, is to show the community that 
our scientific men, our previous Councils and State 
Legislatures, were sadly in want of sagacity when 
they attempted to improve our commerce by deepen- 
ing Beach Channel." I have nothing to do with pre- 
vious Councils or State Legislatures. 

The present City Council was asked by the Cham- 
ber of Commerce to buy or hire the Dredge Boat. 
A Special Committee was appointed to take the sug- 
gestion into consideration. I regretted very much that 
I could not agree with the majority in their recom- 
mendations — hence the necessity of a minority report. 
I have seen calculations made by scientific and " Deep 
Water" gentlemen before, and have seen the result of 
those estimates. The city has been embarrassed with 
an enormous debt and ruinous taxation. Our com- 
merce has been drained into the Mississippi River by 
them. A few years ago the debt of Charleston was 
only a million and a half of dollars, and the taxes 
half of one per cent. ; now we find a debt of nearly 
five millions of dollars, and taxes more than trebled. 



Miscellaneous Papers. 349 

The "scientific" and "Deep Water" gentlemen 
told us a railroad connection with the West would 
double, the value of real estate, and greatly increase 
our commerce. Our worthy City Assessor taking it 
for granted that those statements would prove true, 
and finding it necessary to raise a larger sum of money 
to pay the interest on the city debt, added to the 
former assessments twenty-five to one hundred per 
cent. 

In 1852 the writer paid on his residence half of one 
per cent., assessed at seven thousand dollars. Three 
years later he paid one and a half per cent, on the 
same property, then valued at fifteen thousand dol- 
lars, (some small improvements had been made at a 
cost of about one thousand dollars.) Here was an 
increase of eight thousand dollars, making the taxes 
more than three per cent, on former valuation. Other 
tax-payers make similar complaints ; and if an attempt 
is made to correct this state of things, we are charged 
with "ignorance" of the wants and requirements of 
our city. " Deep Water" says : " I would be satisfied 
with just water enough on the Bar to float a fishing 
smack." Unless he and other scientific gentlemen 
will pull off their coats and go to work in the right 
way to build up the commerce of Charleston, she 
will only require "fishing smacks" to carry off the 
produce that comes to the wharves. Does he know 
that, in consequence of the great scarcity of freight, 
our first-class steamships are taking flour to New York 
for fifteen cents per barrel ; also cotton, and other 
produce, at corresponding low rates ? Is he ignorant 



350 Miscellaneous Papers. 

of the fact that a few respectable sized fishing smacks 
could carry all the freight that is offering at this port? 
This is a humiliating disclosure, but, nevertheless, true. 

Will "Deep Water" explain what were the causes 
that produced a depth of nine feet of water on com- 
paratively a dry shoal, before the Dredge Boat was 
introduced ? Is it not reasonable to suppose that the 
same causes, if left undisturbed, would continue their 
work until a depth of twelve feet at low water was 
attained, and that, too, without the aid of artificial 
means ? Why is it that the Chamber of Commerce 
and " Deep Water " are so anxious to have the city 
embark in this enterprise ? They admit that it is the 
work of the General Government and the State to 
keep open the harbors of the commercial sea-port 
towns. Both legislative bodies will soon be in session ; 
a little delay will certainly not greatly injure the com- 
merce of Charleston. The city and State taxes of 
some of our commercial houses have been increased 
from a few hundred dollars to several thousand per 
annum. If our merchants are expected to compete 
successfully with the cities North, it will not do to 
embarrass them by further increased taxation. The 
tidal drains, and other important improvements in 
Charleston, will necessarily require large sums of 
money. Why, then, should Council be called on to 
do what is not the legitimate work of the city corpo- 
ration, and a work, too, which is regarded as doubtful 
in its benefits by many of our most experienced busi- 
ness men ? 

September 26, 1859. G. W. W. 



THE OLD BOOK DEPOSITORY OF THE SOUTH 
CAROLINA CONFERENCE. 



The year 1839 being the centenary of Methodism, 
it was celebrated by the Methodists of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia in a joyous thank-offering. A large 
sum of money was obtained by twenty, fifty and one 
hundred dollar subscriptions, to be divided, one-fifth 
to missions, two-fifths for educational purposes, and 
the residue for the establishment of a Book Deposi- 
tory in Charleston. 

The Rev. Whitefoord Smith, in a communication 
published in the Southern Christian Advocate, as 
early as November, 1838, made the suggestion that 
part of the centenary collections should be applied to 
the erection of a Southern Book Room in Charles- 
ton. Both preachers and laymen went to work in 
earnest to raise a sum worthy the objects they had 
undertaken. Our lamented Bishop Capers — in that 
day the leader of good works in the South Carolina 
Conference — put the enterprise in motion. His noble 
efforts were heartily seconded in this Conference by 
Smith, Wightman, Bass, Kennedy, Talley, Stacy, 
Martin, Walker, Betts, Bryce, Penn, Bird, Wagner 
and others, and in the Georgia Conference by our 
beloved Bishop Andrew, Few, Pierce, Longstreet, 
Parks, Glenn, Key, Evans, Means, Mann, Garvin, 
Chase and others. 



352 Miscellaneous Papers. 

The committee appointed for the purpose of select- 
ing a suitable location for the Depository, Advocate 
Office and Printing establishment, purchased a lot 
twenty-three and a half feet wide and one hundred 
and eighty feet deep, running north and south from 
Hayne to Pinckney street. The cost was eight 
thousand dollars, in five annual instalments of sixteen 
hundred dollars each, bearing interest from date. As 
the location was in the centre of the wholesale trade, 
it was regarded as a desirable and fortunate selection. 
At that time property on Hayne street was very 
much inflated, and in consequence of the great fire of 
1838 building materials and mechanical labor in 
Charleston was unprecedentedly high, thus making 
the houses which were erected for the Book and 
Advocate establishment cost a very large sum of 
money. Our liberal-minded Methodists, however, 
were determined to have a Depository of their own, 
to enable them to distribute our Church literature 
more generally among the people. 

A suitable building having been erected on the 
north end of the lot in Pinckney street for the South- 
ern Christian Advocate, the demand for that popular 
church paper was so great that the introduction of 
steam was found necessary. That circulation has 
continued to increase until eleven thousand families 
are now supplied weekly with one of the best relig- 
ious papers published in the Union. I see no reason 
why the number should not be increased to twenty 
thousand, thereby doubling its sphere of usefulness 
and its income to the church. Our prosperous com- 



Miscellaneous Papers. 353 

mercial papers were recently contending for the honor 
of introducing the steam printing press into this city; 
but had finally to yield the credit to the Advocate. 
The object of this communication, however, is not to 
pass a eulogy on the Southern Christian Advocate, 
but to correct among members of the South Carolina 
Conference an erroneous opinion in reference to the 
results of the Book Depository. 

It is believed and asserted by some of the preachers, 
that the concern did a losing business. I have made 
a careful examination of its affairs from the date of 
its establishment in this city, in 1840, to the present 
time. I find that the Book Depository has returned 
to the South Carolina and Georgia Conferences the 
capital contributed by these Conferences, paid to 
real estate one thousand four hundred and sixty- 
one dollars and sixty-three cents, and has deposited 
with the Treasurer of the South Carolina Conference 
a bond of Stevenson and Owen's for eight thousand 
dollars, with an accumulation of interest of nearly 
two thousand dollars. 

The profits of the Depository, after paying all expen- 
ses, are about thirteen thousand five hundred dollars, 
from which the bad debts have to be deducted. There 
still remains unpaid some four thousand dollars of old 
notes and accounts. Some of these claims are against 
ministers of the South Carolina and other Conferences 
— many of whom have died in the work, while others 
are superannuated and unable to pay. Such claims 
should be cancelled and charged to profit and loss. 
The bond for eight thousand dollars with the accu- 
45 



354 Miscellaneous Papers. 

mulated interest, is by virtue of the intent of the 
donors the property of the Book Depository. The 
money collected for missions and educational pur- 
poses has been applied as directed by the donors. 
At the ensuing Conference an exhibit will be made of 
the receipts and expenditures of the Prudential Com- 
mittee from its origin to the present time. 

Yours truly, 

G. W. W. 
Charleston, November 10, 1859. 



SOUTH CAROLINA ANNUAL CONFERENCE, 1859. 



Greenville, December 5, 1859. 

The South Carolina Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, began its seventy-second 
session in this pretty town on Wednesday, 30th ult, 
Bishop Early presiding. The bishop is in fine health, 
and is progressing satisfactorily with the business of 
the Conference. 

The Book and Tract Society of the South Carolina 
Conference, located in Charleston, made its first 
annual report, through its President, G. W. Williams, 
asking for a transfer of the assets of the old Metho- 
dist Book Room (amounting to some ten thousand 
dollars) to the Book and Tract Society. Also, for 



Miscellaneous Papers. 355 

the appointment of an agent by the Conference. 
After an animated discussion of some hours a reso- 
lution was adopted appointing the Rev. Sam. Jones 
agent. 

The Missionary Society held its anniversary on 
Saturday evening, C. Betts, President, in the Chair. 
The Report of the Board of Managers was read by 
Rev. F. M. Kennedy, and addresses delivered by 
Professor Carlisle, of Wofford College, and Dr. 
Myers, of the Southern Christian Advocate. 

Professor Carlisle's speech, although delivered with 
only a few hours' notice, would have done credit to a 
Wightman or a Pierce. Professor C. is one of the 
first men of his age in the State. 

Dr. Myers made one of his best efforts. Fifteen 
hundred (1500) dollars were promptly laid on the 
table. The preachers contributed a large amount 
of the above sum. Judging from the manner in 
which they emptied their purses, they need not be 
admonished that it is hard for a rich man to enter 
the Kingdom of Heaven. 

The Missionary collections for the year will amount 
to about twenty-eight thousand dollars in this Con- 
ference. 

Dr. Myers, in his speech, advanced the idea that 
the " millennium " was near at hand. I do not think 
that he was aware of the fact that there are more 
than one hundred distilleries in a small district in 
this State, daily engaged in converting the staff of 
life into that which not only kills the body, but 
destroys the soul. Tell it not in the sovereign State 



356 Miscellaneous Papers. 

of South Carolina, whose citizens are now sending to 
Ohio, Indiana and Illinois for bread, that within a 
few square miles one hundred manufactories are 
employed in taking from the poor their scanty sup- 
ply of grain, and converting it into poisonous strych- 
nine whiskey ! Shame ! Shame ! 

This large army of Methodist ministers, although 
they may be brave enough to penetrate the miasma 
swamps of the South to preach the gospel to the 
slave, and survive the hardships of the mountains, 
yet they cannot conquer the evil spirits which find 
their way into the bellies of the swine that wallow in 
the mud around these dens of Satan. Millennium, 
indeed ! 

I am proud to see that our Governor, in his mes- 
sage, directed the attention of the Legislature to the 
evils arising from the large accumulation of distille- 
ries. His Excellency recommends that a tax be 
levied on them sufficient to support the paupers they 
make. The City of Charleston has adopted this 
plan, and for every ten dollars of revenue received 
from liquor shops, it pays one hundred dollars to the 
police to watch them ; and the bar-rooms fill the 
almshouse with paupers. 

The Chairman in the City Council of " Licenses " 
will have much to answer for the " recommendation " 
he makes. 

The members of Conference have been hand- 
somely entertained by the citizens of Greenville, of 
all Christian denominations. I heartily endorse the 
language of one of the preachers in making his 



Miscellaneous Papers. 357 

hostess a life member of the Missionary Society. He 
said : " If all the ladies in Greenville are as clever as 
my hostess, then Greenville is one of the best towns 
in the world." 

They all seem delighted with their homes. I am 
quite sure that none are more so than 

G. W. W. 



MISCELLANEOUS CORRESPONDENCE. 



The News in the Queen City of fighting near Fortress 
Monroe — A Chapter of Blunders — Sentiment in Ohio 
— Bacon and the Blockade — Western Ctirrency — Eng- 
land's Position, and how it is Relished — Talk on 
'Change in Porkopolis, etc., etc. 



Cincinnati, Ohio, June 12th, 1861. 

I arrived in the " Queen City of the West " yester- 
day, from Lexington, Ky. They had just received 
the news here of the defeat of the Federal troops near 
Fortress Monroe ; and bitter curses are being show- 
ered, not only on the heads of the rebels, but on the 
United States officers, who are charged with being 
incompetent to command the troops entrusted to 
them. 

It appears that orders were given to surround the 
" traitors," but the famous German company did not 
know the difference between a South Carolina seces- 
sionist and a New Yorker. They commenced firing 
on Colonel Townsend's Albany Regiment ; the Zou- 
aves and Massachusetts regiments took a part in the 
action, when the fight became general. The Germans 
gained the battle, and succeeded in capturing quite a 
number of New York troops ! Brigadier-General 



360 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

Pierce commanded the expedition ; he " lost his pres- 
ence of mind ;" it was fortunate for him that he did 
not lose his head. They say he ought to be sent 
back to Boston at once. The War Department is 
censured for delay, and for appointing officers wholly 
incompetent to discharge their duties. Another great 
embarrassment the Department labors under is having 
enlisted the men for only three months. When the 
ninety days expire, a large number of volunteers, 
having seen quite enough of camp life, will return 
to their homes. The true secret is, they are discov- 
ering that the " protection of the American flag " is 
only a masked battery of Lincoln, from behind which 
he expects to subjugate the South. So far as I can 
learn, the people of Ohio do not engage heartily in 
such a warfare. They know that without the trade 
of the slave-holding States, the West will be greatly 
damaged. From what I have seen and heard in 
Indiana and this State, I am convinced they are get- 
ting very tired of the Lincoln blockade. The effects 
of the war and the blockade of the Mississippi and 
Ohio rivers, are fast making the whole West bank- 
rupt. Bacon and provisions are going to waste for 
the want of purchasers. I am making arrangements 
for provisions here, which will be shipped South via 
Louisville, Ky. We have many friends in the West 
who will do all in their power to feed our Confederate 
boys. 

It is estimated that there are twenty millions of 
pounds of bacon and pork in this city alone. Bacon 
is selling at five to seven cents, corn seven to ten 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 361 

cents per bushel, and butter, lard, and cheese five to 
ten cents per pound. A man from Indiana told me 
that in the prairies, where wood was scarce, they were 
actually using corn for fuel ! A strong delegation 
has gone to Washington to represent the true state of 
things ; and if they are not heard, you may look out 
for an uprising in the West. The currency of the 
Western States is becoming worthless, as the State 
stocks and bonds which were deposited as security 
for the redemption of the bank-notes, are sold in New 
York at thirty to forty per cent, on the dollar, leaving 
very little to indemnify the holders of bank bills. 

The true interests of the Western people are all 
with the South. The Morrill Tariff is as objection- 
able and injurious to them as to us. 

The Northern papers are down on England 
savagely, for countenancing, in any manner, the 
rebels. They say a recognition of the Southern Con- 
federacy will be regarded by the United States as a 
declaration of war ! I wonder if John Bull isn't 
scared ? I have been treated kindly and politely in 
Cincinnati. The Union feeling, however, is very 
strong. They nearly all say the Government must 
be maintained, and they feel confident, with the men 
and means at the command of the administration, the 
Union can and will be restored. They do not 
acknowledge that it has been dissolved. J My old 
friends expressed a good deal of surprise at seeing 
me here, and feared I was in danger of arrest. I 
explained to them the object of my visit, and do not 
46 



362 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

think I shall be sent to Fort Deleware. If disputes 
were left to commercial men, we should have no more 
wars to ruin and devastate the country. 

I received an invitation to visit the Merchants' 
Exchange to-day. They talked politics and war more 
than commerce. My friends there discussed the pro- 
priety, or impropriety, of my visiting Camps Denni- 
son and Clay, which are located some twenty miles 
above here, in the Miami Valley. From what I can 
learn, the majority of the troops are good Democrats, 
and I think they will not molest me. A friend has 
promised to see me through. If you do not hear 
from me again, you may know that I am a prisoner 
of war. I do not fear, however, but that I shall 
return safely. 

Yours truly, 

G. W. W. 



A Visit to Camp Dennison — Eighteen Thousand Hes- 
sians in Camp — Drilling in Shirt Sleeves — Germans 
Drilling by the Bugle — Popular Delusions at the North 
— Bob Anderson and his Pictures — His "Kentucky" 
Regiment, etc., etc. 



Cincinnati, Ohio, June, 1861. 

In my last, I informed you that I had an invitation 
to visit " Camp Dennison." A friend having procured 
a permit from headquarters to " pass two gentlemen 
through the camp," we took our departure on the 
Ohio and Mississippi Railroad. Twenty miles' pleas- 
ant ride brought us to the largest military camp that 
I had ever beheld. The soldiers have comfortable 
quarters, built of plank, extending for more than a 
mile on each side of the road, located in the beautiful 
valley of the Miami. 

A large farm containing several hundred acres was 
rented by the State. Fields of beautiful wheat are 
trampled underfoot, in teaching men the science of 
war, who are to engage in fighting their brethren of 
the South. There are eighteen regiments — in all about 
twenty thousand men. Some eight hundred acres of 
ground were literally covered at one time by soldiers 
and spectators. I was informed that, in several com- 
panies, the sons of the most wealthy and influential 
citizens had enlisted for the war, and were quite willing 
to endure the hardships of a soldier's life to protect 



364 Miscellaneous C01responden.ce. 

the flag ! A large majority of the regiments drilled 
in their shirt sleeves, unarmed. Only two regiments 
were fully equipped. The Guthrie Grays seemed well 
drilled, and presented quite a soldier-like appearance ; 
but the great centre of attraction was the German 
Regiment. According to my judgment, they were 
the best drilled body of soldiers I ever saw. Many 
of them had served in the Crimean war. Their orders 
are all given in German. The Colonel of the regi- 
ment takes a central position, with his buglemen to 
his right ; and his word of command is issued mainly 
through the shrill war trumpet. The bugle can be 
heard much further and more distinctly than the 
human voice. I should think the war trumpet would 
come into more general use by our people. 

The severe and efficient drilling these hardy Western 
boys are daily undergoing, will soon make them 
efficient and formidable soldiers. I am fully satisfied, 
from what I have seen in the States of Ohio and 
Indiana, that we are underrating the fighting materials 
of our enemy. They have the men, means and dispo- 
sition to carry on a destructive war, and are united 
almost to a man. Hundreds of thousands of men 
are thrown out of employment, and they join the 
army as a pecuniary necessity. Physically they will 
compare favorably with any people on the globe, and 
I do not think we have any good reason for doubting 
their bravery. If they could find honest employ- 
ment very few would engage in fighting the South, 
but they are made to believe that their existence 
depends on their subjugating the "Southern rebels." 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 365 

I have conversed freely and unreservedly with intelli- 
gent men from nearly all the Western States, and I 
am satisfied the majority of them are laboring under 
the blindest delusion as to the true condition of affairs 
in the Confederate States. Their newspapers make 
them believe that in all the Slave-holding States, 
except South Carolina, the " loyal men " are almost 
equal in number to the " traitors," and that they 
stand ready to fight under the Federal flag whenever 
they can be safe' in so doing ; and they believe also 
that we are in a starving condition, destitute of all 
the elements to carry on a successful war. When I 
told them our people were prosperous, and that our 
planters had sold their crops of cotton and rice, and 
realized high prices, and that we had provisions, men 
and money, with the promise of abundant crops, and 
a certainty that our ports would be opened to send out 
the cotton and bring in for it hundreds of millions of 
gold annually ; and that there were not a corporal's 
guard to be found in the Confederate States who 
would fight against their people under the Lincoln 
flag — they put me down as a crazy South Carolinian ; 
but I imagine some of them were convinced that the 
Lincoln blockade was pinching the wrong foot. A 
few of them were put to thinking, but what will be 
the result of all this time can only reveal. 

The pious hero of Fort Sumter is here stopping 
with his brother. Many believe Major Anderson 
to be an ungrateful, selfish man. In the various 
speeches he has made since he left the South, no 
word of thanks has escaped his lips for the innumer- 



366 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

able acts of kindness bestowed on him by the gener- 
ous and kind-hearted citizens of Charleston. And 
even the courtesies extended to him and his command 
by General Beauregard have been basely perverted 
and misrepresented. Major A. having washed his 
Puritanical hands of slavery by selling his negroes in 
New Orleans to the highest bidder, is now thought to 
be as good a free-soiler as his brother who resides in 
this city. You will remember he married Miss 
Clinch, of Georgia, who inherited a large number of 
slaves. The Major has no hold on the people of 
Kentucky or the West. His photograph is to be 
seen in the shop windows of cheap picture stores. 
The price has fallen to twenty-five cents, with a liberal 
deduction for cash, and Illinois currency would be 
received in payment. I have seen the famous Ken- 
tucky regiment you have heard that Anderson was 
to command. It is said to be made up of bastard - 
sons of Kentucky, born in Indiana, and educated in 
Ohio. They are a rough-looking set of fellows, and 
will doubtless be useful to Lincoln in storming the 
hen-roosts of Virginia. The story goes that when 
the gallant Major beheld the material of which they 
were composed his health failed him. 

G. W. W. 



Lincoln and Crittenden — Neutrality an Exploded Idea — 

Position of Kentucky — Price of Provisions on both 

sides of the Ohio — Western Produce cannot be kept 

out of the South — The West about to Kick against 

Yankee dom — Prospect of Four Republics, etc., etc. 



Louisville, Ky., June 14, 1861. 

When I was here a few days ago, I deposited in 
the post office a letter directed to the Charleston 
" Mercury." I was not aware then that the President 
had ordered that all letters for the Confederate States 
should be sent to the Dead Letter Office at Washing- 
ton, to be pillaged and inspected by his hirelings. 

The other day, when I heard the venerable Critten- 
den at Lexington begging the people to send him to 
Washington, that he might have another opportunity 
of falling on his knees and praying to the Black 
Republican party to stay the hand of desolation and 
destruction, I could feel nothing but contempt for 
this once honored man. Crittenden might as well 
pray to the mummies of Egypt as to the fanatical 
" beauty and booty " party. It is folly for any slave- 
holding State to dream of occupying a neutral position 
in this great struggle for State rights and equal lib- 
erty. The Abolition party is pledged to "wipe out" 
a certain institution. No man can doubt on which 
side Kentucky will be found in the fight now going 



368 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

on, provided she is not kept down by the Federal 
bayonets. She has many noble sons who are true to 
us, and at the right time they will let themselves be 
felt and heard. But Dalilah is now dandling this 
Sampson of the West on her lap. The razor is being 
delicately applied — a few locks have already been 
clipped. This Sampson, however, sleeps with one eye 
open to the immense trade he is receiving from the 
Confederate States ; the other eye is shut to all the 
Lincoln bars which are necessarily left down along 
the line of seven hundred miles of border States, and 
through which many of the products of the rich West 
are and will be smuggled. If bacon, butter and lard, 
in the States of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, just on the 
opposite side of the river, are only worth six to ten 
cents per pound, it is not strange that, by some secret 
process, these articles will be transported across the 
river, especially as they are doubled in value by the 
operation. One of Sampson's strong locks is the 
Louisville Railroad. The Philistines of Cincinnati 
insist on having it clippled ; but their master, Abra- 
ham, is afraid that such an act would arouse the strong 
man from his slumber ; he begs them to wait, at least, 
till after the election ; and then he promises, not only 
to shave the head of this Sampson of his locks, but 
to put out both eyes. They had better look out, and 
see that the house is not pulled down on their own 
heads. It is foolish to talk of stopping supplies from 
coming into the Confederate States from the West- 
The corn and hog-growing States of Ohio and Indiana 
have too great a relish for Southern gold to be shut 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 369 

out by a paper blockade. You might blot out every 
mile of railroad in Kentucky, and the provisions 
would find their way South. 

It is my belief that the day is not far distant when 
the Western politician will take the field against the 
Republican party, and will carry everything before 
them by an overwhelming majority. From what I 
have seen and heard I am clearly of the opinion that, 
with California, the Northwest and the Northeast, we 
are to have four American Republics made up from 
the wreck of the late United States. 

The great American family have grown too large, 
and its interests are too varied to live under the same 
Government Laws which are necessary and benefi- 
cial to one section, are injurious and destructive to 
another. We of the South are an agricultural people 
and do not require the high tariff which is necessary 
to the protection of the New England manufacturers. 
The South has contributed largely to the wealth of 
the North. The merchant princes are not willing to 
give up the immense trade of the Confederate States. 
What care they for the orphans and widows, the wail 
and woe which will be created all over the land by a 
protracted war, if they can secure a trade they have 
so long enjoyed ? It is a war with them of dollars 
and cents. Let them remember that Judas sold our 
blessed Saviour for money. How much good did it 
do him ? There is a great panic here in the bonds of 
the Southern States ; they can be bought at thirty to 
forty cents on the dollar. 

G. W. W. 
47 



MERCHANDISE AND CURRENCY EFFECTED BY 
THE WAR. 



DOWN WITH MONOPOLIES. 



It has become very fashionable of late, both in town 
and country, to cry out against monopolies, and abuse 
roundly those who are engaged in trade, charging 
them with monopolizing provisions and merchandise 
throughout the country, for the purpose of taking 
advantage of the necessities of the people by exact- 
ing "exorbitant" prices. The very merchants who 
have been most active in guarding and providing 
against the state of things which are now complained 
of, by importing heavily when they had an opportu- 
nity, and using every honest means in their power at 
great hazard and expense to increase the supplies, 
thereby equalizing prices, are modestly called "land 
pirates," " sharks," and all such delicate epithets 
are applied, because they have been moderately re- 
warded for the great labor performed and risks in- 
curred. 

Much has been said about the monopoly of the 
article of salt. Does not every one know that neither 
man nor beast can thrive without this important arti- 
cle, and yet what are our planters, with their thou- 
sands of negroes, who are living on the margin of 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 371 

salt beds, doing, but abusing the merchants for charg- 
ing a profit of two shillings per sack on this indis- 
pensable article ? Why do they not employ their 
negroes in its manufacture ? Do they not know that 
there are not five thousand sacks of salt in the City 
of Charleston when there will be a demand for one 
hundred thousand sacks ? 

One of our merchants recently purchased a cargo 
of salt in New Orleans, and had it brought one thou- 
sand five hundred miles by steamboat and rail. He 
was grossly insulted for presuming to ask a profit of 
five per cent, notwithstanding he had incurred the 
risk of losing three dollars per sack in the event of 
the blockade being raised. I was amazed a few days 
since to see a communication published, which eman- 
ated from a committee of the leading men of Charles- 
ton. I feel quite sure that no harm, injury or injustice 
was intended, and yet the communication was full of 
the agrarian spirit, and has done incalculable mischief 
throughout the country. The Charleston merchants 
who feel it to be their duty to keep up their supplies, 
are now paying in New Orleans and the West, ten to 
twelve cents for brown sugar, twenty to twenty-two 
cents for crushed and loaf, forty cents for coffee and 
candles, twenty-five cents for bacon and lard, thirty 
cents for spices and soda, twenty cents for bagging 
and rope, and all other articles in proportion. When 
they have paid two to four cents per pound for trans- 
portation and other expenses, prices must necessarily 
be very high in this market. From the spirit mani- 
fested recently, some of our merchants do not feel 



372 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

that they would be secure in bringing goods here for 
sale. It does seem that the people of Charleston, 
and of the Confederate States, will never realize that 
we are actually engaged in a destructive war, not in 
a war of one, two or three years, but in a war equal in 
magnitude to that of the old " Revolution." I take 
it for granted, if the "mother country" could engage 
in a " seven years" war to coerce a few unprofitable 
colonies, the United States Government will not do 
less to subjugate fifteen full grown States, especially 
as without this portion of her dominion she is doomed 
to ruin and insolvency. 

When our people fully understand the condition of 
the country, and learn that the stocks of merchandise 
in the Confederate States are nearly exhausted, and 
that fresh supplies can only be obtained at immense 
risk and cost — I say when they learn these facts, it is 
barely possible that some of them will find more pro- 
fitable employment than they have at present, for 
they seem to do nothing under the sun but watch 
other people's business. If they ever had any of 
their own it is now entirely neglected. And those 
citizens who are heaping anathemas on the heads of 
" monopolizing shopkeepers," will do well to under- 
stand that abusing them will not cure the evil. Let 
them try their hand at merchandise, and if they can 
succeed in furnishing goods at prices satisfactory to 
the buyers, they will be entitled to the gratitude of 
the whole country ; and when they die, should have 
written on their tomb-stones in golden letters — Mar- 
tyrs. 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 373 

In a short time we will, doubtless, learn that too 
much confidence has been placed in King Cotton, the 
British Lion and Napoleon to open our ports, and to 
give us cheap goods. Let us show the people of the 
North and of the balance of the world, that we can 
both live and prosper and not sell a bale of cotton. 
With our climate, soil and innumerable resources, 
why should we not be the most independent people 
on the globe ? But, fault-finding will not bring goods 
at low prices to our doors. We must learn to do 
without such articles as cannot be made at home. 
Let our people profit by the severe ordeal through 
which they are now passing, and never again be as de- 
pendent on any nation as they have been on the North 
and Europe. If we desire the name of freemen, we 
must be willing, for the present, to submit to great 
hardships and privations, relying on our God, and the 
means He has placed in our hands for protection, 
support and defence. Sitting down with our hands 
folded, calculating through envy's green-eyed magni- 
fying glasses the enormous profits a few " monopo- 
lists " are said to be making, will neither render us 
happy, fill our own coffers, feed our children, nor 
supply the wants of the soldiers and their families. 
Such a course is not manly — it is not patriotic ; it is 
mean and contemptible, and will never "put down 
monopolies." 

G. W. W. 
Charleston, 8. C, 1861. 



COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, AND AGRICULTU- 
RAL CONVENTION, AT MACON, GA. 



Mr. Editor : As many of the subscribers to the 
" Advocate " cannot afford in these war times to take 
more than one paper, they expect you and your cor- 
respondents to furnish them with the commercial, 
financial and agricultural news of the day. 

Some four hundred delegates, representing nearly 
every interest in the Confederate States, assembled in 
Macon, on the 14th inst, to talk over the affairs of the 
nation, and to counsel together as brothers engaged 
in the one great cause of advancing the common inter- 
ests of our people. The Convention was regarded as 
a perfect success. There were very few buncombe 
speeches made ; the delegates were mainly working 
men, as will be seen by the amount of business dis- 
posed of in two and a half days. Colonel O. A. An- 
drews, of Charleston, was elected President, and dis- 
charged his arduous duties to the satisfaction of all. 
The Cotton Loan and Sequestration Act were the 
most important questions before the Convention. 

Many were of the opinion that both the interests 
of the Government and the planter would be greatly 
promoted by advancing in Treasury notes five cents 
per pound on the four million bales of cotton, now 
nearly ready for market. Others believed such a 
course to be unconstitutional and would lead to great 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 375 

fraud and injury by cripling the resources of the 
Government. The following resolution was finally 
adopted : 

Resolved, That, in the opinion of this Convention, the proposed issue 
of Treasuary notes to be made by the Government, and the issue of Bank 
notes in the ordinary course of trade, and under the resolution of the 
Banks to make advances to planters, who shall subscribe a portion of their 
crops in aid of the Government, will together furnish an adequate currency 
for the country, and will obviate the necessity for any intervention of the 
Government, and this Convention hereby call upon the Banks of the Con- 
federate States to come forward and advance within the limits of prudence 
to all our citizens and on all descriptions of produce. 

I have no doubt but that the Banks will make lib- 
eral advances on cotton and other produce, thus fur- 
nishing the planters with ample means to buy the 
necessaries of life. Luxuries, of course, during the 
continuance of the war, will be dispensed with. A 
circulation of Bank notes of one hundred million of 
dollars, based on cotton at five cents per pound, when 
our ports are open, will be equal to that amount of 
coin ; and until the ports are open, the Banks will 
not be required to redeem their issues in gold or 
silver. 

A resolution was passed authorizing the shipment 
of cotton to foreign ports in vessels that had run the 
blockade. On the strength of this resolution, the 
steamer Bermuda is now loading with cotton, and 
will doubtless sail before this communication is pub- 
lished. A resolution was also passed recommending 
the Congress of the Confederate States to suspend 
the duties on imports, and that the ports of the Con- 



376 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

federate States be thrown open and be made free to 
all nations who maintain peace with us. After an 
exciting debate, the following question of modifying 
the Sequestration Act was passed : 

Whereas, by the laws of nations debts due to alien enemies are suspended 
and bear no interest during the continuance of war : 

Resolved, therefore, That in the opinion of this Convention, the 
Sequestration Act adopted by the Confederate Congress at its recent session, 
should not require the payment of debts due by our citizens to alien ene 
mies during the existence of the war 5 but that it should require only the 
evidence of the indebtedness to be returned, and placed upon record by the 
receiver, without security demanded and taken for the ultimate payment 
of the same. 

That in cases wherein the debtor to an alien enemy is also a claimant of 
indemnity for damage sustained by the act or acts of the Government of 
the United States, or of the people thereof, the said claim shall be allowed 
as an offset, and the balance only shall be the subject of payment. 

That we respectfully recommend to the Confederate Congress such alter- 
ations in, or additions to, the Sequestration Act, as may be necessary to 
authorize the Confederate Courts to enquire into the " bona fide " of every 
transaction of our own citizens with alien enemies between the 21st May, 
1 861, and the date of the passage of that Act, and to protect from the 
operations of the Act those engaged in such transactions, whose dealings 
with the enemy were of manifest benefit to the people or the Government 
of the Confederate States, or free from taint of disloyalty. 

That the Government of the Confederate States having assumed the 
place of the alien creditor of the Confederate debtor, should stand on the 
same footing with all other creditors. 

That the Convention further recommend to the Congress of the Con- 
federate States such modifications of the Sequestration Act as maybe requi- 
site to exempt from its operation the property of persons resident in the 
States with which we are at war, who are laboring under the disabilities of 
coverture or infancy, and consequently unable, though desiring it, to change 
their domicil, and who are not actually enemies to the South. 

That the property of said alien enemies who have sons in the army of 
the Confederate States shall be sequestrated for the benefit of such sons as 
may serve as soldiers in our armies. 



Miscellancojis Correspondence. 377 

Unless there is an important modification of the 
Sequestration Act, great distress and ruin will be 
brought on thousands of our people. There is little 
doubt, however, but that the Government at Rich- 
mond will look carefully into the Act, and make such 
alterations as are just and equitable. No one can 
believe that our young government ever intended to 
pass a law that would prove oppressive to her people. 
Our merchants are in favor of withholding payments 
to alien enemies, and at the proper time to pay over 
as far as they are able the same to the Government ; 
but they do not feel it would be just to home credi- 
tors to give a preference to Northern claims. Many 
of the country merchants were in the habit of divid- 
ing their trade between the North and the South. A 
firm may owe fifty thousand dollars, (say one-half in 
New York and the balance in Southern cities;) and 
when our unfortunate troubles began, their means 
were ample to pay all demands, but now their collec- 
tions have ceased ; they with those who owe them, 
have left their homes and gone forth to fight the bat- 
tles of our country. If the war is to be protracted, 
not fifty cents on the dollar due them will be collected. 
As the Sequestration law now stands, they are liable 
to be sued at once in the Confederate courts, judg- 
ment rendered, and their property sold, if they are 
not able to give security. Such a course would ruin 
one-half of our merchants, and leave millions of home 
debts unpaid. 

The Convention adjourned at half past ten o'clock 
48 



378 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

on Wednesday night, to meet on the first Monday in 
May, in the city of Montgomery, Alabama. 

Colonel Andrews, in responding to the resolution of 
thanks to the President and other officers of the Con- 
vention, said : 

" The Convention would adjourn to meet again in Alabama. There is 
a beautiful legend of our fair sister State, which tells us that the early 
pioneers therein were so attracted with her charms that they forgot their 
distresses, when reaching her pleasant waters and seating themselves on the 
verdant banks thereof, exclaimed : ' Alabama ' — Here we rest ! 

" May time prove that there was a prophetic significance in the place 
designated, and to those of us who may be permitted to gather at the next 
meeting, may the grateful sound come up from peaceful dwellers under 
every • vine and fig tree,' that our country is delivered ! Alabama ! Ala- 
bama ! 

" Commending you to the benedictive influences of that Gracious Provi- 
dence, in dependence on whom our work was begun, is continued, and 
will, we trust, be ended, I bid you, gentlemen, respectfully, warmly, and 
affectionately, farewell." 

As a general thing, commercial and agricultural 
conventions are nothing more nor less than political 
traps ; but, so far as I could see, the Macon Conven- 
tion was entirely free from politics, or the selfish aims 
of any particular class of our fellow-citizens. It was 
composed of some of the first men of the South, 
whose great minds seem devoted to the advancement 
of the interests of our young Republic and her loyal 
citizens. Such meetings are calculated to do much 
in cultivating a harmonious and social feeling among 
the classes representing the varied interests in the 
Confederate States. 

G. W. W. 

Macon, Ga., October 17th, 1861. 



THE MISSIONARY WORK IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 



I must confess it startles me to hear Christian min- 
isters talking about abandoning the missionary work 
in the South Carolina Conference — even for a twelve- 
month. If the pious dead could be disturbed, would 
not the sainted Capers, Honour and other pioneer 
missionaries, grieve if the religious instruction of 
the blacks was given up ? Is it possible that such 
good and true men as H. A. C. W. can even " half- 
way " recommend to his brethren of the old Banner 
Conference to "suspend the missions for one year?" 
Would not such a course have a prejudicial influence 
upon the missions throughout the entire South ? 
What would become of the missionaries, their wives 
and little ones during the suspension ? How are 
they to be fed and clothed. 

We believe that the Holy Scriptures fully recog- 
nize the relation of master and servant, and we are 
willing to sustain the relation at any cost. Is it not, 
then, clearly our duty to see that the slaves are sup- 
plied with religious teachers ? True, the people of 
the North stole the negroes from their native homes 
and put them in their present relation, but their soil 
and climate proved unsuited to the African race. In 
plain English, slavery could not be made profitable 
at the North, and they relieved their consciences by 
transferring the negro, for a valuable consideration, 
to the sunny South. We became their owners and 



380 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

guardians ; and with the transfer of property, passed 
the duty to look after their spiritual as well as their 
temporal wants. 

These are indeed trying times — money is scarce, 
the price of cotton low, and provisions high, and our 
country is engaged in a bloody war. If I do not 
greatly mistake the character of Carolina Planters, 
they will, as heretofore, come up liberally to the sup- 
port of the Missionaries who labor on their planta- 
tions. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, an honored 
name in Carolina, was one of the early patrons of the 
missions to the blacks. He and others saw that the 
religious instruction administered by faithful men, 
was of more advantage to their servants than a troop 
of patrol. The South Carolina Conference will cer- 
tainly not let the work of forty years, in the malaria 
swamps, which has been so signally owned and blessed 
of God be given over to Satan ? Never, no never ! 
Then let us devise some means to avert this dreadful 
calamity. 

There is required for the missions in this Confer- 
ence at least twenty thousand dollars. I feel quite 
sure the planters will contribute one half that sum. 
Are there not twenty Methodists who will give each 
five hundred dollars to so good a cause ? If they 
have not the money, and do not wish to sell their 
cotton at this time, let them send it to their factors in 
Charleston with instructions to pay over the proceeds 
to the Missionary Treasury, and I will see that they 
have a liberal advance on it ; and the cotton shall be 
insured and held until it is ordered to be sold. Those 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 381 

who cannot spare twenty bales let them send ten, 
five, or even one — the widow's mite, in so holy a 
cause, will not be refused. 

Let there be, without delay, an earnest appeal made 
in behalf of the missions in every church in the 
bounds of the South Carolina Conference. Flour, 
rice, and provisions of any kind; will be acceptable. 
The clergy have a right to expect a cordial co-opera- 
tion of the laity in this important work — a work of 
which 

" Millions of souls shall feel the power, 
And bear it down to millions more." 



G. W. W. 



Charleston, S. C, October 29th, 1861. 



WHERE ARE WE DRIFTING! 



A few weeks since, when Senator Phelan, of Mis- 
sissippi, introduced a bill in the Confederate Congress 
to seize and appropriate all of the cotton in the Con- 
federate States for the use of the Government, I did 
not suppose such a wild, chimerical and unjust scheme 
would receive half a dozen votes. I understand, 
however, that there is a strong probability that Mr. 
Phelan's bill will become the law of the land, and 
then when an attempt is made to put it in force, you 
may look out for another revolution. The citizens of 
the cotton-growing States are willing to make any 



382 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

just sacrifice for the benefit and security of their 
Government, but they would not quietly submit to an 
act so unjust and unequal in its operations as the 
seizure of cotton would be. 

How is it that the Senator selects one article to 
pay the expenses of the war? and proposes that upon 
the cotton planters only shall fall the burdens and 
seizures ? It is true their shoulders are broad, and 
they seem to be the subjects not only of Confederate, 
but State legislation. They are restricted to so many 
square feet of ground on which they shall raise King 
Cotton, and then that small quantity is to be taken 
from them. Where is the justice and equity of such 
a measure ? and what would be the effect upon the 
public credit? Our worthy Secretary of the Treasury 
and his assistants are racking their brains to sustain 
the credit of the Government. Suppose three or four 
hundred millions of bonds should be issued for cot- 
ton — an article as immovable and useless to the 
Government while the war lasts as the rocks in the 
mountains — might not such a financial blunder ruin 
the country ? Would cotton be any safer in the hands 
of the Government and Government agent than in the 
possession of the planter ? Would it not cost the 
Government thirty to fifty million dollars per annum 
for interest, insurance and storage ? Experience has 
taught us that when Government turns merchant, a 
wide door is opened for wholesale plunder and swind- 
ling. If an exigency in our affairs should arise, which 
would render the seizure of property necessary, let 
the Government appropriate not only cotton, but 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 383 

tobacco, sugar, rice, naval stores, stocks, land and every 
species of property. Such a procedure would fall 
equally upon all classes ; but to select cotton alone, 
would sacrifice a few for the supposed benefit of the 
many. 

I trust, Messrs. Editors, you will see the inequality 
and injustice of the bill now before Congress, and 
call public attention to the dangers that threaten us. 

G. W. W. 

Charleston, February 14, 1863. 



LETTER FROM CHARLES TON. 



Mr. Editor : The question is often asked, " What 
has become of the Southern Christian Advocate ?" 
Some say it expired with the Confederacy ; others 
say it is published in Macon, Georgia. Can't you 
make an arrangement to deliver it by Express to 
your subscribers, until " Uncle Sam " establishes his 
mail route ? [Certainly. — Ed.] 

We wish to know what you are doing in Georgia. 
The Charleston refugees, after years of wandering 
and suffering are returning to their homes. Alas ! 
What changes have taken place in those homes ! 
Loved ones who went forth to battle at their country's 
call, will return no more. The houses from Calhoun 
street to the Battery, were terribly shattered by shot 
and shell, and have been robbed from cellar to garret. 
Oh, what a terrible thing is war ! 



384 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

There are evident signs of improvement in business. 
The stores in King and Meeting streets are rented 
at prices current before the war, and those on Hayne 
and East Bay streets are filling up. Geo. W. Wil- 
liams & Co. have resumed business again at Nos. 1 
and 3 Hayne street, and are ready to serve their 
old friends. We have two newspapers published in 
Charleston, the Courier and the Daily News. The 
latter is issued from your old Advocate building. It 
is said to be a sprig of the Mercury. The Rhetts 
have not returned; I suppose Charleston politics 
under the new regimen don't suit them. We shall 
have no more use for nullification or secession, at 
least in our day and generation. 

The orthodox preachers all left when the city was 
evacuated, and we were like " sheep without a shep- 
ard." Rev. Mr. Lewis was sent to Charleston by the 
Methodist Missionary Society. Although a live New 
England Yankee, and an avowed abolitionist, to his 
credit be it said, he never carried politics into the 
pulpit. Bethel Church was assigned to the whites, 
Trinity, Spring Street and Old Bethel were taken pos- 
session of by the colored brethren, and are occupied 
by them now. Rev. Mr. Raysor, P. E. of this Dis- 
trict, visited Charleston recently, and Mr. Lewis 
turned Bethel Church over to him. Rev. F. A. Mood, 
who has returned from Europe, occupies Bethel. 
Rev. Mr. Meynardie is expected soon. 

Mr. Lewis has labored with zeal and energy, but 
has not met with much success, either among the 
whites or blacks. The African M. E. Church held a 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 385 

" Conference " in Charleston, and made quite a parade 
of their "bishops, deacons and elders." Sambo, like 
the white man, is fond of office, and the temptation 
of being made a live bishop, caused hundreds and 
thousands to join the African Methodist Church. 
The whites and the blacks will probably never wor- 
ship together again in Charleston, I am not sure but 
that Methodism will be improved by the separation. 
The colored charges have been a heavy tax upon the 
time and labors of the white pastors ; and although 
it has been one of the decided peculiarities of Charles- 
ton Methodism that it has paid special attention to 
the religious welfare of this class of the population, 
yet it has been at the cost of some standing and influ- 
ence in the community. 

The Church North has a fine opportunity of uniting 
our Church with theirs, if they would only manifest 
a Christian spirit, and exercise charity ; but what I 
saw in my recent visit North convinced me that our 
bishops and preachers will not be recognized unless 
they resign their office, repent of their misdeeds, and 
join the M. E. Church on probation ! As the great 
question (slavery) which separated the Church in 
1844 is removed, I see no good reason why the 
Churches should not reunite, but not on the terms 
offered by the Church North. President Johnson par- 
dons us sinners, and receives us back as equals ; why 
can't the great Methodist Church North do the same ? 

Our old friend H. A. C. Walker made us a visit 
recently. He is now a " loyal citizen." Nearly all 
of the South Carolina preachers have taken the oath 
49 



386 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

of allegiance, and have transferred their prayers from 
Jeff. Davis to Andy Johnson. I think our new Presi- 
dent is disposed to do all in his power for the South. 
There is a terrible pressure upon him. Johnson's 
prime minister, (Stanton,) wants to keep us under mili- 
tary rule, until the contrabands are allowed to vote. 
Negro suffrage is the question at the North, especially 
among the secessionists of New England. The Sec- 
retary of War has given orders that no more rations 
be issued to the whites ; the blacks are to be fed as 
usual. Why this distinction ? I am sure the poor 
whites in Charleston need bread as much as the col- 
ored population. There is much suffering, and this 
suffering extends to a class of people who, a few years 
ago, were surrounded by comforts and luxuries. 
Such is life, and such the effect of war ! Let us for 
the future steer clear of its ravages and horrors ! 

G. W. W. 
Charleston, S. C, 1865. 



REPORT OF THE DISTRIBUTING COMMITTEE. 



No. i Hayne Street, 1 

Charleston, S. C, May 27th, 1865. / 
Col. Wm. Gurney, Commanding Post : 

Colonel, I have the honor to report to you that the 
provisions which were in my charge, as Chairman of 
the City Subsistence Committee, on the arrival of the 
Union forces in Charleston, and which were taken 
possession of by the United States military authori- 
ties, and subsequently turned over to a Committee of 
citizens, consisting of Hon. William Aiken, Geo. W. 
Williams, Dr. A. G. Mackey, C. Amme, and W. H. 
Gilliland, have been issued in accordance with the 
instruction from Headquarters. 

The Committee received from 
West Point Mills, whole, middling and 

small rice, - 1,487,765 lbs. 

From Chisolm's Mills, whole, middling 

and small rice, _..'•_ 95,000 " 

From East Point Mills, whole, middling 

and small rice, - 172,027 " 

From Bennett's Mills, whole, middling 

and small rice. - . 108,940 " 



Total, - 1,863,732 lbs. 

The Committee received from the Confederate com- 
missary stores, six thousand one hundred bushels of 
corn, which was ground into meal and grist and distri- 



388 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

buted to the poor. There was also issued several thou- 
sand bushels of salt found in the State commissary. 

This timely supply of provisions has given suste- 
nance to more than twenty thousand needy people 
for one hundred days, and relieved much suffering in 
Charleston and its vicinity. There are a number of 
old and infirm white and colored citizens who have 
relied mainly on this charity for support. Without 
continued assistance from the Government, this class 
of the community must suffer for bread. 

I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 
GEO. W. WILLIAMS, 
Member Distributing Committee. 

REPORT OF THE SUBSISTENCE COMMITTEE, TO CITY COUN- 
CIL OF CHARLESTON, 1 865. 

The Subsistence Committee, which was appointed 
by Council in 1862, respectfully report that their 
operations were brought to a close by the fall of 
Charleston and the arrival of the United States mili- 
tary authorities in February last. 

The Committee had at that time, in West Point 
and other mills, one hundred and fifty thousand dol- 
lars worth of rice and grist, all of which were taken 
possession of by the military authorities, under the 
following orders: 

Headquarters United States Forces, T 
Charleston, S. C, February 20, 1865. J 
\_General Orders, No. 3.] 

I. All rice heretofore in the keeping of the City 
Government will at once be taken possession of by 
the United States military authorities. 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 389 

II. Capt. Ed. R. Fowler, 21st Regt. U. S. C. T., A. 
C. S., will immediately take charge of the rice. He 
will report in person to these headquarters for instruc- 
tions. 

III. Hon. William Aiken, Geo. W. Williams, Esq., 
Dr. George Mackey and Mr. C. Amme, are appointed 
a Committee of Citizens, who will distribute this rice 
to the poor of the city. 

By order of Colonel A. G. Bennett, Commanding. 
(Signed.) HENRY H. JENKS, 

Capt. 52 Pa. Vols., A. A. A. G. 
(Official.) H. A. Batterson, 

2d Lieut. 127 N. Y. V., A. A. A. G. 
A special appeal was made by the Chairman of the 
Subsistence Committee to Col. A. G. Bennett, Com- 
mandant of the City. By his orders the supplies were 
turned over to Hon. Wm. Aiken, Geo. W. Williams, 
Dr. A. G. Mackey, and C. Amme, for gratuitous dis- 
tribution to the poor of Charleston. 

The timely provision of the City Council, in pro- 
curing food during the entire siege of Charleston, and 
at a time of great scarcity among our citizens, pre- 
vented much suffering among all classes. 

But for the loss of one hundred tierces of rice in 
Savannah, and the large amount taken possession of 
by the military authorities, the Subsistence Committee 
would have returned in full the advance made by the 
City Council, and paid a handsome sum into the 
Treasury. Respectfully submitted. 

GEO. W. WILLIAMS, 
Chairman Subsistence Committee. 



LETTER FROM BISHOP ANDREW. 



A letter from the venerable Bishop Andrew, though 
addressed to a little boy, will yet be read with satis- 
faction by all who know and honor that eminent 
divine. Though subduing his tone to meet the juve- 
nile apprehension of the boy, it will yet be seen that 
it is replete with fatherly counsel and the best advice, 
and may be read profitably by the sons of other 
fathers, as it has been, I believe, by mine. 

G. W. W. 



Mr. Editor: — The enclosed letter from our venerable 
Bishop Andrew to his little Charleston friend, is so 
full of fatherly counsel and advice, I send it to the 
" Visitor" for the benefit of the little readers of that 
interesting paper. 

Geo. W. Williams. 
Charleston, February 12, 1867. 



My Dear Little Friend : — A few days since the 
mail brought me a letter which was postmarked 
Charleston, and I supposed it must be from your 
father; but on opening it, and breaking into and 
going through two or three envelopes, I found snugly 
hid away in one or two envelopes a printed letter from 
my little friend Geo. W. Williams, Jr. I need not 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 391 

tell yOu how glad I was to receive this assurance of 
the love and respect you cherish for your old friend. 
I thank you, George, for your letter, and now I say 
you must repeat it very often : write often ; it will do 
you good, by improving your mind, and I shall always 
be glad to receive them. 

Well, George, I had a cold ride home, but reached 
it safely and found all well. The boys and girls had 
a fine time of snow-balling each other, just like I used 
to do when I was a boy. The weather has been very 
cold ever since. O how sorry it makes me feel to 
think of the poor people in the large towns who have 
no comfortable houses, nor warm clothing, nor wood 
to make a fire for them, and their shivering children ! 
George, don't you wish you could relieve them all ? 
Now what a happy little boy you are to live in such 
a good home, have good warm clothing, and above 
all, such a good father and mother, who love you and 
spare no pains to make you happy. Surely you 
ought to be a very good boy, and never do any thing 
to grieve your parents. But remember that for all 
these things you are indebted to the kind providence 
of your Heavenly Father, and you ought never to 
do any thing to offend God, but you must love Him 
and pray to Him to change your heart and make you 
a good boy. Never tell any stories — never say any 
bad words. You must pray to God two or three 
times every day ; ask God to bless you, and bless 
and keep you from evil. Don't keep company with 
boys that swear or break the Sabbath, or are quarrel- 
some ; be civil and obliging to every body ; love your 



392 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

books, and be studious to know your lessons. I 
suppose you are going to school : be sure to love and 
obey your teacher. 

And now, George, I guess you will think I ought 
to quit ; well, so I think ; and so I say good-bye. 
Yours affectionately, 

Jas. O. Andrew. 
Summerfield, January 15, 1867. 



BRAZIL. 



Mr. Editor: — For the information of those who have 
the Brazil fever, I send you a letter for publication, 
from one who has recently returned from South 
America. Mr. B. is a gentleman of close observa- 
tion, and possesses more than ordinary intelligence. 
Any statements made by him in reference to Brazil 
may be implicitly relied upon. I am convinced in 
my own mind that we have the best country in the 
world. All that we require is a stable Government 
and a working, economical people to restore us to 
our former prosperity. 

Yours truly, 

G. W. W 

Charleston, May 28, 1867. 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 393 

Harrodsburg, Ky., May 22, 1867. 
Geo. W. Williams, Esq. 

Dear Sir : On our parting at Charleston in Jan- 
uary last, on my way to Brazil, I promised to address 
you on my return to the United States, which I now 
do. After travelling on the coast and land three 
thousand miles in Brazil, I returned to the United 
States, satisfied that Brazil would not suit our people, 
all things considered, notwithstanding thousands are 
going there who are not informed, and I think will 
never be happy or even comparatively satisfied. 
Nature has done much for Brazil. More beautiful 
harbors and scenery the world cannot afford — much 
of the soil very fertile, but not more so than many 
parts of the United States ; a fine climate, that is if 
one is fond of perpetual summer. Thermometer 
average from 78 to 98 — in short, average of a South 
Carolina summer. Rio de Janeiro is precisely the 
climate of Havana. Population of Rio 450,000. But 
few roads in the entire empire that would admit of 
a wagon, and only three railroads in the empire, 
one of which is eighty-five miles, another one hun- 
dred and twenty-five miles, the other ninety miles. I 
regard the country as being well adapted for coffee, 
sugar and tobacco, but not for grain, and cotton I 
regard as yet an experiment. Rice does well. I have 
very great doubts as to cotton doing well there ; the 
soil is all right, but the climate I doubt. They 
have the wet and the dry season there, either of 
which would ruin a cotton crop in Carolina, and I 
see no reason why it would not in Brazil. Last year 
50 



394 Miscellaneous Comespondence. 

in the most desirable province, I understood that it 
did not rain in six months. It is the worst country 
in the world to obtain truthful information as to these 
matters. All the book-writers deceive the public, 
and when I see you I will tell you the cause, which 
you will easily understand. There are no facilities in 
the country, and worse than all, the language, which 
is Portuguese, then the habits, manners and mode of 
living ; and any man must be very vain who supposes 
that a few Americans can go to that natural fine coun- 
try and cause those people to adopt ours. Not so. If 
you go there you must give up the English, acquire 
the Portuguese, and become a thorough Brazilian 
before you begin to live there — live on mandioca 
meal for bread, and a barrel of imported flour, to 
reach the interior on the back of a pack mule, which 
is a great curiosity, and bacon, rarely seen in Rio, 
fifty cents per pound in gold, and of the many fam- 
ilies going there now, by the time they settle in the 
interior, I think it doubtful whether they will ever 
see a ham of bacon or barrel of flour again. Society 
none whatever. 

The coffee plantations were beautiful in the extreme. 
The negroes looked well, and would class, in appear- 
ance with ours in the States, in the days of slavery, 
but I did not think they were as good workers. The 
price of slaves, for young men and women, likely, 
from five hundred dollars to six hundred dollars. 
Much more has been said in this country about the 
emancipation of slavery in Brazil, than has been said 
there. If I could have consented to settle in Brazil, 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 395 

I can only say that I would not have had any fears on 
that score. But I could not consent to settle there 
with my family, all things considered. Of course I 
cannot undertake in this letter to go into detail; when 
I see you, I can tell you many things interesting as 
to that country. 

I have purchased property in Kentucky, and shall 
return to South Carolina next week, and hence will 

see you shortly. 

Yours truly, 

D. L. B. 



MISCHIEVOUS RUMORS. 



That there should be a necessity for the following 
card of Mr. Williams, cannot but be humiliating to 
the community. It is unfortunately one of the foibles 
of poor human nature to lend a willing ear to gossip, 
and in repeating a rumor to add a little on to it. A 
misanthropic Frenchman once remarked that we are 
not displeased to hear of the misfortunes of even our 
best friends, and once people begin to talk of suspen- 
sions and failures, at a time of commercial pressure, 
no house is safe from the aspersion. It is useless to 
say that this is wrong; that to repeat such a rumor is 
to be guilty of slander, and liable to an action for 
libel ; for all this is well known, and readily acknowl- 
edged by every one. Let our people, therefore, be 
more guarded in their expressions, and, as Mr. W. 
suggests, mind their own business, and much will be 



396 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

gained every way. Mr. Williams, in our opinion, has 
taken the most sensible course, in waving all false 
delicacy, and fairly and squarely bearding his slan- 
derers and detractors; and has thus forever put an 
end to all such libellous rumors. — Charleston News. 

The startling announcement of the suspension of 
the old and highly respected firm of Fraser, Tren- 
holm & Co., of Liverpool, a house whose reputed 
wealth was almost without limit, very naturally pro- 
duced a financial and commercial panic in this com- 
munity. The day the announcement was made, men 
congregated on the streets to discuss the losses that 
would fall on the banks, bankers, and commercial 
men. Some one suggested that the above firm doubt- 
less owed " Geo. W. Williams & Co. a hundred thou- 
sand dollars." In a very short time the one hun- 
dred thousand was increased to millions ! when the 
truth is, they owed us less than a thousand pounds. 
These idle rumors in a few days corrected them- 
selves so far as relates to Charleston ; but the false 
reports were spread among our friends in the country 
to such an extent that our Senior felt it his duty to 
publish in the Charleston papers the following card : 

A CARD. 

Messrs. Editors : It is with deep regret that I feel 
it due to a concern that I have been a member of for 
more than twenty-five years, to refute the malicious 
reports which have been so industriously circulated in 
the streets of Charleston for the past ten days. I did 
not deem it necessary to notice the reports, as no gen- 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 397 

tleman in Charleston believed that the house of Geo. 
W. Williams & Co. was not as solvent as any concern 
in the United States. But for the fact that these false 
and malicious reports have found their way among our 
friends in the country in a shape calculated to do us 
and our city a serious injury, I would treat them with 
the contempt which they deserve. 

The house of Geo. W. Williams & Co. have ample 
means of their own with which to carry on their busi- 
ness; they are not indebted a dollar to any bank in the 
world ; and have a large cash balance to their credit 
in the New York, Charleston and Liverpool banks ; 
and, further, the firm has not a note or acceptance 
due or running to maturity. Neither are they endors- 
ers on a dollar's worth of domestic exchange, and have 
but one sterling bill of a thousand pounds to mature. 

Perhaps it might be comforting intelligence to the 
friends (?) who have been so actively engaged in cir- 
culating false reports, to learn that of the many mil- 
lions of dollars of foreign and domestic exchange pur- 
chased by Geo. W. Williams & Co. during the past 
twenty-five years, they have never lost a dollar! If 
the gossipers in Charleston will devote half the atten- 
tion to their own business that they do to that of 
others, we shall then hear of fewer failures and more 
prosperity. 

I dislike to appear before the public in this card ; 
but duty to myself and the firm that I represent, and 
also to the city at large, compels me to do so. 

Geo. W. Williams. 

Charleston, June 6th, 1867. 



FROM THE NORTH. 



New York, July 25, 1867. 
I am in this great city, seeing what I can see. The 
feeling here toward the people of the South is that 
of kindness and sympathy. They are more than anx- 
ious to have the old States back again into the Union. 
They know their commercial and political value to 
the whole country, and they are feeling keenly in 
their finances and trade the effects of the disorganiza- 
tion and anarchy which prevail at the South. As 
soon as we are reconstructed, millions of men and 
money will pour into our impoverished lands, and aid 
in building up our waste cities, and in cultivating the 
fields that are now growing up in thorns and thistles. 
New York comparatively is almost as dull as Charles- 
ton. Those who are so fortunate as to have a few hun- 
dred pounds of sterling have gone to the Paris show; 
others have deserted their comfortable homes, and 
are " cotting " at the seaside, Saratoga or Niagara, 
leaving the town in the possession of the sharpers 
of both sexes. I have never seen so few people here 
from the South. Alas ! Confederate currency don't 
pay railroad fare and hotel bills. The wheels of com- 
merce seem to have come to a dead lock in this great 
metropolis. This state of things cannot last much 
longer without ruining two-thirds of the merchants. 
There have already been several failures among the 
dry goods' houses in the jobbing and importing 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 399 

trade, and the end is not yet. The people will have 
to look a little more closely into the laws of political 
economy, and they will learn that fortunes are not 
made in a day, but by years of toil, labor and econ- 
omy. The vast volume of paper currency, the result 
of the late war, filled the land with wild and reckless 
speculators. The desire and facilities for making 
money rapidly found its way among ail classes and 
professions ; fortunes were made in a few months, 
and are being lost in as many days. 

The people are realizing that " riches have wings " 
even in New York, and " he that hasteth to be rich, 
shall not be innocent." The tendency here is for the 
large houses to monopolize trade, and thereby crush 
the smaller. How much better it would be for the 
city to have one hundred houses sell in the aggregate 
a hundred millions of dollars, than to have that 
amount of business absorbed by Stewart and Clafiin. 
Stewart began here with a small capital. By his in- 
dustry and great mercantile abilities, in forty years 
has become the richest man in America, if not in the 
world. It is said his heart is as cold as the marble 
palaces in which he has amassed his colossal fortune. 
They say no merchant North has been so hard on 
his unfortunate Southern creditors as A. T. Stewart. 
Allowances should be made for the curses that are 
heaped on Stewart's head. Every successful man has 
his green-eyed enemies. It is easier to abuse this 
merchant prince than to successfully compete with 
him in business. New York is one of the most ex- 
pensive cities in the world. There are a number 



400 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

of firms here that pay fifty thousand dollars per 
annum rent, and as much more for clerk hire, per- 
sonal expenses, etc. 

You can readily perceive what a large amount of 
business must be done to meet expenses. Rents are 
enormously high, and yet there are more houses "to 
let " than in former years. The aggregate banking 
capital of New York City is eighty-five millions of 
dollars, with liabilities amounting to three hundred 
and fifty millions ! A large amount of this money 
is due to individual depositors, and country banks 
and bankers. These deposits are loaned by the 
banks on " call." If there should be a commercial 
panic, it would be like calling spirits from the vasty 
deep. The banks have less than ten millions gold, 
but not one dollar in ten of this sum belongs to 
them. So long as government bonds are good, the 
thirty-five million dollars circulation will be re- 
deemed. I tell the financiers here that if they 
don't want Sambo to vote for repudiation, they must 
take off the tax of two and one-half cents per pound 
on cotton and forty cents on tobacco. Would the 
farmers of the Empire State of New York stand such 
a tax on their wheat, corn, hay, etc.? I think not. 
Why then impose this tax on the labor of the poor 
white and colored people of the South ? 

If there ever was a time when our people required 
light taxation, now is the time, when they are strug- 
gling for mere existence. 

The commerce of this city is immense, and the 
vast accumulation and concentration of capital here 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 40 1 

must ever make New York the great commercial cen- 
tre of America. The excessive imports into this city 
in 1865— '66 resulted in heavy losses, not only to the 
importers, but also to those who had large stocks on 
hand. The decline on many description of goods 
was fifty per cent. The imports into New York from 
July 1865—66 were one hundred and eighty millions 
of dollars against one hundred and forty millions the 
present year. The above figures represent gold valu- 
ations. When reduced to paper currency, with the 
duties paid, of course the amount is largely increased. 
The exports of domestic produce the present fiscal 
year from New York was about one hundred and 
seventy-four million, currency value, and forty mil- 
lions gold and bullion. 

The merchants and bankers here are looking with 
great interest to the industrial developments of the 
South. Want of capital is a great drawback to rapid 
progress, but what we lack in capital should be made 
up in industry, and money will flow into the South as 
soon as reconstruction and confidence are restored, 
but never while we remain in the present distracted con- 
dition. Then let our people push on reconstruction. 
Delay is fatal to our best interests. G. W. W. 



51 



IMPRESSIONS OF ST. LOUIS. 



St. Louis, Missouri, 1867. 
I have spent six days in taking a careful survey of 
this great Western City, and I am much more favor- 
ably impressed with St. Louis, especially with its 
brilliant prospects for the future, than with any city 
west of the Alleghany. During the four years of 
desolating war, the commerce of St. Louis was locked, 
and the keys given to her rival, the Garden City, on 
Lake Michigan. Chicago, being one of the most 
wide-awake towns west of New York, was not slow 
in taking advantage of her position. Her shrewd 
merchants, with the key of disloyal St. Louis in their 
pockets, could get permits to ship immense cargoes 
of merchandize to and from St. Louis, thereby reap- 
ing the profits that legitimately belonged to this city. 
It is said that immense fortunes were made in this 
way, and that some army officers shared in the spoils. 
As the people of Missouri are not yet fully recon- 
structed, allowance must be made for the stories they 
tell of their neighbors across the river. I was amused 
to witness the rivalry that exists between the two 
cities. A Missourian would as soon invest his money 
in the sand banks of Saco Beach, as in real estate in 
Chicago, for he devoutly believes — if not hopes — that 
Chicago is to receive her final doom long before the 
general conflagration — that she is not to be destroyed 
by fire, but is to be buried beneath the angry billows 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 403 

of Lake Michigan. If the wealthy men of this city- 
would imitate the " reckless speculators " of Chicago 
in pushing forward to completion their line of rail- 
ways, they would then have less cause to be jealous 
of their energetic and prosperous neighbors. Forty 
years ago the site on which Chicago now stands, was 
a wilderness inhabited by savage Indians. At present 
it is the centre of a great net-work of railways, and has 
become a rich and prosperous city, having some two 
hundred thousand inhabitants, and is one of the largest 
grain depots in the world. 

St. Louis, however, is destined to be the New York 
of the West. It is built on solid rock, on the west 
bank of the father of waters, a single branch of 
which is navigable up the great Northwest, three 
thousand two hundred miles. Situated as St. Louis 
is, in the centre of the Valley of the Mississippi, mid- 
way between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, it is to 
be the commercial heart of North America. Nature 
has marked St. Louis as the great inland metropolis 
of this Continent ; her twenty thousand miles of nav- 
igable waters pouring their rich cargoes into this 
mart, with lines of railroads which are to tap the 
Pacific, surrounded by one hundred thousand square 
miles of the most fertile land on the globe. With 
these streams of gold pouring into her, St. Louis 
must in time become one of the richest and most 
populous cities in America. 

If church steeples are any indication of the piety 
of a city, then St. Louis must be considered a pious 
city. She has one hundred and fifteen churches, ten 



404 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

convents, numerous universities, high schools, medi- 
cal colleges, academies, etc. She has fifteen orphan 
asylums and homes for the widows and destitute. 
The Roman Catholics are building here one of the 
finest Cathedrals in the United States. St Louis has 
fifty incorporated banks and private banking houses, 
employing a capital of forty millions of dollars. She 
also has forty-five insurance companies. Fifteen hun- 
dred buildings, mostly of brick and stone, were erected 
during the past year. Ten daily newspapers are 
printed here ; some of them are ably edited. 

The Merchant's Exchange reminded me of the 
world-renowned Bourse of old Hamberg, in Ger- 
many. At 11 o'clock, the merchants, bankers and 
brokers, representing every branch of commerce, 
assemble in a spacious hall, and dispose of the rich 
cargoes of merchandize, grain and provisions which 
are being landed on the spacious levee from the float- 
ing palaces, just in from the Rocky Mountains or the 
Gulf of Mexico. St. Louis sold last year more than 
two hundred million dollars worth of provisions and 
merchandize ; her trade can be doubled if she will 
push forward her line of railways. The economical 
Germans are to be met here in every branch of com- 
merce and profession, and by their industry and fru- 
gality have added much to the wealth of their adopted 
city. The active, enterprising Yankees have also done 
their share in building up the commerce of St. Louis. 
The New Englanders who come West remind me of 
a boy I knew in the mountains of Georgia, who des- 
troyed one-half of his mother's chickens in his impa- 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 405 

tience to have them "hatch" in less than twenty-one 
days. The New Englanders, with their activity and 
energy of character, clear the forests, build railroads, 
erect rude dwellings, lay the foundation for great 
cities, but they can't wait the full twenty-one 
days. They are impatient to realize, sell out and take 
hold of a new enterprise. Many a fortune is lost, 
much happiness destroyed, and many a chicken killed 
in the shell by this impatient, restless spirit. You 
might as well expect the waters that flow over the 
rapids above the falls of Niagara to flow gently and 
smoothly as that the " irrepressible " Yankee should 
remain quietly in a Western home, especially when 
he hears that there are richer lands a few hundred 
miles further West. 

The mountains of mineral wealth which lie at the 
very doors of St. Louis will necessarily make her a 
great manufacturing as well as a great commercial 
city. In addition to its rich mines of coal, lead and 
iron, they have recently discovered tin. 

St. Louis possesses the elements of greatness in 
having an abundance of cheap food, cheap fuel, and 
cheap transportation. 

I go to-morrow to Iron Mountain, and then further 
West, on the Pacific Railroad. 

If the Indians don't scalp me, you may hear from 
me again from the Western wilds. 

G. W. W. 






COMMERCIAL AND POLITICAL PROSPECTS AT 
THE SOUTH. 



[for the journal of commerce.] 

New York, 1867. 

Messrs. Editors : I send you an extract from a 
letter written by an old Charleston merchant, who 
has, during the past two months, travelled extensively 
through South Carolina, Georgia, and a portion of 
Alabama. The writer of the letter is a careful obser- 
ver, not given to looking too favorably on the bright 
side of things. Four years of desolating war broke 
all of our banks at the South ; the currency of the 
country, which amounted to almost as much as the 
whole debt of the United States, collapsed with the 
Confederacy ; many of our towns and cities were 
destroyed ; ruin was spread broadcast throughout the 
land. Our people, however, have left to them their 
land, which is the foundation of all wealth. 

I have made, during the summer months, an exten- 
sive tour, first through the States where the farms are 
worked by freed colored labor ; and recently through 
the West, where white labor prevails. To my utter 
surprise the farms are much better cultivated at the 
South than in the West. If the politicians will only 
let the South quietly reconstruct their soil, the crops, 
instead of being worth four hundred millions of dol- 
lars per annum, will in a short time be worth a thou- 
sand millions ! 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 407 

The negroes certainly have a greater incentive to 
work now than when they were slaves. 

My experience during the past two years proves 
that they do much better, under the circumstances by 
which they are surrounded, than could be expected. 
It is estimated that the South has lost three thousand 
million dollars by the abolition of slavery. If the 
freed or colored labor can be utilized — that is, if the 
four millions of men and women who were recently 
slaves, can produce by their labor as much cotton, 
corn, sugar and rice now as they did before the war, 
the South will, in a short time, regain her wealth, and 
again become great and prosperous. What we want 
above all things is peace. Political anarchy is ruin. 

G. W. W. 

The following is the extract above alluded to : 

" In regard to the commercial prospects of our 
Southern country, I am much more hopeful than I 
was before my inland trip, and rather more hopeful 
than you seem to be at the present moment. When 
you remember that the South the past year has had 
little money to spare except for bread and for appli- 
ances for planting, you cannot wonder that securities 
of all kinds have been, and are very cheap. But bear 
in mind that the wheat and oat crops have been 
heavy, that corn is made and is abundant, and that 
cotton in general looks well, and you will have reason 
to believe that the coming fall and winter will produce 
great commercial changes. The money value of 
Southern crops cannot be less than four hundred mil- 



408 Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

lion dollars, of which the negro will receive above a 
quarter, every dollar of which he will spend at the 
South ; and, as the planter has made, generally, his 
provisions for next year, he will also have a large 
supply of money. What can he do with it? He 
cannot buy negroes. He will not invest it in North- 
ern securities — possibly not in governmental. He 
has no taste to improve his dwelling, and he will 
get tired of hoarding gold. Is it not, therefore, a 
fair inference that he will begin to seek Southern 
securities ? And when the ball begins to roll, there 
will be a rush, and a great advance in their value. I 
sought for the cause of the rapid building up of 
Atlanta. It was not done by Northern capital — but 
largely through money owned by planters — who pre- 
fer mortgages in Atlanta to any other security. They 
have, in many cases, loaned their money at seven per 
cent, interest to rebuild their favorite city. And in 
Georgia, even now, they can find capital to build fac- 
tories, go on with railroads, and other improvements. 
What will it be when four hundred millions more 
money is put afloat ? 

" The political horizon is dark, but not hopeless ; 
the storm will soon blow over, while the great masses 
of our people will quietly go on with their industrial 
employments. What we need now beyond all account 
for the business of our city, is a railroad from Poco- 
taligo to Millen ; this would open a straight railroad 
line to Shrieveport, beyond the Mississippi, and so on 
to Texas, and give us a part of the great trade of the 
Gulf. We shall lose a part of upper Georgia and 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 409 

Tennessee when the Hamburg and Columbia Road is 
finished, but we can make it up and five times over, 
if we can connect at Millen. The Central Road is 
now with us in this thing, for their trade is tapped at 
Macon. They will be willing to save one hundred 
and twenty-one mil.es to Millen, if they do lose travel 
on seventy-nine miles from there to Savannah." 



GOV. SCOTT AND THE NEWS. 



The following correspondence is published in the 
Columbia " Phcenix." As the matter to which it 
refers is one of public importance, we place the let- 
ters in full before our readers. — Charleston Nezvs. 

[LETTER FROM GEO. W. WILLIAMS, ESQ.] 

Charleston, April 3, 1869. 
Governor: I seldom read the newspapers beyond 
the commercial information they contain ; neither 
have I taken any part in politics since the defeat of 
Clay, in 1844, and I attach but little importance to 
what the newspapers may say of you and your admin- 
istration. I must confess, however, that the editorial 
which appeared in to-day's " News " fills my mind 
with the gloomiest apprehensions. I sincerely hope 
that the Charleston editor is the victim of an April 
fool, for I have too much confidence in your judg- 
ment to believe that you would, at this season of the 
year, and in time of perfect 'peace, introduce an ele- 
52 



4 1 o Miscellaneous Correspondence. 

merit in the State which would demoralize the agri- 
cultural labor from the seaboard to the mountains. 
You have lived long enough at the South, Governor, 
to learn something of the negro character, and how 
easily they are drawn from their daily pursuits by 
circus exhibitions and military parades. The forma- 
tion of a few negro regiments at this time, would not 
only have the most disastrous effects upon the agri- 
cultural laborers (both white and black) of the State, 
but would unquestionably lead to a war of races. 

The merchants and factors of Charleston are strain- 
ing every nerve to aid the planters, and they have 
been gratified to learn that the negroes throughout 
the State were working with unusual energy, and 
were much better pleased with their prospects than 
at any time since the termination of the war. You 
have, Governor, seen enough of war to fully appre- 
ciate the value of peace. A few years of peace will 
restore the old Palmetto State to her former pros- 
perity ; but a war of races will prove ruinous to the 
interests of both white and black, and reduce the 
State to anarchy and ruin. I trust you will tele- 
graph me to contradict the statement made in the 
" Daily News." You cannot well imagine the deep 
feeling and apprehension of trouble the article has 
excited among the sober and well-disposed men of 
this community. 

I have the honor to remain, 

Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) GEO. W. WILLIAMS. 

To Governor R. K. Scott, Columbia, S. C. 



Miscellaneous Correspondence. 4 1 1 

To this the following reply was transmitted by tele- 
graph : 

Columbia, April 4, 1869. 
Geo. W. Williams, Esq. : Say to well-disposed busi- 
ness men of Charleston, that they should have seen 
heretofore enough of such blood and thunder fulmi- 
nations as the one you forward me, clipped from the 
" News," to have justified them in treating the authors 
with contempt, and the article with indifference. I 
will reply to you by mail. 

ROBERT K. SCOTT, 

Governor. 



NACOOCHEE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS. 



LETTER ONE. 



NACOOCHEE AND ITS SURROUNDINGS. 



Home again ! Yes, after long years of desolating 
war, I find myself once more at my old home in the 
mountains of Georgia, in the sweet vale of Nacoochee, 

" Where the zephyrs perfume as from the spice islands, 
Mount up from the valley to welcome the morn, 
Where the gale robs the zephyrs to gladden the highlands, 
With sweetness that e'en to proud Yonah is borne. 

"Tis a valley of peace, rich in every soft feature, 
In sunshine or shade, in its own verdant green, 

'Tis Georgia's Egeria, most lovely by nature 

Carved out of a chaos of wild mountain scene." 

In my ramble of twenty thousand miles, I have 
found no country to me more lovely than Nacoochee 
and its surroundings. Not even the tropical valleys 
of the West Indies, with their majestic palms, fragrant 
flowers and fruits; nor Italy, with its vine-clad hills 
and groves of olives and oranges ; nor Switzerland, 
with its silvery lakes, fertile valleys, mountain gorges 
and snow-capped Alps. The name of the sweet Indian 



NacoocJiee and its Surroundings. 4 1 3 

word Nacoochee is " Evening Star." The name was 
applied to a beautiful daughter of a Cherokee Chief. 

Through the charming valley of Nacoochee, the 
picturesque Chattahoochee winds its way. Broad 
fields of Indian corn, and flowering meadow lands 
skirt its banks. Not even a thirty years exile from 
this mountain home lessens the throbbing of my heart 
as I return to it ; and the return to Nacoochee, at this 
time, is made doubly interesting, as I brought with 
me two sisters who had been absent nearly a score of 
years. That white house peeping out of the grove, 
(now the residence of my youngest sister,) is the home 
in which my parents, of precious memory, lived and 
died. The grand old oaks which have withstood the 
storms of a century — the trees under which we in child- 
hood frolicked, are still green, and annually send forth 
their autumn fruit. The little Lombardy poplars plant- 
ed by our tiny hands have grown to be lofty trees. The 
modest Methodist Church near by, is where Andrew 
and Olin thundered forth their youthful eloquence, and 
where Richardson, Askew, Glenn, and other sainted 
ministers, preached in the prime of their manhood. 

And there, too, is the mound on which I made my 
first adventure in agriculture. It was the custom of 
my father, as a means of encouraging his sons to 
habits of industry, to give to each a small portion of 
land, the products of which they claimed as their 
own. My broad acre begun at the foot and ended at 
the summit of the Indian mound. It was too steep 
and rugged to be cultivated by the plough. I had to 
rely entirely upon the hoe. 



414 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

Having pitched my crop, the tender plants sprang 
forth from the rich soil, and my hopes ran high at the 
prospect of a bountiful yield. Alas ! for human hopes 
and expectations, the scorching suns of July came, 
but not a drop of rain. While my father's well cul- 
tivated fields of corn in the moist valley below were 
fresh and luxuriant, mine on the mound began to wilt 
and droop. The prospect of becoming a bankrupt 
farmer daily became more threatening. As I stood 
gazing on my blighted prospects, and thinking what 
should be done, my eye fell upon the beautiful Chat- 
tahoochee, which makes nearly a circuit around the 
mound. At the sight of this mountain stream hope 
revived. I saw that success was now within my 
grasp. No time was lost in applying to each thirsty 
hill of corn the refreshing water, which was brought 
in a bucket from the Chattahoochee by the light of 
the moon. This patient and unwearied application of 
water at a time when rain failed to fall from the clouds, 
saved my crop and made my fortune of ten dollars ! 

To this circumstance, though apparently trivial in 
itself, I attribute much of my success in after life. This 
small capital often dollars was what I had to begin life 
with, after a walk of one hundred and fifty miles from 
Nacoochee to Augusta, Ga., at which city I arrived in 
1838. In the rough path of commerce, over which I 
have traveled many long years, I have encountered 
scorching drouths, financial panics, desolating wars and 
steep mounds, covered with thorns and thistles. 

At times, I felt that the burdens and difficulties I 
had to overcome were greater than I could bear, and 



Nacoochcc and its Surroundings. 415 

often was tempted to falter by the way ; but in these 
trials I always remembered the small farm on the 
Nacoochee mound, and the lesson it taught me — 
which was to have faith and a general reliance in 
Providence, but never to fail in using all the means a 
merciful God had placed within my reach. I have 
learned from hard-earned experience that success 
means toil, energy, watchfulness, order, justice, so- 
briety and economy. In this day men are not fed 
by ravens, but are commanded to earn their bread by 
the sweat of the brow — a commandment some people 
find very hard to obey. 

G. W. W. 
Nacoochee Valley, August, 1869. 



LETTER TWO. 



Nacoochee Valley, Ga., August, 1869. 
Seventy years ago, my father, Major Edward Wil- 
liams, was a resident of Charleston, S. C. An attack 
of " stranger's fever " and small-pox led him to seek 
a home in a more salubrious climate. This he found 
in the mountains of North Carolina, where he also 
found a sprightly mountain girl, the daughter of a 
successful merchant, whom he married. His home 
was filled in a few years with half a score of boys and 
girls. These new responsibilities made it necessary 
that he should have cheap and productive land, on 
which to make bread to feed them. 



4 1 6 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

When my father visited this portion of Georgia, 
then almost a wilderness country, it was settled mainly 
by Indians ; scattered here and there were a few 
whites, in civilization not much in advance of the sav- 
ages ; only their superiors in cunning and knavery. 
My father was so much pleased with the rich lands, 
pure air and water, and magnificent mountain scenery, 
that he made an extensive purchase, embracing the 
centre of Nacoochee Valley. A portion of this pur- 
chase was to be paid for in corn and wheat. This 
was easily done, as the farms were rented to industri- 
ous tenants, whom he brought with him from North 
Carolina. As the Valley was very productive, three 
years' rent was sufficient to discharge the debt. The 
land which sold at that time for one dollar per acre, 
now commands from twenty to thirty. 

At one time Nacoochee was the largest town in the 
Cherokee Nation, and was strongly defended by forti- 
fications. 

Along the lines of these fortifications, mounds were 
raised, on which Indian chiefs securely resided in 
their mud-thatched palaces. By whom raised, tradi- 
tion fails to say. Such labors were clearly beyond 
the capacity of the red men, who possessed none of 
the necessary implements for such work. It is believed 
that the daring Spaniards visited this country as early 
as the twelfth century in search of gold and diamonds, 
and were permitted to erect the fortifications of " Na- 
coochee Old Town." But when the savage curiosity 
was satisfied, the Spaniards were exterminated. But 
all these traditions are not only problematical, but 



NacoocJice and its Surroundings. 417 

some of them are in conflict with known facts of his- 
tory. It would be better to say Europeans than 
Spaniards. 

What a change ! Not a vestige of that ancient 
town remains ; the Indians who possessed this beau- 
tiful country have been driven from their cherished 
hunting grounds to the far West. The once strong 
walls of Nacoochee are levelled to the ground, and 
the mounds, which cost so much toil and labor, are 
sharing the same fate. No proud monument stands 
to point out the resting place of the old chiefs and 
their brave warriors. 

The lofty pine which withstood the pelting storms 
of centuries, the tree that marks the grave of Nacoo- 
chee and bore aloft the Confederate flag during the 
late bloody war, died with our lost cause. It is now 
a blighted tree — fit emblem of the temptest-tost Con- 
federacy. 

The white man, as he drives his plough merily over 
the bones of his red brother, thinks that he came hon- 
estly in the possession of these broad acres. If any 
wrong was committed, has it not been amply atoned 
for by the introduction among the savages of pure 
New England rum and pious missionaries ? The 
dreadful work of extermination which was com- 
menced by the Pilgrim Fathers centuries ago ; an 
extermination which has been unceasingly kept up 
in the name of Christianity ! is fast blotting from the 
earth a great family of populous nations. At the 
last day, when Gabriel sounds his trumpet to awake 
the slumbering dead, and the great book is opened, 
53 



41 8 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

nations and governments, as well as individuals, will 
call upon the mountains to fall upon them, that they 
and their sins may be hidden from the Judge that sit- 
teth on the Throne. 

Tradition has it, that Nacoochee, the " Evening 
Star," was the only daughter of a noted Cherokee 
chief. She possessed remarkable beauty and grace 
of manners. This lovely maid of the valley was 
wooed by many a gallant youth, but unfortunately 
was won by a brave young warrior of the Choctaw 
Nation, a people at that time bitter enemies of the 
Cherokees, and frequently engaged in fierce warfare 
with them. 

One dark night, Nacoochee disappeared from her 
vine-clad wigwam ; she had eloped with Sautee, son 
of a Choctaw chief. The father of Nacoochee sum- 
moned a hundred stout warriors to go in pursuit of 
his erring daughter. The valleys and mountains 
echoed the terrific war-whoop, as they were search- 
ing every hill and dale. 

Days and nights passed, but Sautee and the bright- 
eyed Indian girl could nowhere be found. 

The enraged father refused to eat or sleep. He 
believed that the lovers had sought refuge under the 
Great Bear (Yonah) of the Valley. Renewed and 
more diligent search was made. Sautee had selected. 
a bridal chamber for his young princess (which was 
amply supplied with venison and wild turkey,) amid 
the rocky fastnesses of Mount Yonah. He regarded 
the rugged cliffs rising in their native grandeur 
around him as secure from the intrusion of friend or 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 419 

foe. Nacoochee's new home must have been a second 
Eden. Before her stood out a world of mountains, 
rising one above another until their lofty peaks were 
lost in the blue sky, while at her feet nestled the 
lovely valleys of Nacochee and Sautee, covered with 
fragrant forest flowering trees, and brilliant rhododen- 
drons and azaleas. From the crevices in her granite 
palace gushed forth pure, perennial streams, which 
are joined by a thousand mountain springs that con- 
stitute the head-waters of the picturesque Chatta- 
hoochee River, and which like the rivers that run 
out of the Garden of Eden abound in gold. 

The cries of the wolf and nighthawk disturbed not 
the slumbers of the youthful lovers. But Nacoochee 
and Sautee could no more successfully conceal them- 
selves from the revengful warriors, than could Adam 
and Eve hide from the presence of the Father of the 
great human family, after having listened to the beguil- 
ing serpent and eaten of the forbidden fruit. A savage 
shout of victory announced the capture of the foe, 
who had dared rob the old chief of his daughter. Hasty 
judgment was pronounced — Sautee was to be thrown, 
in the presence of Nacoochee, from the highest preci- 
pice of Mount Yonah. Before the sentence was exe- 
cuted, the warriors engaged in a death song and war- 
dance around the strongly guarded prisoner. This 
was kept up until the setting sun had dropped behind 
the western mountains, and the evening star was 
looking down upon the tragic scene. 

At a signal from the old chief, four strong warriors 
seized Sautee, and with one terrific yell hurled him 



42 O Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

headlong int» the deep chasm beneath. Quick as 
thought, Nacoochee sprang from the strong embrace 
of her father, and, shouting " Sautee ! Sautee ! " 
threw herself from the overhanging precipice. Their 
mangled remains were found side by side in the valley. 
The terrific shock well-nigh broke the heart of the 
aged father. He directed that Nacoochee and Sautee 
should be buried on the banks of the Chattahoochee 
in one grave, and a mound raised over them to mark 
the spot. This has been planted in vines and blue 
grass. The cypress, ivy and rhododendron, cover the 
grave of Nacoochee and Sautee. 

The Valleys of Nacoochee and Sautee, which unite 
just below the residence of Colonel E. P. Williams, 
were named to perpetuate the memories of the young 
Cherokee girl and her Choctaw lover. 

G. W. W. 



LETTER THREE 



Nacoochee Valley, Ga., August, 1869. 

The discovery of gold here in 1828, was an epoch 
in the history of this quiet mountain people. 

Those who owned forty acre lots dreamed of golden 
fortunes, very few of which were ever realized. The 
excitement was greatly increased by the discovery of 
a lump of gold in a neighboring State weighing 
twenty-eight pounds. It is not an uncommon occur- 
rence here to find pieces weighing from one to three 
pounds. 

People flocked to this new El Dorado from all sec- 
tions of the country. Even the great Calhoun did 
not escape the prevailing epidemic. Your corres- 
pondent, then a small boy, knew every by-path 
through the mountains ; and to him was assigned the 
honor of piloting the Carolina statesman to Yonah, 
the mines, and other places of interest. It was the 
year the " abominable " Tariff Act was passed, and 
about the time Mr. Calhoun resigned his position as 
Vice-President under the hero of New Orleans. 

Mr. Calhoun was at Nacoochee when the news was 
received that South Carolina had " nullified." I shall 
never forget how much he was excited. He would 
walk the floor for hours in the deepest meditation, 
frequently passing his long fingers nervously through 
his hair, which stood almost erect on his head. The 



422 Nacoochee and its Surroundings . 

great mind of Calhoun penetrated the future ; he saw 
that the political events which were then transpiring 
North and South, would result either in a dissolution 
of the Federal Union, or a desolating civil war. Mr. 
Calhoun seemed to dread the one as much as the 
other. While he regarded many acts of Congress as 
odious, unjust and oppressive to the South, yet he 
was not at that time in favor of a dissolution of the 
Union ; he stood firmly upon the Constitution handed 
down to us by our forefathers. 

The political fever, however, had not taken so entire 
possession of the great Carolina statesman as that he 
should escape the gold mania ; he had studied politi- 
cal economy enough to know that gold was the only 
true representative of all values, and the great leveller 
of social distinctions. 

It was the custom of the miners and speculators 
who had " deposits " or " veins " for sale to prepare 
them for " testing." My father warned Mr. Calhoun 
against the slight-of-hand which was practiced by 
many of these Wall street adventurers ; but the man 
who was wondrously wise in politics and books, heeded 
not the advice, and was a child in the clutches of the 
rude miners. 

To be certain that there was no deception, Mr. Cal- 
houn would select a piece of ground untouched by 
the spade, stand by and see the small trees removed, 
then the earth, until the gravel and slate were reached, 
which was washed before our eyes. If, unluckily, 
they did not succeed in finding gold, not a few were 
unscrupulous enough to have it concealed about their 



NacoocJicc and its Surroundings. 423 

persons, which was by the slight-of-hand transferred 
into the pan. This was what was called " salting," 
and there were not a few victims to this mode of 
" cornering." Mr. Calhoun paid ten thousand dollars 
for a mine not worth as many hundred ; he, however, 
purchased a vein of ore which proved to be of im- 
mense value. The gold was embedded in a stratum 
of rocks, and there could be no deception practiced 
in such mines. Since that day, there have been great 
improvements in working the mines. The old boxes 
and log troughs have given place to the hydraulic 
process, and all the latest improvements in machinery 
have been introduced. 

The Nacoochee Hydraulic Mining Company was 
established just before the late war, mainly by enter- 
prising New Englanders. 

The water is carried in a canal twelve miles in 
length, which cost some forty thousand dollars. 

The canal has its source in the Blue Ridge, and is 
carried on the side of the mountain. With its 
branches, which spread out on the ridges, thou- 
sands of acres of land can be irrigated and washed. 
Deposits and veins of gold extend the entire length 
of the canal and its branches. 

The Nacoochee Company own and have under 
lease, eight hundred acres of the best mining ground 
in Georgia. 

It is surprising to see with what force the water 
passes through the pipes, washing down the hills 
almost as easily as if they were so many banks of 
snow. Few persons fully comprehend the power 



424 Nacooclice and its Surroundings. 

and force of water. Such streams as pass through 
the Nacoochee Canal, if allowed to flow down the 
side of the loftiest mountain unobstructed by rocks, 
would in a short time level it with the valley. A 
friend of mine, who had charge of one of the aque- 
ducts, came near being buried alive. An old tunnel, 
which had been dug many years ago, was penetrated 
by water from the canal, which had been gradually 
undermining the mountain for days. My friend 
heard an unusual roaring, and saw the forest trees 
near him begin to shake and the earth to quiver ; 
then followed a loud crash. The trees and ground 
were swallowed in an immense chasm ; he had just 
left the spot that disappeared forever. 

When and how the rich deposits and gold-bearing 
rocks were formed is a mooted question between 
learned geologists who have given much attention to 
this interesting branch of science. Dr. M. F. Steph- 
enson, one of the most experienced miners in the 
South, and a gentleman of more than ordinary intel- 
ligence, in a recent communication upon the subject 
of " segregated gold veins," writes : 

" When the Yonah Mountain and Blue Ridge for 
nine hundred miles were elevated the true veins 
were formed, which made the placers or deposits at 
Richardson's mine, at Nacoochee, and on the moun- 
tain near Dean's Cabin. All of which veins are and 
will be found to traverse or cross the strata, proving 
that they were made after the stratified rocks were 
hardened, and by their upheaval were fissured, and 
those fissures were filled with silica, gold, iron, etc., 



NacoocJiee and its Surroundings. 425 

which, upon coating, formed the fissure veins, some 
of which have been found; and those at Nacoochee 
will be found whenever the company abandons the 
absurd theory of Professor Blake, and adopts the 
only rational one of recent volcanic action ; for it is 
an axiom that massive gold is never found in a 
' segregated vein ' nor smooth nuggets. Why ? 
Because the gold by segregation in silica becomes 
ragged and rough, when that from volcanic veins with 
oxide of iron cools off in a matrix, which leaves it 
smooth as if water-worn. These are facts which are 
predicated on the immutable laws of chemistry and 
God, and cannot be successfully contradicted. The 
vein which formed by decomposition the Richardson 
mine — the McGhee mine, where the company are 
now finding large nuggets — was formed when Yonah 
Mountain was upheaved, and is a cross vein, or what 
is technically called a true or fissure vein, and runs 
from Richardson's house to the Dean hill on the 
McGhee lot, in a northwesterly direction ; this is 
proved by the ravines, which all yield similar nuggets 
when they cross this line of vein, and also by the 
volcanic rock which intrudes — all proves a fissure to 
exist, and when found, like the Loud mine, will 
prove to be worth millions, for fissure veins always 
improve in size and quality." 

There is more gold in " Nacoochee and its Sur- 
roundings " than there is in the vaults of all the 
banks in the United States. How much it will cost 
to remove it from the present snug deposits remains 
to be seen. The expense of mining, since the intro- 
54 



426 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

duction of improved machinery, is greatly reduced; 
with the use of canals and pipes one man can do the 
work of a dozen under the old process. The result 
is that mines are now worked at a profit, which were 
abandoned years ago. I see no reason why fortunes 
should not be realized by those who are engaged in 
mining under the California system. The best valley 
land here, commands fifty dollars per acre ; the pro- 
prietors sell with great reluctance, as they do not know 
but that, in parting with a ten acre lot, they may sell 
a gold mine worth a hundred thousand dollars. 

I have a nugget of gold weighing five-eights of a 
pound, which was picked up recently by my brother, 
Colonel E. P. Williams, in a field near his residence. 
This gold had been ploughed over for many years, 
and was brought to light by a hard washing rain. 
You can scarcely sink a pit in these hills and valleys 
without finding particles of gold. When a little boy, 
I got the gold fever up to one hundred degrees Fah- 
renheit, and prevailed on my father to embark in 
mining. To my great delight, he promised to begin 
operations the next morning. That night visions of 
gold dazzled my wakeful eyes. I was impatient for 
the coming of morning. At the break of day, I was 
with my father in the barn yard — he ordered me to 
put the plough-harness upon " Old Dick," a favorite 
horse he brought from North Carolina. 

In a short time Dick was harnessed, and I was 
directed to hitch him to the plough ! I thought this 
a new mode of " digging gold," but as my father's 
orders were never questioned, I silently obeyed. 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 427 

My father selected a broad corn field on which to 
initiate me in the mysteries of mining. Carrying me 
to the field, he said : " Now George, you see the corn; 
plough four furrows carefully between each row. 
This field is a sure gold mine — one that has never 
failed me. We will make corn to sell to those men 
who spend all their time hunting for gold." I fol- 
lowed "Old Dick" and my father's orders to the 
letter. When the hard day's work was over, I took for 
supper rye mush and milk. That night I was too 
tired and too little fanciful to dream ; by morning the 
gold fever was so effectually cured, I have never had 
a return of it. 

September, 1869. G. W. W. 



LETTER FOUR 



" Child of the Chattahoochee ! 

Hid in the hills afar ! 
Beautiful Nacoochee, 

Vale of the Evening Star ! 

" Hushed in the mountain shadows, 
With the May dew on her breast ; 

Her breath, is the breath of meadows, 
And her very name sighs ' rest !' 

" The voice of a loved one calling, 
The feet that have wandered far ; 

Come, for the night is falling ! 
Rest! with the Evening Star." 



428 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

Once more I find myself in the bosom of this 
" Child of the Chattahoochee," and after the cares, 
toils and perplexities of a winter's business campaign, 
my quiet mountain home is indeed to me, Rest. 

To be comfortable here, one must come with bag 
and baggage, carriage and horses, cook and supplies. 
The travel of two hundred and fifty miles by rail, and 
seventy miles over rough roads, sharpens the appetite, 
if it does not improve the temper. But what will not 
a man or woman endure for a change? Human 
nature is the same now, that it was when Adam and 
Eve grew tired of looking at the same perpetual 
blooming flowers in their Eden. Beautiful, plentiful 
and peaceful as was their home, they were not satis- 
fied. They were doubtless both happier when driven 
from Paradise, even with the heavy penalties placed 
upon them, than they would have been wandering 
about for ages, looking upon the same objects, with 
that tree of forbidden fruit ever and anon in their 
pathway ; not that the quality was superior to that 
which grew on all the other trees, but it was "forbid- 
den fruit," and, therefore, the more to be desired- 
Nature, too, is ever changing ; spring comes with its 
buds and flowers, summer with its full verdure, and 
autumn with its ripe fruit and sear leaf, and then 
dreary winter with its chilling frosts and ice, but these 
changes of seasons, fields and forests, are necessary 
both for health and happiness. This is peculiarly an 
age of change. Even the child quits its garden of 
flowers, and luxuriant city home for the rude and 
almost comfortless mountain cabin, with an enthu- 



Nacooclice and its Surroundings. /^2g 

siasm that is refreshing to witness ; and children of 
a larger growth, from custom and habit do the same 
thing. 

I am convinced that the young are benefited, men- 
tally and physically, by a change from the city to the 
country. The most conceited are those who are 
brought up from childhood to manhood within the 
walls of a populous city. They know next to nothing 
of the country, its people, or its products, and look 
upon the outside world as only removed a few steps 
from barbarism. 

Not many days since a party left Charleston on the 
night train for Augusta. Children predominated, and 
they were so overjoyed at the idea of getting to the 
country, they would neither sleep themselves, nor 
permit their neighbors to sleep. 

A gentlemen said to his good wife, " my dear, where 
did these children get their restless, nervous temper- 
ament, and red heads from. I am sure I am not very 
nervous, neither is my head particularly red?" She 
replied, " Oh no, not red, but slightly flesh-color, 
especially on the crown." Something was said by 
way of retort about gray hairs, but the children kept 
up such a noise it was difficult to hear. 

The heavy rains for the past month have well nigh 
made a frog-pond of the flat country lying on the line 
of railway. The myriads of frogs kept up a per- 
petual croaking, such as can only be heard in a Caro- 
lina swamp. 

The children were amused at the almost constant 
" quack, quack, quacking," with an occasional " foo- 
dle-de-doe." A little three year old girl inquired of 



430 Nacoocliee and its Surroundings. 

her brother frequently what it was that made such 
strange noises, and was told it was " bull-frogs." By 
morning, her curiosity to see a bull-frog was up to 
fever-heat. About daylight a number of half fed pigs 
were startled by the whistle of the engine. Little 
Mattie saw them, and said, " Oh Buddie George, look 
at the bull-frogs ! do look at the bull-frogs ! I never 
saw a bull-frog before in all my life." At the next 
depot a herd of goats made their appearence, and 
Mattie wanted to know if they also were bull-frogs, 
being informed they were "billy-goats," "billy-goats, 
with wickers like papa's," was her innocent reply. 
Near by was a flock of sheep, these were as new to 
Mattie as the pigs and goats. Being told they were 
sheep, " Oh pretty &7/j/-sheep," said she. Now if 
little Mattie had remained in the city until she was 
ten times three, her knowledge of pigs and goats 
would not have improved much. 

It does children good to go into the country and 
rough it, and learn about pigs, goats and the like ; 
and if they get their dainty fingers soiled and delicate 
complexions sunburnt, and now and then come in 
contact with " rough country people," it won't injure 
them, morally, mentally, or physically. On the con- 
trary their constitutions will be strengthened, and 
their wits sharpened. They can learn quite as much 
from the " country cracker," as the country child 
can from the city bonne, who does not know the 
difference between a frog and a pig. 

We reached Madison, Saturday evening, and spent 
a quiet Sabbath with the loved ones there. Madison 
is the old home of Mrs. W., and of course, is very 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 431 

dear to her. It is surrounded by a beautiful and 
fertile country, and is attracting the attention of the 
irrepressible Yankee, many of whom have purchased 
extensive tracts of land, and are making capital farmers 
and good citizens. Would that these thrifty people 
were scattered from the sea-board to the mountain 
top. The country would not then be as it now is, 
threatened with famine. So long as our planters have 
cotton on the brain, and raise it to the exclusion of 
food, we may expect to look abroad for nearly every- 
thing we eat, drink and wear. 

I brought with me, from Charleston, a large pair of 
mules, to use in the mountains. Their size and con- 
dition attracted the attention of a farmer on the road 
side, and he said, " Mister, where did that stock come 
from?" I replied, "they are Piatt's dray colts from 
Charleston." "And what do you feed them on?" 
" Taylor's Carolina Fertilizer." His characteristic 
comment was, "by jingoes, I must have a few tons 
for my cotton." There it is again, cotton, cotton — 
poor mules, no corn, no bacon. 

We spent a night in the pleasant and growing town 
of Athens. I looked upon old Wall street with more 
than ordinary interest, as thirty years ago I was a 
merchant in embryo of Athens. In Wall street 
however, we did not deal in fancy stocks, but drove 
an honest trade in exchanging sugar and molasses, 
for eggs, chickens and butter ! What toils and strug- 
gles some of us have undergone since that day, and 
what a blessing it is that we are .permitted to take 
only a retrospective view of life. If I had been per- 



432 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

mitted thirty years ago to know what was necessary 
to secure even moderate success, or could have had 
the'- labors, trials and cares of those thirty years 
heaped up before me, I am quite sure I should not 
have ventured over that rugged commercial mountain, 
but would have returned to my quiet Nacoochee 
home and been content with the occupation of an 
honest farmer. 

Life is but a struggle at best ; but when we reach 
our journey's end, whether that journey has been 
rough or smooth, if we can look back on a life well 
spent, it matters not whether we count our wealth by 
the millions or hundreds. We bring but little into 
this world, and carry less with us when we leave it. 
After all, the man who is diligent, whatever his voca- 
tion may be, is far happier than he who spends his 
time in ease and indolence. " Six days shalt thou 
labor," is one of the immutable laws of the Great 
Teacher, and he who attempts to evade it pays the 
penalty. If you desire wealth, or the comforts of 
life, begin to save when you are young. If your in- 
come is ever so small, strive to lay up a little every 
year. By this course you will secure an indepen- 
dence and a comfortable home. 

When I resided in Athens, the town boasted of 
only a few retail stores ; now they have large blocks 
of substantial brick buildings that would do credit to 
Charleston or Savannah. 

Mrs. W.'s assistant housekeeper was buying a few 
articles for our mountain home, assisted by our 
Charleston cook, who had been accustomed to stoves 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 433 

and Philadelphia coal. He said, " Miss Mattie, please 
mam, git a shovel to put coal on de stove !" When 
Sempy arrived in the valley, he was nonplussed to 
find that we had neither stove, kitchen nor coal. My 
energetic nephew had a kitchen put up in about a 
day, and Sempy gets his " coal " from the dense for- 
est which surrounds us. Our mansion is a very 
modest affair; but as I have gone to work in earnest, 
there is a reasonable prospect that, one of these days, 
we shall be comfortable. 

Nature has done her work here with a lavish hand — 
I now propose to see what art can do. We have 
already conveyed through pipes the gushing cold 
stream from Lynch's Mountain, and have a perpetual 
fountain sounding in our ears day and night. The 
stream of water can be carried through the house, 
and although brought a considerable distance, is as 
cold as it is comfortable to drink. 

The butter, when taken from the spring house, is as 
firm as if packed on ice. 

In my next I propose to tell you of three remarka- 
ble events, happening almost simultaneously in " Na- 
coochee and its surroundings," viz : The arrival of a 
circus, a live Bishop, and last though not least, the 
fall of a water spout. 

Ever yours, 

G. W. W. 

Nacoochee Valley, June, 1870. 



55 



LETTER FIVE 



Nearly half a century ago my father, Major Ed- 
ward Williams, visited upper Georgia, in search of 
rich lands, good water, pure air and fine mountain 
scenery. All these he found in this valley, which 
was carved by an inland sea out of the wildest moun- 
tain scene. 

At that early day few whites had ventured into 
these dense forests of Indian hunting grounds. Na- 
coochee Valley was at that period pretty much in its 
primitive state ; cane-brakes, rhododendrons, azalias 
and kalmias grew in their native luxuriance. 

The red man was monarch of these fertile valleys 
and lofty mountains. 

Nacoochee was the chief town of the Cherokee na- 
tion, and at one time it was the centre of ancient 
civilization ; here the Cherokees or some other war- 
like race had surrounded themselves with strong 
walls and long lines of fortifications extending through 
the valley to the natural fortifications, the mountains ; 
with here and there huge mounds thrown up and the 
tops of high hills levelled to strengthen their military 
defences, the earth being so arranged as to make the 
approach of the foe who dared enter their territory 
both dangerous and difficult. It required only a 
small force of brave warriors to defend their beautiful 
homes against an attack of the enemy. When or by 



NacoocJiee mid its Surroundings. 435 

whom these mounds, terraces, and military works 
were constructed, has been, and perhaps will ever re- 
main, a mystery. 

It is very certain that this region was settled by a 
race in civilization far in advance of the Cherokees, as 
they were unable to give any account, even by tradi- 
tion, of the numerous fortifications and tumuli which 
were found here. 

The strongest fortifications lie between the Chatta- 
hoochee and Sautee, in the eastern portion of the val- 
ley, not far from the point where Sautee enters the 
Chattahoochee. 

As a means of defence, the situation was well 
chosen. The adjacent heights are naturally so formed 
and disposed, as, with but little expense of military 
architecture, to be rendered almost impregnable. 
Many Indian relics have been found here. In 1834, 
the miners, while searching for gold, disinterred a 
subterranean village, numbering some forty houses, 
which had been buried, judging from the forest trees 
which covered the city of the dead, a century or 
more. 

The logs were hewn and notched as at the present 
day ; warlike instruments were found in the buildings. 

A discovery was recently made in Nacoochee Val- 
ley, on the farm of Captain Nichols, that interested 
me very much, and which must interest every lover 
of antiquity. A ploughshare struck a hard substance 
near the base of an Indian mound ; the ploughman, 
while attempting to remove it, ascertained that it 
formed a portion of a regularly walled sepulchre, the 



436 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

bottom being paved with stones. The tomb con- 
tained many skeletons ; in one of the recesses was 
found that of a giant, or of a man much larger than 
the present race of Indians. 

In the sepulchre were also immense conch shells, 
pipes, tomahawks, and many curious pieces of work- 
manship ; but the most remarkable relic was a piece 
of inwrought copper. 

As the natives were ignorant of the art of working 
in copper, the question naturally arises at what period 
these huge men, skilled in art, lived. The tomb itself 
showed that the builders understood the use of tools. 

I am now tunnelling the mound near my residence, 
on which the beautiful Indian girl, " Nacoochee," and 
her lover, Sautee, were buried. The mound is situated 
on the Sautee, near its junction with the Chattahoo- 
chee. 

In the grave was found a pipe of peace, with stems 
to enable seven chiefs, after they had ended their 
butcheries, to assemble around the council chamber 
and smoke out of the same bowl. Would that our 
Christian chiefs had occupied a portion of their 
time in smoking the pipe of peace, instead of deso- 
lating our country in a horrid civil war. 

A solitary pine marks the grave of the Queen of 
the Valley, and her lover, Sautee, the gallant Choctaw 
Chief. A substantial observatory ornaments the tragi- 
cal tomb. From it you have a fine view of the Valley 
of Nacoochee and Sautee, proud old Yonah, the Blue 
Ridge and Trail Mountains, the latter being the king 
of the Allep;hanies. 



Nacoochce and its Surroundings. 437 

At many points in the valley are monuments de- 
noting the power and industry of the ancient inhabi- 
tants of this country and the work of a nation whose 
period long preceded that of the discovery of the 
Continent of America by Columbus. 

As you approach Nacoochee from Clarksville, you 
have a splendid landscape view, infinitely varied and 
almost without bound, thought by some who have 
seen much of the old and new world to be unsur- 
passed, both for its beauty, softness and sublimity. 

Before you nestles in quiet repose Nacoochee, the 
" Child of the Chattahoochee." For nearly five miles 
over a rich level plain, bordered by the finest forests 
in America, you see, without an intervening object to 
obstruct the view, broad, luxuriant fields of Indian 
corn and sweet meadows. Beyond is the long range 
of the Alleghany Mountains, towering one above 
another until their dizzy peaks are hid in the skies. 
To the left is proud Yonah, and to the right Lynch's 
Mountain. Those sparkling waters that you see dash- 
ing down the sides of the Blue Ridge, are the Falls 
of Minnie Haha. (Laughing water.) 

The valleys of Nacoochee and Sautee bear strong 
evidences of having been for ages one vast lake, shut 
in by the mountains and high hills. 

Just below the junction of the Sautee with the 
Chattahoochee, the waters broke through the hills, 
draining this great lake, whose fretful waters had 
carved out of these mountains the lovely valleys of 
Nacoochee and Sautee. The lake must have been in 
length, running from East to West, some ten miles ; 
and in width, including the valley of Sautee, seven 



438 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

miles. It was irregular, as a portion of it was shut 
in by precipitous mountains to a few yards in width- 

At inconsiderable cost, Lake Nacoochee can be re- 
produced by throwing a dam across the Chattahoo- 
chee, where the waters of the lake first broke through 
the hills. It is believed by irrigating the valley it 
can be made as rich as the banks of the Nile. The 
proprietors of Nacoochee contemplate making the 
experiment. It will, at least, prevent the lands from 
washing by freshets, and cover the meadows with a 
sediment from the rich coves of the surrounding hills. 

Nature has done much, very much for Northeastern 
Georgia, but what shall I say of the poor laboring 
classes in these mountain regions ? 

It is to be regretted that they are, generally, sadly 
deficient in energy, enterprise, skill and activity. 
Many of them live in miserable huts, filled with 
ragged, half-fed children, without the means of edu- 
cation. 

I am now speaking of the poorer classes, who live 
on rented lands. Of course, there are to be found 
here men and women of intelligence, of energy and 
refinement. Much, very much, can be done for the 
bone and sinew of the country ; they are not afraid 
to work, if they only knew how to go about it. We 
already have nearly a hundred men, boys and girls 
employed ; and I say to those who are willing to 
work, that we will give them employment ; but I have 
not room for a drone in my Nacoochee hive. 

A few days since I was engaged in trimming trees 
by the road side. My appearance did not indicate 
that of a city gentleman of " elegant leisure." 



Nacoochee and its Surroiindings. 439 

Some stock drovers were passing through the 
valley. One of them enquired of me if " Mr. 
George Williams lived in that house on the hill." 
And also wanted to know if I was acquainted with 
him. 

On hearing that I was in " Mr. W's. employ," he 
wanted to know what wages I received. I informed 
him that I had lived with Mr. Williams from my 
earliest recollection, and further, that he worked me 
very hard, and only gave me my food and clothes. The 
man cast upon me a look of pity, and said in an 
indignant manner, " George Williams works you hard, 
and only gives you your board and clothes ? A 
stingy old wretch ; I wouldn't live with him another 
day ! " Cracking his whip, he screamed at his cattle 
louder than ever, leaving me to reflect upon my sad 
fate in having such a hard master. I came to the 
conclusion, as my pay was so small and my term of 
service was for life, I would not in the future work so 
hard. 

I do not know when I have been more occupied 
than during the present summer, while superintending 
the untutored labor I find here. 

But hard as I have worked from my youth up, yet, 
I have been far happier than if I had spent a life of 
ease and indolence. 

Solomon, the wise man, says : " Whatsoever thy 
hand findeth to do, do it with all thy might." 

I am glad to say that among all the laborers, I have 
not seen a man under the influence of liquor. This 
speaks well for these honest-hearted people. 



44-0 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

Wages are low here and living high. Men get 
seventy-five cents per day ; women, fifty cents ; boys 
and girls, twenty-five cents, and board themselves. 
They come into Nacoochee from ten to twenty miles 
around seeking employment. Miss J., of Charleston, 
will be here in a few days to open the " Nacoochee 
Seminary." Free schools must be established for the 
poor children. We greatly need railroad facilities 
and manufactories. There is not a cotton factory 
from Athens to the Blue Ridge. These when built 
will put new life and energy into the " Rip Van 
Winkles." 

One mail a week, won't do for a civilized people. I 
have no doubt in a few years we shall hear the whistle 
of the steam horse near my mountain home. The 
Air Line from Atlanta will soon reach Gainesville, 
thirty miles distant. 

Since Nacoochee .was a little innocent girl play- 
ing in the infant waters of the Chattahoochee, not 
a Bishop had visited this portion of Georgia. No 
wonder, then, that this quiet people was startled when 
it was announced, almost simultaneously, that there 
was to be exhibited in this region, a circus and a live 
Bishop. A few of the oldest inhabitants had seen in 
Nacoochee a circus, but none had looked upon a 
Methodist Bishop. 

I did intend giving an account of their arrival and 
mishaps ; but I fear I have already tried your patience 
and that of your readers. 

For weeks little else was talked of, or dreamed of, 
but the Bishop and circus. 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 441 

A little girl said to her mother, " Mammy what is a 
Bishop?" "A big man, my child, a big man," was 
the mother's reply. " Mammy, is he as big as a 
meeting house?" 

Johnny Smith wanted to know of his papa what a 
circus was, Mr. Smith piously informed his son that 
it was the " devil on horseback, wolves in petticoats." 

Johnny preferred seeing the " big man." 

More anon, G. W. W. 

Nacoochee Valley, August, 1870. 



LETTE'R SIX 



One of the greatest works of Nature in sight of 
Nacoochee is Tray, or Trail Mountain. This moun- 
tain is peculiarly interesting to me, as it was in its 
deep forests that my father, at the advanced age of 
three score and ten, established a cheese dairy. This 
mountain and dairy is so cleverly described by Charles 
Lanman, Esq., in one of his " Letters from the Alle- 
ghany's," that I append it. 

G. W. W. 

Nacoochee, September, 1870. 



Trail Mountain, Georgia, May, 1848. 
I now write from near the summit of the highest 
mountain in Georgia. I obtained my first view of 
this peak while in the village of Clarksville, and it 
5G 



44 2 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

presented such a commanding appearance, that I re- 
solved to surmount it, on my way to the North, 
although my experience has proven that climbing 
high mountains is always more laborious than profit- 
able. I came here on the back of a mule, and my 
guide and companion on the occasion was the princi- 
pal proprietor of Nacoochee Valley, Major Edward 
Williams. While ascending the mountain, which 
occupied about seven hours, (from his residence,) the 
venerable gentleman expatiated at considerable length 
on the superb scenery to be witnessed from its sum- 
mit, and then informed me that he had just established 
a dairy on the mountain, which, it was easy to see, 
had become his hobby. He described the " ranges " 
of the mountains as affording an abundance of the 
sweetest food for cattle, and said that he had already 
sent to his dairy somewhere between fifty and eighty 
cows, and was intending soon to increase the number 
to one hundred. He told me that his dairyman was 
an excellent young man from Vermont, named Joseph 
E. Hubbard, to whom he was indebted for the original 
idea of establishing the dairy. While journeying 
through this region, the young man chanced to stop 
at the Major's house, and though they were perfect 
strangers, they conversed upon matters connected 
with farming, and soon became acquainted ; and the 
stranger having made known the fact that he knew 
how to make butter and cheese, a bargain was struck, 
which has resulted in the establishment already men- 
tioned. The Williams dairy is said to be the only 
one in the entire State of Georgia, and it is worthy of 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 443 

remark, in this connection, that Major Williams (as 
well as his dairyman) is a native of New England. 
He has been an exile from Yankee land for upwards 
of fifty years, and, though nearly seventy years of 
age, it appears that his natural spirit of enterprise re- 
mains in full vigor. 

Trail Mountain was so named by the Cherokees, 
from the fact that they once had a number of trails 
leading to the summit, to which point they were in 
the habit of ascending for the purpose of discovering 
the camp-fires of their enemies during the existence 
of hostilities. It is the king of the Blue Ridge, and 
reported to be five thousand feet above the waters of 
the surrounding country, and perhaps six thousand 
feet above the level of the ocean. A carpet of green 
grass and weeds extends to the very top, and as the 
trees are small, as well as " few and far between," the 
lover of extensive scenery has a fine opportunity of 
gratifying his taste. I witnessed a sunset from this 
great watch-tower of the South, and I know not that 
I was ever before more deeply impressed with the 
grandeur of a landscape scene. The horizon formed 
an unbroken circle, but I could distinctly see that in 
one direction alone (across South Carolina and part 
of Georgia) extended a comparatively level country, 
while the remaining three-quarters of the space 
around me appeared to be a wilderness of mountains. 
The grandest display was towards the north, and here 
it seemed to me that I could count at least twenty 
distinct ranges, fading away to the sky, until the 
more remote range melted into a monotonous line. 



444 Nacooclice and its Surroundings. 

No cities or towns came within the limit of my vision; 
no, nor even an occasional wreath of smoke, to re- 
mind me that human hearts were beating in the un- 
numbered valleys. A crimson hue covered the sky, 
but it was without a cloud to cheer the prospect, and 
the solemn shadow which rested upon the mountains 
was too deep to partake of a single hue from the 
departing sun. Grandeur and gloom, like twin spirits, 
seemed to have subdued the world, causing the pulse 
of nature to cease its accustomed throb. " At one 
stride came the dark," and, as there was no moon, 
I retreated from the peak with pleasure, and sought 
the rude cabin, where I was to spend the night. 
While doing this, the distant howl of a wolf came to 
my ear, borne upward on the quiet air from one of 
the deep ravines leading to the base of the mountain. 

As I was the guest of my friends, Williams and 
Hubbard, I wiled away the evening in their society, 
asking and answering a thousand questions. Among 
the matters touched upon in our conversation, was a 
certain mysterious " water-spout," of which I had 
heard a great deal among the people in my journey- 
ing, and which was said to have fallen upon Trail 
Mountain. I again inquired into the particulars, and 
Major Williams replied as follows : 

" This water-spout story has always been a great 
mystery to me. The circumstance occurred several 
years ago. A number of hunters were spending the 
night in the very ravine where this shanty now 
stands, when, about midnight, they heard a tre- 
mendous roaring in the air, and a large torrent of 



NacoocJicc and its Surroundings. 445 

water fell upon their camp, and swept it, with all its 
effects and inmates, about a dozen yards from the 
spot where they had planted their poles. One of 
them was severely injured on the head by the water, 
and all of them completely drenched. They were, of 
course, much alarmed at the event, and concluded 
that a spring farther up the mountain had probably 
broken away ; but when morning came, they could 
find no evidences of a spring, and everywhere above 
their camping-place the ground was perfectly dry, 
while on the lower side it was completely saturated. 
They were now perplexed to a marvellous degree, 
and returned to the lower country impressed with 
the idea that a waterspout had burst over their 
heads." 

But to return to the dairy, which is unquestionably 
the chief attraction (though far from being a romantic 
one) connected with Trail Mountain. Heretofore, a 
cheese establishment has been associated in my mind 
with broad meadow lands, spacious and well-furnished 
out-houses, and a convenient market. But here we 
have a dairy on the top of a mountain, distant from 
the first farm-house some seven miles, and inacces- 
sible by any conveyance but that of a mule or well- 
trained horse. The bells of more than half a hundred 
cows are echoing along the mountain side ; and, 
instead of clover, they are feeding upon the luxuriant 
weed of the wilderness ; instead of cool cellars, we 
have here a hundred tin pans arranged upon tables 
in a log cabin, into which a cool spring pours its re- 
freshing treasure ; instead of a tidy and matronly 



446 Nacoochee and its Sttrronndings. 

housewife to superintend the turning of the curd, we 
have an enterprising young Yankee, a veritable Green 
Mountain boy ; and instead of pretty milkmaids, the 
inferiors of this establishment are huge negroes, and 
all of the masculine gender. And this is the estab- 
lishment which supplies the people of Georgia with 
cheese, and the material out of which the scientific 
caterer manufactures the palatable Welsh Rabbit. 



LETTER SEVEN 



TALLULAH AND TOCCOA FALLS. 



One of the grandest sights of Nacoochee and its 
surroundings, is the Falls of Tallulah. 

It was a bright morning in September, when a 
party of us left Nacoochee in search of this nature's 
wonder. A few hours drive through hill and dale, 
over rough roads and dangerous bridges, and we 
arrive safely in hearing of this mountain cataract. 
We alight, and partake heartily of a lunch. Having 
gone through with this pleasant part of the duties of 
the day, we procure a guide, and are off to gaze upon 
Tallulah ! Thirty long years have come and gone 
since I first looked upon this world's wonder. 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 447 

Since that day I have visited the most noted catar- 
acts in Europe, and heard the thundering waters of 
Niagara ! 

In mildness and majestic beauty of scenery, the 
Falls of Tallulah, and its surroundings, surpass any- 
thing of the kind that I have seen in the Old or 
New World. 

The volume of water at Niagara Falls, of course, 
is much greater than that of all others. Terrora, 
the " Terrible," is a small stream which has been for 
ages cutting its way through the Blue Ridge. 

Its fretful waters made a chasm in the mountains 
miles in length, and, in some places, over a thousand 
feet in depth. 

Here you find gigantic cliffs of granite, its huge 
masses piled upon each other in the wildest confu- 
sion. Along the winding, rugged beds of this deep 
abyss, the swift Terrora rushes, and foams as it lashes 
its waters in its onward and downward course. Ever 
and anon it dashes over protruding rocks and steep 
precipices. And now we stop at the Pulpit, a huge 
cliff, which projects over the chasm. Here you have 
a magnificent view of several of the falls. 

From the Pulpit view, Terrora seems to be gushing 
from the centre of the mountain. The water leaps 
into an immense basin at the foot of the precipice, 
where it circles round and round in a whirpool. 

This place is called Hawthorn's Pool, in memory 
of the lamented Presbyterian minister, who lost his 
life in attempting to bathe in those turbulent waters. 

A rugged stairway is cut out of the side of the 



448 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

cliff, which leads down to the edge of the falls. Now 
you are encircled by towering stone walls on every 
side. 

I do not know which is the most to be admired, the 
view from this position, or where you stand fifteen 
hundred feet above and look down upon the scene. 
There are five perpendicular falls of water, from fifty 
to one hundred feet, and quite a number of smaller 
cataracts. The flow of waters, with their perpetual 
roar and wildness of scenery, render Tallulah an 
enchanting spot. The surroundings are varied and 
picturesque, now beautiful, now grand — Nature is 
triumphant. These enchanting scenes have always 
inspired the poet and the artist. 

I will close this sketch of Tallulah, by inserting a 
portion of a beautiful poem, by Georgia's distin- 
guished poet, Henry R. Jackson : 

TALLULAH. 

But hark ! beneath yon hoary precipice, 

The rush of mightier waters as they pour 
In foaming torrents through the dark abyss 

Which echoes back the thunders of their roar. 

Approach the frightful gorge ! and gazing o'er, 
What mad emotions through their bosoms thrill \ 

Hast ever seen so dread a sight before ? 
Tallulah ! by that name we hail thee still, 
And own that thou art rightly called the Terrible ! 

In vain o'er thee shall glow with wild delight, 

The painter's eye, and voiceless still shall be 
The poet's tongue, who from this giddy height, 

Shall kindle in thine awful minstrelsy ! 



Nacooclice and its Surroundings. 449 

Thou art too mighty in thy grandeur — we 
Too weak to give fit utterance to the soul ! 

Thy billows mock us with their tempest glee, 
As thundering on, while countless ages roll, 
Thou scornest man's applause alike with man's control. 

Yet standing here where mountain eagles soar, 

Among these toppling crags, to plant their nest, 
I catch an inspiration from thy roar, 

Which will not let my spirit be at rest. 

I cast me down upon the massive breast 
Of this huge rock, that lifts to meet the blast, 

Far, far above the foam, his granite crest, 
And eager thoughts come gathering thick and fast, 
The voices of the future blending with the past ! 

I gaze across the yawning gorge and seem 

Once more to see upon yon heights that rear 
Their summits up to catch the sunset gleam, 

The red man of the wilderness appear, 

With bounding step, and bosom broad and bare, 
And painted face and figure lithe and tall, 

Wild as surrounding nature ; and I hear 
From yonder precipice his hoop and call, 
That mingle fiercely with the roaring water-fall ! 

But lo ! he pauses, for he sees thee now, 

Dread cataract ! — he stands entranced ! — his yell 

Is hushed ; appalled he looks where far below, 

Thy waters boil with a tumultuous swell. 

Thou glorious orator of Nature ! well 
May his rude bosom own the majesty 

Of thy dread eloquence; he hears the knell 
Of human things — he bends the suppliant knee, 
To the Great Spirit of the Terrible in thee. 

We left Tallulah, feeling that our time was much 
too short to enjoy, to the fullest extent, the beauties 
of nature which were so profusely spread around us. 

57 



45 o Nacoochee and its Surroundings, 

We could have lingered for days amid those fairy 
scenes, but the sun was fast dropping behind old 
Yonah, and we had several miles to ride over rough 
roads before we could procure lodgings for the night. 
It was quite dark when we reached a farm house, 
some six miles from the Falls. Our hostess, Mrs. A., 
does not keep a hotel, but accommodates travellers 
to the best of her ability. Angels could do no more. 
Travellers often make themselves, and all around 
them, very uncomfortable by fault-finding. In many 
of the up-country towns, it not unfrequently occurs 
that the hotel register has not a new name entered 
for days. This quiet of country hotel life is occa- 
sionally disturbed by the arrival of a dozen or more 
hungry persons, at an hour when the chickens and 
cook have retired for the night. If the table is not 
spread, in fifteen minutes, with hot biscuits, hot cof- 
fee, fried chicken, beefsteaks and the like, Mr. Brown 
will begin a tirade of abuse against country landlords 
and country hotels. Fortunately, our party was made 
up of genteel people. Among the boys were Masters 
Bob, Henry and George ; and the young Misses were 
represented by Mary, Hattie and Amelia. All these 
juveniles were under the watchful eye of their ac- 
complished teacher, Miss J e, of Charleston. Well 

bred people are not given to unnecessary fault- 
finding. Our party, at least, had no occasion for it, 
as in due course of time a bountiful supper was pro- 
vided and ample justice was done it. We found our 
landlady jovial and good natured. Ready to ask 
questions as she was to answer. Master George 



Nacoochce and its Surroundings. 45 1 

thought every body knew " Pa," and was nonplussed 
when the old lady told him that " she had never 
heard of Geo. W. Williams, of Charleston." 

This reminded me of a circumstance which hap- 
pened at a State Fair, held in Macon, Ga. At that 
Fair my venerable father was contending for agri- 
cultural premiums. He had on exhibition some 
mammoth ears of corn, which attracted a good deal 
of attention. My father remarked to me that the 
people about Macon were " very ignorant ;" said he, 
" They asked me where that huge corn was raised ?" 
When I told them in Nacoochee Valley, they wanted 
to know " what State that Valley was in ?" 

The good man was of the opinion that everybody 
ought to know where Nacoochee Valley was located. 
It is well for all of us to travel occasionally, in order 
to learn that our homes, and ourselves, are not of as 
much importance to the outside world as we had 
vainly imagined. 

Before closing this letter, I must not omit to state 
that one of the most lovely sights of Nacoochee and 
its Surroundings, is the Cascade of Toccoa. This 
beautiful Fall is on a stream of the same name. In 
perpendicular height it surpasses anything to be found 
even at Niagara. Toccoa is within cannon shot of 
Tallulah. These Falls form beautiful links in the 
chain of Northeastern Georgia scenery. 

I will close this communication by introducing a 
poem of my favorite Georgia poet, H. R. J., Esq. 

G. W. W. 

Nacoochee, September, 1870. 



452 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

TOCCOA. 

Embosomed in the primal forest shades, 

And singing gayly through the day and night;— 
Dashing thy waters into myriad braids 

Of diamond spray, that sparkles down the height. 

And changes hue beneath the shifting light; — 
Laughing away the hours in childlike mirth, 

And gently dallying with the ear and sight — 
Scarce calls thy murmuring voice an echo forth, 
Toccoa ! merriest water-fall of all the earth ! 

Toccoa ! or The Beautiful ! this name 

To thee was given by tawny Indian girls, 
When, with the Summer's sultry noon, they came 

To bathe their bosoms where the water curls 

Around the mossy rocks in countless pearls ; 
Or when, in Autumn, seeking o'er the hill, 

From which thy eddying current lightly whirls, 
Brown nuts, their baskets of light reed to fill, 

They loved to pause and gaze upon thy beauties still. 

Thou hadst been holy in the classic land 

Of ancient Hellas ; smiling spirits deemed 
Of birth celestial, by thy rocky strand 

To whisper with a various voice had seemed 

To him who in the cadence of thy music dreamed ; 
The steps of poets had been printed on 

Thy sparkling sand, and eager eyes had beamed 
Above thy waters, while the lay was spun, 
Which made thee famous for all time like Helicon ! 

Here shall the fevered soul of him who roams 

Among these mountains — who has left behind 
Cares, troubles, sufferings, ceaseless toil, and comes 

To seek refreshment for the wearied mind — 

In thy soft music, gentle solace find. 
Youth seems to live in thee ; thy happy mood, 

The fetters of the spirit shall unbind ; 
Joy, dead for years, again shall be renewed, 
And Hope rebuild her bark from wrecks at random strewed ! 



LETTER EIGHT. 



YONAH MOUNTAIN. 



One of the grandest objects in sight of my old home 
in Nacoochee Valley, is Yonah Mountain. This 
stupendous pile of granite seems to be a huge off- 
shoot of the Blue Ridge. Yonah, is associated with 
the earliest recollections of my life. 

This guardian of the valley became as familiar to 
me as the face of my much loved mother. By the 
time I reached my tenth year, I was in the habit of 
climbing, during the summer months, to its giddy 
heights, frequently two and three times a week, and 
often during the winter months, when Yonah was 
imbedded in snow, I have chased the fox into its deep 
caverns. The grand views from the summit of this 
giant bear, were as well known to me as the scenes by 
the pathway to our log-cabin school-house. This 
lofty mountain was ever the admiration of each mem- 
ber of our household. My father, in building, selected 
a location which commanded the finest view of this 
celebrated mountain. 

Perhaps it may be considered a weakness, but I 
acknowledge that I never return to my Nacoochee 
home that my heart does not beat and throb the faster 
whenever I come in sight of Yonah. Let me wander 



454 Nacoocliee and its Surroundings. 

where ere I may, when I return to the home of my 
childhood, this old familiar friend, which can be seen 
at a great distance, is ever there to greet me. 

I know at its foot nestles, in quiet repose, the " sweet 
Vale of Nacoochee ;" and in the bosom of this 
" Tempe of the South," sleep my parents of precious 
memory. 

In July, 1834, the glorious fourth was celebrated on 
the summit of Yonah. A liberty pole was raised, and 
the Stars and Stripes given to the breeze. 

Mr. Ingersoll, Gen. Rusk, and other distinguished 
statesmen, delivered patriotic speeches on that occa- 
sion. 

A few years later, some three hundred persons from 
the valleys below assembled Christmas day, on the 
highest pinnacle of Yonah, and united with a Methodist 
divine in celebrating the birth of Christ. It was pro- 
bably the first sermon on this heavenward-towering 
temple. 

A multitude of voices united that bright, joyous 
December day, in singing : 

" GOOD TIDINGS." 

" Good tidings ! Good tidings ! 

Ring out, O Christmas bells ! 
The old familiar music still 

O'er hill and lowland swells ; 
Go twine with ivy leaves and bay 

The holly's choral jem, 
And welcome, Christian hearts, to-day, 

The Babe of Bethlehem. 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 455 

" Good tidings ! Good tidings ! 

It is the self-same strain 
That once the holy angels sang 

To shepherds on the plain ; 
A song which brings the weary rest, 

And comforts those that mourn ; 
The ancient anthem, ever blest — 

' To us a Child is born.' 

" Good tidings ! Good tidings ! 

The world is old and sad ; 
We need the blessed Christmas-tide 

To make us young and glad ! 
To darkened eyes who saw through tears 

Their earth-lights pale and die, 
This holy radiance appears — 

' The day-spring from on high ' 

" Good tidings ! Good tidings ! 

O meek and lowly King ! 
Teach every faithful heart this day 

Thy praise aright to sing ; 
Teach us to do Thy deeds of love, 

Thy precious seed to sow ; 
As angels work for Thee above, 

So let us work below. 

" Good tidings ! Good tidings ! 

The music shall not cease ; 
He came to guide our wayward feet 

Into the way of peace ; 
Chime, tuneful bells, loudly ring 

To hail the Christmas morn ; 
Awake all Christian souls, and sing — 

' To us a child is born.' " 

At the conclusion of these religious exercises, this 
large party descended the mountain by various Indian 



456 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

trails, many separated never to meet again, until sum- 
moned by the trumpet of God to their last reckoning. 

Quite a party once spent a night on Yonah, to wit- 
ness a sunrise and a sunset view from this elevated 
position. A grand sight it was. How scattered is 
that little band ! Some are, doubtless, basking in the 
sunlight of a holier and more blissful world, while 
others are still here, but have, since that day, passed 
through great trials and tribulations. Some are laying 
up treasures above, while others are heaping up gold 
and silver, not a dollar of which will aid in securing 
their passage to the Celestial City. What a sad feel- 
ing to know that in a few fleeting years, not one of 
that once happy party will be numbered among the 
living. All, all will be realizing the joys or miseries 
of eternity. 

The following beautiful lines were written on the 
summit of Yonah, in 1849, by D. H. Jacques, Esq., 
Editor of The Rural Carolinian : 



Vain were the thought to paint the scene 
Which, gazing from this height serene, 
Seems to me like the land of dreams, 
On which Edenic radiance streams. 
Thought soars above expression's reach, 
And feeling scorns the aid of speech ; 
Too proudly high the mountains rise, 
Too blue — too glorious are the skies 
For any tribute verse of mine, — ■ 
The theme trancends and shames the line. 

I gaze on forests spreading wide 
The fulness of their verdant tide, 



NacoocJice and its Surroundings. 457 

On mountains piled on mountains high, 
Far up against the glowing sky, — 
Then down, where, cradled in her deeps, 
Nachoochee's Vale of Beauty sleeps ! 
O ! Valley of the Evening Star,* 
Though I have wandered near and far, 
No lovelier spot has blessed my eyes, 
Than now before me smiling lies. 
Broad are thy fields of waving corn, 
And sweet thy flowers of summer born; 
While, border'd by o'erhanging trees, 
Through blooming haunts of birds and bees, 
With dulcet warblings soft and low, 
Thy Chattahoochee's waters flow, 
And with many a sun-lit wave, 
Their shores of shining pebbles lave ; 
And bright the golden sun-light shivers, 
On this pride of Georgia rivers, 
And skies as lovely o'er thee bend 
As o'er Italia's plains extend. 
Encircled by thy guardian hills, 
Sure thou art free from common ills. 

! blessings on thee, valley fair — 

On woods, and rocks, and mountain air \ 

1 feel new vigor in my arm— 

The tides of life flow swift and warm — 
The radiance of an earlier day, 
Seems shed again around my way, 
And fragrance of the primal spring, 
These highland breezes seem to bring. 

O ! on these rocks all day to lie, 
And watch alternate earth and sky — 
To mark the varying light and shade, 
By nature's ready pencil laid 



* Nacoochee signifies, in the expressive language of the Indian, " The Evening Star.' 

58 



45 8 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

On mountain cliff, and forest nook — 
On meadow green and babbling brook ; 
And when the twilight's purple haze, 
Should shut the landscape from my gaze, 
To watch the stars come, one by one, 
'Till each its glorious place has won : — 
Here, on the earth, yet near to heaven, 
Unto my gaze would then be given, 
Sights such as man can never know, 
'Neath human roofs, in vallies low. 
****** 
Here mountain wild-birds sing to me, 
And little squirrels fast friends be ; 
Thus nature to her temples wild, 
Still welcomes me her wandering child. 
August 17, 184.9. D. H. J. 

When quite a lad, I accompanied the distinguished 
Carolina statesman, John C. Calhoun, to Yonah. We 
stood on the precipice, which was nearly a thousand 
feet in perpendicular height, looked down into 
the deep yawning abyss, and beyond at the lovely 
vallies, and upwards at mountains towering one above 
the other until the loftiest was lost in the blue sky. 
Mr. Calhoun stood for many minutes silently gazing 
on these scenes of overwhelming awe, beauty and 
magnificence. I have visited the White Mountains 
in New Hampshire, the Black Mountains in North 
Carolina, and the snow-capped Alps of Switzerland ; 
for softness and grandeur of beauty the views from 
Yonah surpass them all. 

The highest mountains North and in Europe, are 
nearly always obscured by clouds and a hazy atmos- 
phere, while the views from Yonah are generally clear 
and bright. 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 459 

On our return to Nacoochee from Yonah, we 
pass in sight of the old home of the late Rev. Jesse 
Richardson. His honored son, Rev. John L. Rich- 
ardson, the proprietor of the celebrated Richardson 
gold mines, lives to the right in that white house on 
Duke's Creek. Some two hundred thousand dollars 
worth of gold has been dug from the mines of Cap- 
tain Richardson. 

The good man's heart is ever open to charity, he is 
generous to a fault, and is more concerned about 
laying up treasure in heaven than upon earth. Since 
my earliest recollection, John L. Richardson has been 
one of the pillars of the Nacoochee Methodist Church. 
The old gentleman is not sectarian, but is a decided 
Methodist. 

That small cottage at the foot of the Sail's Moun- 
tain, is the humble school-house, in which, Adeline 
Moffatt patiently taught the Nacoochee juveniles their 
a b c's. I had the good fortune of being one of her 
advanced scholars, and was in a fair way of mastering 
the " single rule of three" and getting a smattering 
of grammar, when a trading inspiration came over me, 
and, in my seventeenth year, I abandoned the school- 
house for the counting room. From that day to this 
I have never had the time to resume my studies of 
grammar and mathematics. Persons who have been 
blessed with a classical education cannot appreciate 
too highly their advantages. Those who have not 
been so favored, keenly feel the difficulties under 
which they labor. 

College education is but the ground work for future 



460 NacoocJice and its Surroundings. 

intellectual attainments. It is too frequently the case 
with young men to imagine, because they have pass- 
ed through a course of studies and " graduated," that 
their education is complete. They may possess a 
well proportioned store-house, but it requires a life- 
time of study to fill it with useful knowledge. I am 
wandering from Miss Moffatt's little school-house into 
colleges. 

I should like, exceedingly, to see the hills and 
vallies of upper Georgia, dotted with school-houses 
and filled with bright children under the instruction 
of competent teachers. 

But enough, G. W. W. 

Nacoochee, 1870. 



LETTER NINE 



AN EXCURSION THROUGH THE VALLEY TO THE HEAD 
WATERS OF THE CHATTAHOOCHEE. 



It was a bright morning in August, and but for the 
refreshing mountain breezes, the sun would have been 
uncomfortably hot. I desired to show some friends 
the combined beauties of Nature and Art in these 



Georgia wilds. 



We enter the Unicoy Turn Pike a few hundred 
yards from my mountain home. That house, which 
stands so conspicuously on the high hill to the right 



NacoocJice and its Surroundings. 461 

as you go up the valley, is the situation selected by 
General Rusk, who lived there for many years, having 
married a daughter of Benjamin Cleveland, one of the 
earliest settlers of this region. The valley and moun- 
tain views from " Rusk Hill " are thought to be the 
finest in Nacoochee. 

For reasons satisfactory to himself, General Rusk 
left his home in the small hours of the night, and 
some years later turned up in Texas. 

He was just the man to represent that people in the 
United States Senate. 

The sheet of water to the right is Lake Nantahala 
(pretty maid). A drive of half a mile, and we reach 
Sautee Creek. The ricketty bridge has been replaced 
by a substantial new one, which is nicely painted. 

Here we find a grist mill, saw mill, tannery, and 
blacksmith shop, all in full blast. The old Confede- 
rate gun factory has been converted into a workshop. 

It was in this building Colonel E. P. Williams 
turned out " pikes " by the thousand for Governor 
Brown's Georgia Militia. I could not learn of these 
warlike missiles having done much damage, other 
than giving me a fright when the Federal soldiers 
took possession of Charleston. 

My brother thought the Carolina boys, who were 
pledged to " die in the ditch," ought to be furnished 
with Nacoochee pikes. 

He made quite a shipment to Charleston. Failing 
to sell them, they were stored at No. 1 Hayne street, 
and were found there by a Federal officer when the 
city fell. I had to give the best excuse I could for 



462 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

the appearance of such warlike destructibles in a 
grocery establishment. The officer sent the pikes 
North, as a barbarous relic of the lost cause. I am 
quite sure there will be no more pikes manufactured 
in Nacoochee. 

The Observatory, that you see on the pretty 
mound, is built over the graves of the Indian maid, 
Nacoochee, and her lover, Sautee. 

A drive of half a mile, and we are in full view of 
the beautiful Valley of Sautee and Lynch's Mountain. 
Those neat farmhouses that you see, are occupied 
by Mrs. A. G. Williams, Lucius Lamar Trotter, and 
others. That house on the hill, as you proceed up 
the valley, is the residence of my brother, Edwin P. 
Williams ; here you have a splendid view of the Val- 
leys of Nacoochee and Sautee, and of Yonah and 
Tray Mountains. Mr. W. owns a large body of val- 
uable grain and meadow lands. 

He suffered terribly by the war, having lost, by 
emancipation, nearly one hundred negroes, and a 
large amount of valuable stock. But his greatest loss 
was that of a noble son in Virginia. The cottages, 
on the opposite side of the Chattahoochee, are the 
homes of Edward and James Williams, sons of Charles 
L. Williams. 

Three-fourths of a mile, and we pass the pretty 
new home of Mr. Joseph Green, son-in-law of C. L. 
Williams. 

Near by, in a beautiful grove, is the neat Methodist 
Church, which would be greatly improved by a coat 
of fresh paint ; and there, too, is the Nacoochee Semi- 



Nacoochce and its Surroundings. 463 

nary, filled with the little, bright-eyed mountain girls 
and boys, under the careful training of Miss John- 
stone, of Charleston. 

Almost in sight of the church is the family man- 
sion of my father, the late Major Williams. It is now 
the home of Dr. E. F. Starr, who married my young- 
est sister. There are little Stars enough there to il- 
luminate the valley. 

From this point, old Yonah presents a grand ap- 
pearance. One-fourth of a mile, and we arrive at Na- 
coochee proper, the home of my eldest brother, 
Charles L. Williams. 

Mr. W. has been merchandising in the Valley 
nearly half a century, having begun trade at the early 
age of twelve. 

Since the discovery of gold here, in 1828, my 
brother has bought more of that precious metal than 
would load a wagon ! 

Not far from the mound that you see in the field, 
are the flour and grist mill, and wool factory of James 
Glenn, Esq. 

A drive of less than a mile from C. L. W.'s, and we 
arrive at Captain James Nichols'. This was once the 
home of my grandfather, Brown, and is said to be one 
of the best farms in the Valley. Captain Nichols is 
making many handsome improvements ; he is a val- 
uable accession to Nacoochee society. In sight of 
Captain N.'s, we cross the Chattahoochee, and now, 
for nearly a mile, the Valley is shut in by the moun- 
tains, leaving a narrow passage for the river and road. 
The scene in this mountain gorge is wild and grand. 



464 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

The high hills are covered with magnificent spruce 
and white pines. The rhododendrons and kalmias 
line each side of the Chattahoochee. 

Again the Valley widens, and we are in sight of 
H. H. Conley's. Here lives my honored aunt, who, 
notwithstanding she has seen her three score years 
and ten, yet she is as active and bright as many of 
the girls of the present day. The avenue of pines 
leading to the house is the finest in America. 

This portion of the Valley is settled by the Con- 
leys, Deans, Pitners, and Capps. 

We now follow the windings of the Chattahoochee 
for six miles, to its source, through the wildest of the 
wilds of Georgia. 

A wagon road has been hewn out of the sides of 
the mountains, which drop down almost perpendicu- 
larly on each side of the Chattahoochee. We pass 
through groves of stately forest trees, such as I have 
not seen in any other country. 

The rhododendrons, flaming azalias, and kalmias 
abound, and illuminate the mountain sides. As we 
ascended the mountain, the sparkling waters of the 
Chattahoochee came rushing and foaming over the 
rocky precipices, forming beautiful cataracts and 
cascades. 

We are on the summit of the Blue Ridge, which is 
the great natural barrier between the Eastern and 
Western waters. 

The views from these heights are grand and lovely. 
To the north and west, mountains lay heaped one 
above another, until their blue summits are lost in the 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 465 

distance. Amid all this world of mountains, old 
Yonah maintains its isolated grandeur and dignity. 
It has charms for me that no other mountain possesses. 

We now rest, and partake of a lunch under the 
shade of an immense oak, and drink from a cool, 
sparkling spring, the head waters of the Chatta- 
hoochee. A few hundred yards from us is a small 
rivulet, which flows west, and is one of the tributaries 
of the great Mississippi. 

When I was a lad, my good father was extensively 
engaged in stock-raising. In the spring, as soon as 
the glittering snow disappeared from the highest 
peaks of the Alleghanies, he would send us boys 
with large " droves " of horses, mules, and cattle to 
the luxuriant mountain ranges which abound here. 
Many a sleepless night have I passed in the deep, 
dark caves of the Blue Ridge, in consequence of the 
proximity to our camp of the Indian hunters, and 
often that of a more dangerous enemy, the fierce 
panthers, or troublesome wolves and bears. The 
panthers or wolves seldom attack you unless they 
are very hungry. Their keen sense of smell will de- 
tect fresh meat at a great distance. 

One of our party had killed a fine buck, a portion 
of which was hung up in our tent; this attracted a 
couple of ferocious panthers and a number of wolves. 

The panthers stealthily made their approach by 
springing upon the trees some distance from us, they 
would then leap as far as possible in the direction of 
our camp, coming nearer and nearer until we could 
see their fiery eyes. 
59 



466 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

The distant howl of the wolf, gave place to a near 
and quick shrill cry, this meant action. Our fierce 
dogs, which we had relied upon, crouched at our feet, 
and were, if possible, more frightened than their mas- 
ters, We reserved our rifles as a last resort; our 
situation was now critical in the extreme, as we could 
not tell what moment the hungry creatures would 
pounce upon us. 

In this dilemma, my uncle (Maj. Brown,) threw a 
stick of burning wood at them, which fortunately set 
the dry leaves and woods on fire, and, to our great 
relief, frightened away the horrid creatures. 

There are at this time but few panthers in the 
mountains, these are to be found in the dense forest, 
not much frequented by man. 

The wolves and bears are more numerous, and 
occasionally, when the mountains are covered with 
snow, venture into Nacoochee valley in search of food. 
The Indians' footprints are now seldom seen in their 
old and cherished hunting grounds. 

The white man has taken from them their homes, 
desecrated their graves, and have driven them to the 
far West. 

I saw some ten thousand of these poor creatures 
who had been hunted down by the United States 
troops, and confined in pens and prisons preparatory 
to their departure for their new homes west of the 
Mississippi. 

It was a sad sight to see these people driven from 
the sepulchres of their ancestors, and the temples of 
their gods, which they clung to with superstitious 
reverence. 



Nacoochce audits Surroundings. 467 

No wonder the natives did not become Christians 
under the teachings of their merciless oppressors. 
They were treated with the most unchristian-like 
barbarity. 

The Indians were driven almost to desperation. It 
is not strange they should avenge their wrongs 
before their departure from Georgia. A worthy 
citizen of the valley was shot by them while riding 
quietly along the road over which we travelled to-day. 
At one time it was feared there would be a general 
uprising among the Cherokees, and bloody work was 
predicted. 

A party of men and boys took advantage of the 
excitement, to run several bad white men from Nacoo- 
chee. Although quite young, I was eager for this 
adventure. The expedition was to start from a given 
point in the valley. 

We took the precaution to inform my father and the 
family of our intentions. 

Having dressed in the regular Indian costume, we 
started on a very perilous undertaking. We raised 
the war-whoop, and succeeded in running a number 
of families from their homes, but we narrowly escaped 
being shot by a party of whites who were well 
armed. 

Returning, a little after midnight, we had the curi- 
osity to ascertain how the negroes would act in the 
event of an outbreak among the Indians. 

We entered the cabins and in a short time there 
was a general stampede. Several of the negro men 
ran to my father's residence screaming at the top of 



468 Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 

their voices, that the Indians were murdering them. 
They rushed into the house, not stopping for bolts or 
locks. 

My sisters believed us to be true, true Indians, and 
one of them leaped from a window which was a 
considerable height from the ground, and came near 
breaking her neck. The women ran to the smoke- 
house, and offered us an abundance of meat and 
bread. 

It required some time to convince the family that 
we were not Indians. 

Some of the negroes made their escape and spread 
the news far and wide, that Major Williams and family 
were murdered. What was intended by us as a 
night's innocent amusement turned out to be a very 
serious affair. 

From that day to this I have had no inclination 
to participate in a mimic Indian war. 

I now propose to close " Nacoochee and its Sur- 
roundings," by inserting a beautiful poem by Henry 
R. Jackson, Esq.: 

THE VALE OF NACOOCHEE. 

Where Yonah lifts his bald and reverend head 

The humbler Alleghany peaks above, 
Beneath its shadows pleasantly is spread 

Nacoochee's vale — sweet as a dream of love. 

Cradle of Peace! mild, gentle as the dove 
Whose tender accents from yon woodlands swell, 

Must she have been who thus has interwove 
Her name with thee, and thy soft holy spell, 
And all of peace which on this troubled globe may dwell ! 



Nacoochee and its Surroundings. 469 

Nacoochee — in tradition, thy sweet queen — 

Has vanished with her maidens : not again 
Along thy meadows shall their forms be seen ; 

The mountain echoes catch no more the strain 

Of their wild Indian lays at evening's wane; 
No more, where rustling branches intertwine, 

They pluck the jesmine flowers, or break the cane 
Beside the marshy stream, or from the vine 
Shake down, in purple showers, the luscious muscadine. 

Yet round thee hangs the same sweet spirit still ! 

Thou art among these hills a sacred spot, 
As if shut out from all the clouds of ill 

That gloom so darkly o'er the human lot. 

On thy green breast the world I quite forgot — 
Its stern contentions — its dark grief and care — 

And I breathed freer, deeper, and blushed not 
At old emotions, long, long stifled there, 

Which sprang once more to life in thy calm, loving air. 

I saw the last bright gleam of sunset play 

On Yonah's lofty head ; all quiet grew 
Thy bosom which beneath the shadows lay 

Of the surrounding mountains; deeper blue 

Fell on their mighty summits ; evening threw 
Her veil o'er all, and on her azure brow 

A bright star shone ; a trusting form I drew 
Yet closer to my side ; above, below, 
Within, were peace and hope, life may not often know ! 

Thou loveliest of earth's valleys ! fare thee well ! 

Nor is this parting pangless to my soul. 
Youth, hope and happiness with thee shall dwell, 

Unsullied nature hold o'er thee control, 

And years still leave thee beauteous as they roll. 
Oh ! I could linger with thee ! yet this spell 

Must break, e'en as upon my heart it stole, 
And found a weakness there I may not tell — 
An anxious life, a troubled future claim me ! fare thee well ! 



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